The type 2 diabetes associated minor allele of rs2237895 KCNQ1 associates with reduced insulin release following an oral glucose load.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in the potassium channel, voltage-gated, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) have recently been reported to associate with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the putative impact of these KCNQ1 polymorphisms (rs2283228, rs2237892, rs2237895, and rs2237897) on estimates of glucose stimulated insulin release. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genotypes were examined for associations with serum insulin levels following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a population-based sample of 6,039 middle-aged and treatment-naïve individuals. Insulin release indices estimated from the OGTT and the interplay between insulin sensitivity and insulin release were investigated using linear regression and Hotelling T2 analyses. Applying an additive genetic model the minor C-allele of rs2237895 was associated with reduced serum insulin levels 30 min (mean+/-SD: (CC) 277+/-160 vs. (AC) 280+/-164 vs. (AA) 299+/-200 pmol/l, p = 0.008) after an oral glucose load, insulinogenic index (29.6+/-17.4 vs. 30.2+/-18.7vs. 32.2+/-22.1, p = 0.007), incremental area under the insulin curve (20,477+/-12,491 vs. 20,503+/-12,386 vs. 21,810+/-14,685, p = 0.02) among the 4,568 individuals who were glucose tolerant. Adjustment for the degree of insulin sensitivity had no effect on the measures of reduced insulin release. The rs2237895 genotype had a similar impact in the total sample of treatment-naïve individuals. No association with measures of insulin release were identified for the less common diabetes risk alleles of rs2237892, rs2237897, or rs2283228. CONCLUSION: The minor C-allele of rs2237895 of KCNQ1, which has a prevalence of about 42% among Caucasians was associated with reduced measures of insulin release following an oral glucose load suggesting that the increased risk of type 2 diabetes, previously reported for this variant, likely is mediated through an impaired beta cell function.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2237892, rs2237895, rs2237897, and rs2283228) in KCNQ1 are reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), possibly caused by a reduction in insulin secretion and higher fasting glucose, but the results are inconsistent. We investigated whether these 4 genetic markers are associated with serum lipid metabolism in a middle-aged Chinese Han population. METHODS: We enrolled 398 consecutive patients, including 180 with premature coronary artery disease (CAD) (male < 55 years, female < 65 years) and 218 controls without documented CAD. All subjects were genotyped for 4 SNPs by using the ligase detection reaction method. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) and plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A1(apo A1), and apolipoprotein B (apo B) were determined by standard biochemical methods. Main anthropometric and metabolic characteristics are analyzed among 3 genotypes at rs2283228, rs2237895, rs2237897, or rs2237892 in KCNQ1. RESULTS: The 3 genotypes AA, AC, and CC were present in rs2283228 and rs2237895, and the 3 genotypes CC, CT, and TT were present in rs2237897 and rs2237892. The minor genotypes CC at rs2283228 and TT at rs2237892 were associated with higher levels of TG (P = 0.007 and 0.026, respectively). Furthermore, subjects with the CC genotype at rs2283228 had lower levels of HDL-C and apo A1 than in the other 2 genotype groups (P = 0.052 and 0.055, respectively). No other associations were detected between these 4 SNPs and FBS or other lipid parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that rs2283228 and rs2237892 in KCNQ1 are associated with lipid metabolism in a middle-aged Chinese Han population.
Project description:Background:Previous studies have examined the role of the KQT-like subfamily Q member1 (KCNQ1) gene polymorphisms on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the findings are inconclusive. Objective:To examine the association between the KCNQ1 gene polymorphisms and the risk of T2DM using an updated meta-analysis with an almost tripled number of studies. Methods:Five electronic databases, such as PubMed and Embase, were searched thoroughly for relevant studies on the associations between seven most studied KCNQ1 gene polymorphisms, including rs2237892, rs2237897, rs2237895, rs2283228, rs231362, rs151290, and rs2074196, and T2DM risk up to September 14, 2019. The summary odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to assess the strength of associations in the random-effects models. We used the trial sequential analysis (TSA) to measure the robustness of the evidence. Results:49 publications including 55 case-control studies (68,378 cases and 66,673 controls) were finally enrolled. In overall analyses, generally, increased T2DM risk was detected for rs2237892, rs2237895, rs2283228, rs151290, and rs2074196, but not for rs231362 under all genetic models. The ORs and 95% CIs for allelic comparison were 1.23 (1.14-1.33) for rs2237892, 1.21 (1.16-1.27) for rs2237895, 1.27 (1.11-1.46) for rs2237897, 1.25 (1.09-1.42) for rs2283228, 1.14 (1.03-1.27) for rs151290, 1.31 (1.23-1.39) for rs2074196, and 1.16 (0.83, 1.61) for rs231362. Stratified analyses showed that associations for rs2237892, rs2237895, rs2283228, and rs151290 were more evident among Asians than Caucasians. TSA demonstrated that the evidence was sufficient for all polymorphisms in this study. The genotypes of the three SNPs (rs2237892, rs2283228, and rs231362) were significantly correlated with altered KCNQ1 gene expression. Conclusion:This meta-analysis suggested that KCNQ1 gene polymorphisms (rs2237892, rs2283228, rs2237895, rs151290, and rs2074196) might be the susceptible factors for T2DM, especially among Asian population.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:KCNQ1 gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes. This linkage appears to be mediated by altered beta-cell function. In an attempt to study underlying mechanisms, we examined the effect of four KCNQ1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on insulin secretion upon different stimuli. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We genotyped 1,578 nondiabetic subjects at increased risk of type 2 diabetes for rs151290, rs2237892, rs2237895, and rs2237897. All participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and gastric inhibitory peptide secretion was measured in 170 participants. In 519 participants, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed, in 314 participants an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), and in 102 subjects a hyperglycemic clamp combined with GLP-1 and arginine stimuli. RESULTS:rs151290 was nominally associated with 30-min C-peptide levels during OGTT, first-phase insulin secretion, and insulinogenic index after adjustment in the dominant model (all P < or = 0.01). rs2237892, rs2237895, and rs2237897 were nominally associated with OGTT-derived insulin secretion indexes (all P < 0.05). No SNPs were associated with beta-cell function during intravenous glucose or GLP-1 administration. However, rs151290 was associated with glucose-stimulated gastric inhibitory polypeptide and GLP-1 increase after adjustment in the dominant model (P = 0.0042 and P = 0.0198, respectively). No associations were detected between the other SNPs and basal or stimulated incretin levels (all P > or = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Common genetic variation in KCNQ1 is associated with insulin secretion upon oral glucose load in a German population at increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The discrepancy between orally and intravenously administered glucose seems to be explained not by altered incretin signaling but most likely by changes in incretin secretion.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Malaysian Chinese subjects. The KCNQ1 SNPs rs2237892, rs2283228 and rs2237895 were genotyped in 300 T2D patients and 230 control subjects without diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Two logistic regression models of analysis were applied, the first adjusted for age and gender while the second adjusted for age, gender and body mass index. The additive genetic analysis showed that adjusting for body mass index (BMI) even strengthened association of rs2237892, rs2283228 and rs2237895 with T2D (OR = 2.0, P = 5.1 × 10(-5); OR = 1.9, P = 5.2 × 10(-5); OR = 1.9, P = 7.8 × 10(-5), respectively). The haplotype TCA containing the allele of rs2237892 (T), rs2283228 (C) and rs2237895 (A) was highly protective against T2D (Second model; OR = 0.17, P = 3.7 × 10(-11)). The KCNQ1 rs2237892 (TT), and the protective haplotype (TCA) were associated with higher beta-cell function (HOMA-B) in normal subjects (P = 0.0002; 0.014, respectively). This study found that KCNQ1 SNPs was associated with T2D susceptibility in Malaysian Chinese subjects. In addition, certain KCNQ1 haplotypes were strongly associated with T2D.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: The potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) has been found through a genome-wide association study to be a strong candidate for conferring susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in East Asian and European populations. Our objective was to describe the association between polymorphisms at the KCNQ1 locus with insulin resistance, beta-cell function, and other type 2 diabetes-related traits in a sample of Chinese, Malays, and Asian Indians living in Singapore. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined the associations between four previously reported KCNQ1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with type 2 diabetes-related traits in 3,734 participants from the population-based 1998 Singapore National Health Survey cohort (2,520 Chinese, 693 Malay, and 521 Asian Indians). Insulin resistance was calculated from fasting insulin and glucose using the homeostasis model assessment method, whereas pancreatic beta-cell function was assessed using the corrected insulin response at 120 min (CIR(120)). RESULTS: SNPs rs2237897, rs2237892, and rs2283228 were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.48, P = 3 x 10(-4); OR 1.38, P = 0.002; OR 1.31, P = 0.012, respectively). Within the Chinese population, the risk alleles for rs2237897, rs2237892, and rs2283228 were significantly associated with higher fasting glucose levels (P = 0.014, 0.011, and 0.034, respectively) and reduced CIR(120)(P = 0.007, 0.013, and 0.014, respectively). A similar trend was observed among the Malay and Asian Indian minority groups, although this did not reach statistical significance because of limited sample sizes. CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk for type 2 diabetes associated with KCNQ1 is likely to be caused by a reduction in insulin secretion. Further studies will be useful to replicate these findings and to fully delineate the role of KCNQ1 and its related pathways in disease pathogenesis.
Project description:Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a high global prevalence, and insufficient insulin secretion is one of the major reasons for its development. Therefore, investigating the association between T2DM and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with insulin secretion is necessary. Methods: T2DM (1,194) and nondiabetic (NDM) (1,292) subjects were enrolled and the ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KCNQ1, ARAP1, and KCNJ11 associated with insulin secretion were genotyped in a Chinese population. Results: Our data revealed that the rs2237897T allele in KCNQ1 is the protective allele for T2DM (P<0.001, OR=0.793; 95%CI: 0.705-0.893). However, the A allele of rs1552224 in ARAP1 may be a risk factor for T2DM (P=0.002, OR=12.070; 95% CI: 1.578-92.337). The haplotype analysis revealed that rs151290-rs2237892CC and rs2237895-rs2237897CC in KCNQ1 constitute the risk haplotype in T2DM development (P=0.010, OR=1.160; 95% CI: 1.037-1.299 and P=0.004, OR=1.192; 95% CI: 1.057-1.344). Moreover, rs2237895-rs2237897AT in KCNQ1 constitutes the protective haplotype in T2DM (P=0.001, OR=0.819; 95% CI: 0.727-0.923). In the inheritance models analysis, the rs2283228 (C/A-C/C) genotype is the protective factor compared to the A/A genotype (P=0.005, OR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.93). For rs2237897, the C/T-T/T genotype is the protective factor compared to the C/C genotype (P<0.001, OR=0.74; 95% CI: 0.63-0.87). Furthermore, when compared with the rs2237897 (C/T-T/T) genotype, rs2237897C/C genotype showed higher HbA1C levels (8.731±2.697 vs 9.282±2.921, P=0.001). Conclusion: Our results revealed that genetic variations in KCNQ1 and ARAP1 were associated with T2DM susceptibility in a Chinese population.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Two recent genome-wide association studies have identified several novel type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants in intron 15 of the KCNQ1 gene. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the variants in KCNQ1 on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits in the population of mainland China. METHODS: Three candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 1,912 individuals with type 2 diabetes and 2,041 normal controls using the ligase detection reaction method. RESULTS: We confirmed the association of KCNQ1 with type 2 diabetes in the population of mainland China. Allele frequency ORs of the three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were: rs2237892 (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.31, p = 3.0 x 10(-4)); rs2237895 (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.09-1.32, p = 1.9 x 10(-4)); and rs2237897 (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13-1.36, p = 3.9 x 10(-5)). We also found a significant difference in the distribution of the global haplotypes between the type 2 diabetes group and the normal control group (p = 2.6 x 10(-5)). In addition, in the control group SNP rs2237892 was marginally associated with increasing fasting plasma glucose and SNPs rs2237892 and rs2237897 were associated with HbA(1c). Furthermore, for all three variants, homozygous carriers of the diabetes-associated allele had significantly decreased BMI and waist circumferences. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our investigation confirmed the effects of KCNQ1 variants on type 2 diabetes risk in the Chinese population.
Project description:KCNQ1 channel is a member of the voltage-gated potassium channel KQT-like subfamily. The KCNQ1 gene has recently been identified as a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the present study, we examined the effects of KCNQ1 variants on the therapeutic response to modified-release gliclazide (gliclazide MR) treatment in Chinese patients newly diagnosed with T2DM. A total of 100 newly diagnosed T2DM patients without a history of any anti-diabetic medications were treated with gliclazide MR for 16 weeks, but 91 patients completed the entire study. The anthropometric parameters were determined at baseline and at the final visit, while clinical laboratory tests were performed at baseline and on weeks 2, 4, 6, 12, 16. Two SNPs, rs2237892 and rs2237895, in the region of the KCNQ1 gene were genotyped in all the participants. All calculations and statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS. The rs2237892 TT homozygotes exhibited significantly higher 2-h glucose levels at baseline (P<0.05) and a lower cumulative attainment rate of the target 2-h glucose level (Plog-rank=0.020) than the C allele carriers. Patients with greater numbers of rs2237892 T alleles exhibited larger augmentations (Δ) in the 2-h glucose levels (P=0.027); and patients with the rs2237892 TT genotype exhibited a higher Δ homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) than CC and CT genotype carriers (P=0.021 and P=0.043, respectively). Moreover, the rs2237895 C allele was associated with a greater decrement in Δ glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (P=0.024); and patients with the CC genotype exhibited greater variance than those with the AA and AC genotypes (P=0.005 and 0.021, respectively). Compared with the C allele, the odds ratio for treatment success among carriers of the rs2237892 T allele was 2.533 (P=0.007); and the rs2237895 C allele was associated with a 2.360-fold decrease in HbA1c compared with the A allele (P=0.009). KCNQ1 polymorphisms are associated with gliclazide MR efficacy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genome-wide association studies in Japanese populations recently identified common variants in the KCNQ1 gene to be associated with type 2 diabetes. We examined the association of these variants within KCNQ1 with type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population, investigated their effects on insulin secretion and metabolic traits and on the risk of developing complications in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODOLOGY:The KCNQ1 variants rs151290, rs2237892, and rs2237895 were genotyped in a total of 4620 type 2 diabetes patients and 5285 healthy controls from the Netherlands. Data on macrovascular complications, nephropathy and retinopathy were available in a subset of diabetic patients. Association between genotype and insulin secretion/action was assessed in the additional sample of 335 individuals who underwent a hyperglycaemic clamp. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We found that all the genotyped KCNQ1 variants were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in our Dutch population, and the association of rs151290 was the strongest (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.35, p = 0.002). The risk C-allele of rs151290 was nominally associated with reduced first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, while the non-risk T-allele of rs2237892 was significantly correlated with increased second-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (p = 0.025 and 0.0016, respectively). In addition, the risk C-allele of rs2237892 was associated with higher LDL and total cholesterol levels (p = 0.015 and 0.003, respectively). We found no evidence for an association of KCNQ1 with diabetic complications. CONCLUSIONS:Common variants in the KCNQ1 gene are associated with type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population, which can be explained at least in part by an effect on insulin secretion. Furthermore, our data suggest that KCNQ1 is also associated with lipid metabolism.
Project description:Recent genetic studies have shown that potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member1 (KCNQ1) gene is related to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, studies for the rs2237892 polymorphism in KCNQ1 and GDM remain conflicting in Asians. Furthermore, associations of this polymorphism with glucose levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) have not been described in Chinese pregnant women. The present study aimed to provide evidence for the associations of rs2237892 in KCNQ1 with GDM and glucose levels, and to systematically evaluate the effect of rs2237892 on GDM in Asians.A case-control study on 562 women with GDM and 453 controls was conducted in Beijing, China. The association of rs2237892 with risk of GDM was analyzed using logistic regression. The associations with quantitative glucose levels were assessed using linear regression models. A meta-analysis including the present case-control study and four previously published reports in Asians was conducted.The rs2237892 polymorphism in KCNQ1 was associated with GDM (OR (95%CI) =1.99(1.26-3.15)). Additionally, the polymorphism was associated with levels of 1h and 2h glucose during OGTT. The pre-pregnancy BMI, age and genotypes of KCNQ1 polymorphism were independent risk factors of GDM. Subsequently, we performed a meta-analysis in Asians. In total, C-allele carriers of rs2237892 polymorphism had a 50% higher risk for GDM (OR (95%CI) =1.50(1.15-1.78)).The study demonstrated for the first time that the KCNQ1 rs2237892 polymorphism was associated with GDM and glucose levels in Chinese women. The study provides systematic evidence for the association between this polymorphism and GDM in Asians.