Caveolin-1 regulates the antagonistic pleiotropic properties of cellular senescence through a novel Mdm2/p53-mediated pathway.
ABSTRACT: We show that caveolin-1 is a novel binding protein for Mdm2. After oxidative stress, caveolin-1 sequesters Mdm2 away from p53, leading to stabilization of p53 and up-regulation of p21(Waf1/Cip1) in human fibroblasts. Expression of a peptide corresponding to the Mdm2 binding domain of caveolin-1 is sufficient to up-regulate p53 and p21(Waf1/Cip1) protein expression and induce premature senescence. Oxidative stress-induced activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway and induction of premature senescence are compromised in caveolin-1 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). We also show that reintroduction of caveolin-1 in oncogenic Ras (Ras(G12V))-transformed fibroblasts, which express residual levels of caveolin-1, is sufficient to promote cellular senescence. Moreover, caveolin-1 expression in MEFs is required for senescent fibroblast-induced stimulation of cell growth and tumorigenesis of both Ras(G12V)-transformed fibroblasts and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our results propose caveolin-1 as a key mediator of the antagonistic pleiotropic properties of cellular senescence.
Project description:According to the "free radical theory" of aging, premature senescence induced by oxidative stress contributes to organismal aging. Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF)/cavin-1 is a structural protein component of caveolae, invaginations of the plasma membrane involved in signal transduction. We show that oxidative stress up-regulates PTRF/cavin-1 protein expression and promotes the interaction between PTRF/cavin-1 and caveolin-1, another structural protein component of caveolae. Consistent with these data, the number of caveolae is dramatically increased in cells subjected to oxidative stress. We demonstrate that down-regulation of PTRF/cavin-1 by shRNA significantly inhibits oxidative stress-induced premature senescence. Mechanistically, we found that PTRF/cavin-1 expression is necessary for the oxidant-induced sequestration of Mdm2, a negative regulator of p53, into caveolar membranes, away from p53, and activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway. Expression of a mutant form of PTRF/cavin-1, which fails to localize to caveolar membranes after oxidative stress, inhibits oxidative stress-induced activation of p53 and induction of premature senescence. Thus, PTRF/cavin-1 is a novel regulator of oxidative stress-induced premature senescence by acting as a link between free radicals and activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway.
Project description:Free radicals play a role in aging and age-related human diseases, including pulmonary emphysema. Cigarette smoke represents a source of oxidants and is considered an environmental hazard that causes pulmonary emphysema. Here, we show that caveolin-1 activates ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) after oxidative stress by sequestering the ATM inhibitor, the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, into caveolar membranes. We demonstrate that cigarette smoke extracts promote stress-induced premature senescence in wild type but not caveolin-1 null lung fibroblasts and that caveolin-1 expression is required for activation of the ATM-p53-p21(Waf1)(/)(Cip1) pathway following stimulation with cigarette smoke extracts in vitro. In vivo studies show that caveolin-1 expression is necessary for cigarette smoking-induced senescence of lung fibroblasts and pulmonary emphysema. These findings bring new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying free radical activation of the ATM-p53 pathway and indicate that caveolin-1 is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment and/or prevention of pulmonary emphysema.
Project description:Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is an important antioxidant enzyme that controls cellular redox homeostasis. By using a proteomic-based approach, here we identify TrxR1 as a caveolar membrane-resident protein. We show that caveolin 1, the structural protein component of caveolae, is a TrxR1-binding protein by demonstrating that the scaffolding domain of caveolin 1 (amino acids 82-101) binds directly to the caveolin-binding motif (CBM) of TrxR1 (amino acids 454-463). We also show that overexpression of caveolin 1 inhibits TrxR activity, whereas a lack of caveolin 1 activates TrxR, both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of a peptide corresponding to the caveolin 1 scaffolding domain is sufficient to inhibit TrxR activity. A TrxR1 mutant lacking the CBM, which fails to localize to caveolae and bind to caveolin 1, is constitutively active and inhibits oxidative-stress-mediated activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway and induction of premature senescence. Finally, we show that caveolin 1 expression inhibits TrxR1-mediated cell transformation. Thus, caveolin 1 links free radicals to activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway and induction of cellular senescence by acting as an endogenous inhibitor of TrxR1.
Project description:The xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E (XP-E) gene product damaged-DNA binding protein 2 (DDB2) plays important roles in nucleotide excision repair (NER). Previously, we showed that DDB2 participates in NER by regulating the level of p21(Waf1/Cip1). Here we show that the p21(Waf1/Cip1) -regulatory function of DDB2 plays a central role in defining the response (apoptosis or arrest) to DNA damage. The DDB2-deficient cells are resistant to apoptosis in response to a variety of DNA-damaging agents, despite activation of p53 and the pro-apoptotic genes. Instead, these cells undergo cell cycle arrest. Also, the DDB2-deficient cells are resistant to E2F1-induced apoptosis. The resistance to apoptosis of the DDB2-deficient cells is caused by an increased accumulation of p21(Waf1/Cip1) after DNA damage. We provide evidence that DDB2 targets p21(Waf1/Cip1) for proteolysis. The resistance to apoptosis in DDB2-deficient cells also involves Mdm2 in a manner that is distinct from the p53-regulatory activity of Mdm2. Our results provide evidence for a new regulatory loop involving the NER protein DDB2, Mdm2, and p21(Waf1/Cip1) that is critical in deciding cell fate (apoptosis or arrest) upon DNA damage.
Project description:Rat-1 cells are used in many studies on transformation, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Whereas UV treatment of Rat-1 cells results in apoptosis, X-ray treatment does not induce either apoptosis or a cell cycle block. X-ray treatment of Rat-1 cells results in both an increase of p53 protein and expression of the p53-inducible gene MDM2 but not the protein or mRNA of the p53-inducible p21(WAF1/CIP1) gene, which in other cells plays an important role in p53-mediated cell cycle block. The lack of p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression appears to be the result of hypermethylation of the p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter region, as p21(WAF1/CIP1) protein expression could be induced by growth of Rat-1 cells in the presence of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Furthermore, sequence analysis of bisulfite-treated DNA demonstrated extensive methylation of cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotides in a CpG-rich island in the promoter region of the p21(WAF1/CIP1) gene. Stable X-ray-induced p53-dependent p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression and cell cycle block were restored to a Rat-1 clone after transfection with a P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) DNA clone containing a rat genomic copy of the p21(WAF1/CIP1) gene. The absence of expression of the p21(WAF1/CIP1) gene may contribute to the suitability of Rat-1 cells for transformation, cell cycle, and apoptosis studies.
Project description:Adenovirus E1A-associated p400 belongs to the SWI2/SNF2 family of chromatin remodeling proteins. Here, we report that p400 is a component of the p53-p21(WAF1/CIP1/sid1) pathway, regulating the p21 transcription and senescence induction program. Acute depletion of p400 expression by shRNA (short hairpin RNA) synthesis led to premature senescence of untransformed human fibroblasts, whose features include G1 arrest, p21 induction, senescence-associated heterochromatic foci (SAHF), and beta-gal staining. Importantly, p400shRNA-induced premature senescence phenotypes were rescued by coexpression of p53-shRNA or p21-shRNA. Furthermore, p400 complex colocalized with p53 on the p21 promoter. These data suggest that the p400 complex inhibits p53 --> p21 transcription and the development of premature senescence.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce premature cellular senescence, which is believed to contribute to aging and age-related diseases. The nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that mediates cytoprotective responses against stress. We demonstrate that caveolin-1 is a direct binding partner of Nrf2, as shown by the binding of the scaffolding domain of caveolin-1 (amino acids 82-101) to the caveolin-binding domain of Nrf2 (amino acids 281-289). Biochemical studies show that Nrf2 is concentrated into caveolar membranes in human and mouse fibroblasts, where it colocalizes with caveolin-1, under resting conditions. After oxidative stress, caveolin-1 limits the movement of Nrf2 from caveolar membranes to the nucleus. In contrast, Nrf2 is constitutively localized to the nucleus before and after oxidative stress in caveolin-1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), which do not express caveolin-1. Functional studies demonstrate that caveolin-1 acts as an endogenous inhibitor of Nrf2, as shown by the enhanced up-regulation of NQO1, an Nrf2 target gene, in caveolin-1-null MEFs and the activation or inhibition of a luciferase construct carrying an antioxidant responsive element (ARE) after down-regulation of caveolin-1 by small interfering RNA or overexpression of caveolin-1, respectively. Expression of a mutant form of Nrf2 that cannot bind to caveolin-1 (??A-Nrf2) hyperactivates ARE and inhibits oxidative stress-induced activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway and induction of premature senescence in fibroblasts. Finally, we show that overexpression of caveolin-1 in colon cancer cells inhibits oxidant-induced activation of Nrf2-dependent signaling, promotes premature senescence, and inhibits their transformed phenotype. Thus, by inhibiting Nrf2-mediated signaling, caveolin-1 links free radicals to the activation of the p53/senescence pathway.
Project description:We show that E6 proteins from benign human papillomavirus type 1 (HPV1) and oncogenic HPV16 have the ability to alter the regulation of the G(1)/S transition of the cell cycle in primary human fibroblasts. Overexpression of both viral proteins induces cellular proliferation, retinoblastoma (pRb) phosphorylation, and accumulation of products of genes that are negatively regulated by pRb, such as p16(INK4a), CDC2, E2F-1, and cyclin A. Hyperphosphorylated forms of pRb are present in E6-expressing cells even in the presence of ectopic levels of p16(INK4a). The E6 proteins strongly increased the cyclin A/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity, which is involved in pRb phosphorylation. In addition, mRNA and protein levels of the CDK2 inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) were strongly down-regulated in cells expressing E6 proteins. The down-regulation of the p21(WAF1/CIP1) gene appears to be independent of p53 inactivation, since HPV1 E6 and an HPV16 E6 mutant unable to target p53 were fully competent in decreasing p21(WAF1/CIP1) levels. E6 from HPV1 and HPV16 also enabled cells to overcome the G(1) arrest imposed by oncogenic ras. Immunofluorescence staining of cells coexpressing ras and E6 from either HPV16 or HPV1 revealed that antiproliferative (p16(INK4a)) and proliferative (Ki67) markers were coexpressed in the same cells. Together, these data underline a novel activity of E6 that is not mediated by inactivation of p53.
Project description:The xeroderma pigmentosum group E gene product DDB2, a protein involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER), associates with the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex Cul4A-DDB1. But the precise role of these interactions in the NER activity of DDB2 is unclear. Several models, including DDB2-mediated ubiquitination of histones in UV-irradiated cells, have been proposed. But those models lack clear genetic evidence. Here we show that DDB2 participates in NER by regulating the cellular levels of p21(Waf1/Cip1). We show that DDB2 enhances nuclear accumulation of DDB1, which binds to a modified form of p53 containing phosphorylation at Ser18 (p53(S18P)) and targets it for degradation in low-dose-UV-irradiated cells. DDB2(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), unlike wild-type MEFs, are deficient in the proteolysis of p53(S18P). Accumulation of p53(S18P) in DDB2(-/-) MEFs causes higher expression p21(Waf1/Cip1). We show that the increased expression of p21(Waf1/Cip1) is the cause NER deficiency in DDB2(-/-) cells because deletion or knockdown of p21(Waf1/Cip1) reverses their NER-deficient phenotype. p21(Waf1/Cip1) was shown to bind PCNA, which is required for both DNA replication and NER. Moreover, an increased level of p21(Waf1/Cip1) was shown to inhibit NER both in vitro and in vivo. Our results provide genetic evidence linking the regulation of p21(Waf1/Cip1) to the NER activity of DDB2.
Project description:Aneuploidy and extensive chromosomal rearrangements are common in human tumors. The role of DNA damage response proteins p53 and p21(CIP1/WAF1) in aneugenesis and clastogenesis was investigated in telomerase immortalized diploid human fibroblasts using siRNA suppression of p53 and p21(CIP1/WAF1). Cells were exposed to the environmental carcinogen sodium arsenite (15 and 20 microM), and the induction of micronuclei (MN) was evaluated in binucleated cells using the cytokinesis-block assay. To determine whether MN resulted from missegregation of chromosomes or from chromosomal fragments, we used a fluorescent in situ hybridization with a centromeric DNA probe. Micronuclei were predominantly of clastogenic origin in control cells regardless of p53 or p21(CIP1/WAF1) expression. MN with centromere signals in cells transfected with NSC siRNA or Mock increased 30% after arsenite exposure, indicating that arsenite induced aneuploidy in the tGM24 cells. Although suppression of p53 increased the fraction of arsenite-treated cells with MN, it caused a decrease in the fraction with centromeric DNA. Suppression of p21(CIP1/WAF1) like p53 suppression decreased the fraction of MN with centromeric DNA. Our results suggest that cells lacking normal p53 function cannot become aneuploid because they die by mitotic arrest-associated apoptosis, whereas cells with normal p53 function that are able to exit from mitotic arrest can become aneuploid. Furthermore, our current results support this role for p21(CIP1/WAF1) since suppression of p21(CIP1/WAF1) caused a decrease in aneuploidy induced by arsenite, suggesting that p21(CIP1/WAF1) plays a role in mitotic exit.