Low central venous saturation predicts poor outcome in patients with brain injury after major trauma: a prospective observational study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Continuous monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) has been proposed as a prognostic indicator in several pathological conditions, including cardiac diseases, sepsis, trauma. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated ScvO2 in polytraumatized patients with brain injury so far. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic role of ScvO2 monitoring during first 24 hours after trauma in this patients' population. METHODS: This prospective, non-controlled study, carried out between April 2006 and March 2008, was performed in a higher level Trauma Center in Florence (Italy). In the study period, 121 patients affected by major brain injury after major trauma were recruited. Inclusion criteria were: 1. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score or= 15. Exclusion criteria included: 1. pregnancy; 2. age < 14 years; 3. isolated head trauma; 4. death within the first 24 hours from the event; 5. the lack of ScvO2 monitoring within 2 hours from the trauma. Demographic and clinical data were collected, including Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), Simplified Acute Physiologic Score II (SAPS II), Marshall score. The worst values of lactate and ScvO2 within the first 24 hours from trauma, ICU length of stay (LOS), and 28-day mortality were recorded. RESULTS: Patients who deceased within 28 days showed higher age (53 +/- 16.6 vs 43.8 +/- 19.6, P = 0.043), ISS core (39.3 +/- 14 vs 30.3 +/- 10.1, P < 0.001), AIS score for head/neck (4.5 +/- 0.7 vs 3.4 +/- 1.2, P = 0.001), SAPS II score (51.3 +/- 14.1 vs 42.5 +/- 15, P = 0.014), Marshall Score (3.5 +/- 0.7 vs 2.3 +/- 0.7, P < 0.001) and arterial lactate concentration (3.3 +/- 1.8 vs 6.7 +/- 4.2, P < 0.001), than survived patients, whereas ScvO2 resulted significantly lower (66.7% +/- 11.9 vs 70.1% +/- 8.9 vs, respectively; P = 0.046). Patients with ScvO2 values 65%. CONCLUSION: ScvO2 value less than 65%, measured in the first 24 hours after admission in patients with major trauma and head injury, was associated with higher mortality and prolonged hospitalization.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The modified early warning score (MEWS) is a 'track and trigger' score using routine physiological vital signs. The objective is to determine if the pretransfer MEWS can be used for predicting outcomes in trauma patients requiring interfacility transfer to higher levels of care. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:Retrospective study of consecutively transferred trauma patients into a level-II trauma centre from 2013 to 2014. INTERVENTIONS:None. OUTCOME MEASURES:Mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, operative procedure, MEWS deterioration in-transit, air transport interfacility, secondary overtriage (low injury severity score (ISS) <10, LOS<1?day, discharged home) and severe injury (ISS ?16). The association between the pretransfer MEWS and outcomes were analysed with Cochran-Armitage trend tests, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and univariate logistic regression. RESULTS:There were 587 transferred patients; outcomes were reported in 339 patients with complete data on all five vital signs used to calculate the MEWS. The MEWS ranged from 0 to 9 (median of 1). There was a significant linear relationship between MEWS and study outcomes, especially mortality, ICU admission, air medical transport and severe injury (p<0.001 for all). A threshold score ?4 was identified by ROC analysis; 11.2% of patients had MEWS ?4. Outcomes were significantly worse in patients with MEWS ?4?versus <4: mortality (26.2% vs 3.0%, OR=11.59, p<0.001); ICU admission (73.7% vs 47.2%, OR=3.14, p=0.003); air transfer (42.1% vs 15.6%, OR=3.93, p<0.001) and severe injury (59.5% vs 27.2%, OR=3.9, p<0.001). The MEWS was not associated with surgery, in-transit MEWS deterioration or secondary overtriage. CONCLUSION:Pretransfer MEWS ?4?may be used by the receiving facility for predicting injury severity, mortality, air transport and ICU resource use. In the interfacility transport setting, the MEWS may be useful for identifying patients with less obvious need for transfer or requiring more expeditious transfer.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Geriatric trauma patients present physiological challenges to care providers. A nationwide analysis was performed to evaluate the roles of age alone versus age-associated comorbidities in the morbidity and mortality of elderly patients with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT).<h4>Methods</h4>Patients with BAT registered in the National Trauma Data Bank from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using propensity score matching (PSM) to evaluate the mortality rate, complication rate, hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) LOS and ventilator days between young (age?<?65) and elderly (age???65) patients. An adjusted multivariate logistic regression (MLR) model was also used to evaluate the effect of age itself and age-associated comorbidities on mortality.<h4>Results</h4>There were 41,880 patients with BAT during the study period. In elderly patients, the injury severity score (ISS) decreased with age, but the mortality rate increased inversely (from 5.0 to 13.5%). Under a similar condition and proportion of age-associated comorbidities after a well-batched PSM analysis, elderly patients had significantly higher mortality rates (8.0% vs. 1.9%, p?<?0.001), higher complication rates (35.1% vs. 30.6%, p?<?0.001), longer hospital LOS (8.9 vs. 8.1 days, p?<?0.001), longer ICU LOS (3.7 vs. 2.7 days, p?<?0.001) and more ventilator days (1.1 vs. 0.5 days, p?<?0.001) than young patients. Furthermore, the MLR analysis showed that age itself served as an independent factor for mortality (odds ratio: 1.049, 95% CI 1.043-1.055, p?<?0.001), but age-associated comorbidity was not.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In patients with BAT, age itself appeared to have an independent and deleterious effect on mortality, but age-associated comorbidity did not.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIM:Blunt chest trauma is one of the major injuries in multiply injured patients and is associated with an increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Accidental hypothermia is a common accompaniment of multiply injured patients. The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of accidental hypothermia on pulmonary complications in multiply injured patients with blunt chest trauma. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Multiply injured patients [injury severity score (ISS) ?16] with severe blunt chest trauma [abbreviated injury scale of the chest (AISchest) ?3] were analyzed. Hypothermia was defined as body core temperature <35°C. The primary endpoint was the development of ARDS and VAP. Propensity score matching was performed. RESULTS:Data were analyzed for 238 patients, with a median ISS of 26 (interquartile range=12). A total of 67 patients (28%) were hypothermic on admission. Hypothermic patients were injured more severely (median ISS 34 vs. 24, p<0.001) and had a higher transfusion requirement (p<0.001). Their mortality rate was consequently increased (10% vs. 1%, p=0.002); After propensity score matching, the mortality rate was still higher (10% vs. 2%, p=0.046). However, hypothermia was not an independent predictor of mortality. Hypothermic patients had to be ventilated longer (p=0.02). However, there were no differences in occurrence of ARDS and VAP. Hypothermia was not identified as an independent predictor of ARDS and VAP. CONCLUSION:Among multiply injured patients with severe blunt chest trauma, accidental hypothermia is not an independent predictor of ARDS and VAP and is more likely to be an accompaniment of injury severity and hemorrhage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) following trauma is historically associated with crystalloid and blood product exposure. Advances in resuscitation have occurred over the last decade, but their impact on ARDS is unknown. We sought to investigate predictors of postinjury ARDS in the era of hemostatic resuscitation. METHODS:Data were prospectively collected from arrival to 28 days for 914 highest-level trauma activations who required intubation and survived more than 6 hours from 2005 to 2016 at a Level I trauma center. Patients with ratio of partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen of 300 mmHg or less during the first 8 days were identified. Two blinded expert clinicians adjudicated all chest radiographs for bilateral infiltrates in the first 8 days. Those with left-sided heart failure detected were excluded. Multivariate logistic regression was used to define predictors of ARDS. RESULTS:Of the 914 intubated patients, 63% had a ratio of partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen of 300 or less, and 22% developed ARDS; among the ARDS cases, 57% were diagnosed early (in the first 24 hours), and 43% later. Patients with ARDS diagnosed later were more severely injured (ISS 32 vs. 20, p = 0.001), with higher rates of blunt injury (84% vs. 72%, p = 0.008), chest injury (58% vs. 36%, p < 0.001), and traumatic brain injury (72% vs. 48%, p < 0.001) compared with the no ARDS group. In multivariate analysis, head/chest Abbreviated Injury Score scores, crystalloid from 0 to 6 hours, and platelet transfusion from 0 to 6 hours and 7 to 24 hours were independent predictors of ARDS developing after 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS:Blood and plasma transfusion were not independently associated with ARDS. However, platelet transfusion was a significant independent risk factor. The role of platelets warrants further investigation but may be mechanistically explained by lung injury models of pulmonary platelet sequestration with peripheral thrombocytopenia. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Prognostic study, level IV.
Project description:Background: Hyponatremia has been proposed as a contributor to falls in the elderly, which have become a major global issue with the aging of the population. This study aimed to assess the clinical presentation and outcomes of elderly patients with hyponatremia admitted due to fall injuries in a Level I trauma center. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data obtained from the Trauma Registry System for trauma admissions from January 2009 through December 2014. Hyponatremia was defined as a serum sodium level <135 mEq/L, and only patients who had sustained a fall at ground level (<1 m) were included. We used Chi-square tests, Student t-tests, and Mann-Whitney U tests to compare elderly patients (age ?65 years) with hyponatremia (n = 492) to those without (n = 2002), and to adult patients (age 20-64 years) with hyponatremia (n = 125). Results: Significantly more elderly patients with hyponatremia presented to the emergency department (ED) due to falls compared to elderly patients without hyponatremia (73.7% vs. 52.6%; OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 2.10-3.02; p < 0.001). Elderly patients with hyponatremia presented with a worse outcome, measured by significantly higher odds of intubation (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.15-4.83; p = 0.025), a longer in-hospital length of stay (LOS) (11 days vs. 9 days; p < 0.001), higher proportion of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (20.9% vs. 16.2%; OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.07-1.76; p = 0.013), and higher mortality (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.53-3.96; p < 0.001), regardless of adjustment by Injury Severity Scores (ISS) (AOR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.42-4.21; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results show that hyponatremia is associated with worse outcome from fall-related injuries in the elderly, with an increased ISS, longer LOS, and a higher risk of death.
Project description:Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. It is unclear why some trauma victims follow a complicated clinical course and die, while others, with apparently similar injury characteristics, do not. Interpatient genomic differences, in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), have been associated previously with adverse outcomes after trauma. Recently, we identified seven novel SNPs associated with mortality following trauma. The aim of the present study was to determine if one or more of these SNPs was also associated with worse clinical outcomes and altered inflammatory trajectories in trauma survivors. Accordingly, of 413 trauma survivors, DNA samples, full blood samples, and clinical data were collected at multiple time points in the first 24 h and then daily over 7 days following hospital admission. Subsequently, single-SNP groups were created and outcomes, such as hospital length of stay (LOS), ICU LOS, and requirement for mechanical ventilation, were compared. Across a broad range of Injury Severity Scores (ISS), patients carrying the rs2065418 TT SNP in the metallophosphoesterase domain-containing 2 (MPPED2) gene exhibited higher Marshall MODScores vs. the control group of rs2065418 TG/GG patients. In patients with high-severity trauma (ISS ? 25, n = 94), those carrying the rs2065418 TT SNP in MPPED2 exhibited higher Marshall MODScores, longer hospital LOS (21.8 ± 2 days), a greater requirement for mechanical ventilation (9.2 ± 1.4 days on ventilator, DOV), and higher creatinine plasma levels over 7 days vs. the control group of rs2065418 TG/GG high-severity trauma patients (LOS: 15.9 ± 1.2 days, p = 0.03; DOV: 5.7 ± 1 days, p = 0.04; plasma creatinine; p < 0.0001 MODScore: p = 0.0003). Furthermore, rs2065418 TT patients with ISS ? 25 had significantly different plasma levels of nine circulating inflammatory mediators and elevated dynamic network complexity. These studies suggest that the rs2065418 TT genotype in the MPPED2 gene is associated with altered systemic inflammation, increased organ dysfunction, and greater hospital resource utilization. A screening for this specific SNP at admission might stratify severely injured patients regarding their lung and kidney function and clinical complications.
Project description:Trauma is one of the main causes of death in Japan, and treatments and prognoses of these injuries are constantly changing. We therefore aimed to investigate a 10-year trend (2004-2013) in inhospital mortality among patients with trauma in Japan.Multicentre observational study.Japanese nationwide trauma registry (the Japan Trauma Data Bank) data.All patients with trauma whose Injury Severity Score (ISS) were 3 and above, who were aged 15 years or older, and whose mechanisms of injury (MOI) were blunt and penetrating between 2004 and 2013 (n=90?833).A 10-year trend in inhospital mortality.Inhospital mortality for all patients with trauma significantly decreased over the study decade in our Cochran-Armitage test (P<0.001). Similarly, inhospital mortality for patients with ISS 16 or more and patients who scored 50% or better on the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) probability of survival scale significantly decreased (P<0.001). In addition, the OR for inhospital mortality of these three patient groups decreased yearly after adjusting for age, gender, MOI, ISS, Glasgow Coma Scale, systolic blood pressure and respiratory rate on hospital arrival in multivariable logistic regression analyses. Furthermore, inhospital mortality for patient with blunt trauma significantly decreased in injury mechanism-stratified Mantel-extension testing (P<0.001). Finally, multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that the OR for inhospital mortality of patients with ISS 16 and over decreased each year after adding and adjusting for means of transportation and usage of whole-body CT.Inhospital mortality for patients with trauma in Japan significantly decreased during the study decade after adjusting for patient characteristics, injury severity and the response environment after injury.
Project description:Physiological, anatomical, and clinical laboratory analytic scoring systems (APACHE, Injury Severity Score (ISS)) have been utilized, with limited success, to predict outcome following injury. We hypothesized that a peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression score could predict outcome, including multiple organ failure, following severe blunt trauma. Contributor: The Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury Large Scale Collaborative Research Program Keywords: expression profiles cRNA derived from whole blood leukocytes obtained within 12 hours of hospital admission provided gene expression data for the entire genome that were used to create a gene expression score for each patient. Expression profiles from healthy volunteers were averaged to create a reference gene expression profile which was used to compute a difference from reference (DFR) score for each patient. This score described the overall genomic response of patients within the first 12 hours following severe blunt trauma. Regression models were used to compare the association of the DFR, APACHE and ISS scores with outcome.
Project description:Physiological, anatomical, and clinical laboratory analytic scoring systems (APACHE, Injury Severity Score (ISS)) have been utilized, with limited success, to predict outcome following injury. We hypothesized that a peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression score could predict outcome, including multiple organ failure, following severe blunt trauma. Contributor: The Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury Large Scale Collaborative Research Program Keywords: expression profiles Overall design: cRNA derived from whole blood leukocytes obtained within 12 hours of hospital admission provided gene expression data for the entire genome that were used to create a gene expression score for each patient. Expression profiles from healthy volunteers were averaged to create a reference gene expression profile which was used to compute a difference from reference (DFR) score for each patient. This score described the overall genomic response of patients within the first 12 hours following severe blunt trauma. Regression models were used to compare the association of the DFR, APACHE and ISS scores with outcome.
Project description:A myriad of trauma indices has been validated to predict probability of trauma survival. We aimed to compare the performance of commonly used indices for the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).Historic, observational cohort study of 27,385 consecutive patients admitted to a statewide referral trauma center between July 11, 2003 and October 31, 2011. A validated algorithm was adapted to identify patients with ARDS. Each trauma index was evaluated in logistic regression using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.The case rate for ARDS development was 5.8% (1594). The receiver operating characteristics for injury severity score (ISS) had the best discrimination and had an area under the curve of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87-0.89). Glasgow coma score (0.71, 95% CI = 0.70-0.73), A Severity Characterization of Trauma (0.86, 95% CI = 0.85-0.87), Revised Trauma Score (0.71, 95% CI = 0.70-0.72) and thorax Abbreviated Injury Score (0.73, 95% CI = 0.72-0.74) performed worse (P < 0.001) and Trauma and Injury Severity Score (0.88, 95% CI = 0.87-0.88) performed equivocally (P = 0.51) in comparison to ISS. Using a cutoff point ISS ?16, sensitivity and specificity were 84.9% (95% CI = 83.0%-86.6%) and 75.6% (95% CI = 75.1%-76.2%), respectively.Among commonly used trauma indices, ISS has superior or equivocal discriminative ability for development of ARDS. A cutoff point of ISS ?16 provided good sensitivity and specificity. The use of ISS ?16 is a simple method to evaluate ARDS in trauma epidemiology and outcomes research.