Development of genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers using whole-genome shotgun sequences of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench).
ABSTRACT: Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with a high degree of polymorphism contribute to the molecular dissection of agriculturally important traits in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). We designed 5599 non-redundant SSR markers, including regions flanking the SSRs, in whole-genome shotgun sequences of sorghum line ATx623. (AT/TA)n repeats constituted 26.1% of all SSRs, followed by (AG/TC)n at 20.5%, (AC/TG)n at 13.7% and (CG/GC)n at 11.8%. The chromosomal locations of 5012 SSR markers were determined by comparing the locations identified by means of electronic PCR with the predicted positions of 34 008 gene loci. Most SSR markers had a similar distribution to the gene loci. Among 970 markers validated by fragment analysis, 67.8% (658 of 970) markers successfully provided PCR amplification in sorghum line BTx623, with a mean polymorphism rate of 45.1% (297 of 658) for all SSR loci in combinations of 11 sorghum lines and one sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf) line. The product of 5012 and 0.678 suggests that approximately 3400 SSR markers could be used to detect SSR polymorphisms and that more than 1500 (45.1% of 3400) markers could reveal SSR polymorphisms in combinations of Sorghum lines.
Project description:Mature sorghum herbage is known to contain several water-soluble secondary metabolites (allelochemicals). In this study, we investigated quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with allelochemical characteristics in sorghum using linkage mapping and linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based association mapping. A sorghum diversity research set (SDRS) of 107 accessions was used in LD mapping whereas, F2:3 lines derived from a cross between Japanese and African landraces were used in linkage mapping. The QTLs were further confirmed by positional (targeted) association mapping with Q+K model. The inhibitory effect of water-soluble extracts (WSE) was tested on germination and root length of lettuce seedlings in four concentrations (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). A Significant range of variations was observed among genotypes in both types of mapping populations (P < 0.05). A total of 181 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) derived from antecedently reported map have been used for genotyping of SDRS. A genetic linkage map of 151 sorghum SSR markers was also developed on 134 F2 individuals. The total map length was 1359.3 cM, with an average distance of 8.2 cM between adjacent markers. LD mapping identified three QTLs for inhibition effect on germination and seven QTLs for root length of lettuce seedlings. Whereas, a total of six QTLs for inhibition of germination and ten QTLs for root length were detected in linkage mapping approach. The percent phenotypic variation explained by individual QTL ranged from 6.9% to 27.3% in SDRS and 9.9% to 35.6% in F2:3 lines. Regional association analysis identified four QTLs, three of them are common in other methods too. No QTL was identified in the region where major gene for sorgoleone (SOR1) has been cloned previously on chromosome 5.
Project description:Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been widely used in maize genetics and breeding, because they are co-dominant, easy to score, and highly abundant. In this study, we used whole-genome sequences from 16 maize inbreds and 1 wild relative to determine SSR abundance and to develop a set of high-density polymorphic SSR markers. A total of 264 658 SSRs were identified across the 17 genomes, with an average of 135 693 SSRs per genome. Marker density was one SSR every of 15.48 kb. (C/G)n, (AT)n, (CAG/CTG)n, and (AAAT/ATTT)n were the most frequent motifs for mono, di-, tri-, and tetra-nucleotide SSRs, respectively. SSRs were most abundant in intergenic region and least frequent in untranslated regions, as revealed by comparing SSR distributions of three representative resequenced genomes. Comparing SSR sequences and e-polymerase chain reaction analysis among the 17 tested genomes created a new database, including 111 887 SSRs, that could be develop as polymorphic markers in silico. Among these markers, 58.00, 26.09, 7.20, 3.00, 3.93, and 1.78% of them had mono, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotide motifs, respectively. Polymorphic information content for 35 573 polymorphic SSRs out of 111 887 loci varied from 0.05 to 0.83, with an average of 0.31 in the 17 tested genomes. Experimental validation of polymorphic SSR markers showed that over 70% of the primer pairs could generate the target bands with length polymorphism, and these markers would be very powerful when they are used for genetic populations derived from various types of maize germplasms that were sampled for this study.
Project description:Sorghum comprises 31 species that exhibit considerable morphological and ecological diversity. The phylogenetic relationships among Sorghum species still remain unresolved due to lower information on the traditional DNA markers, which provides a limited resolution for identifying Sorghum species. In this study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genomes of Sorghum sudanense and S. propinquum and analyzed the published chloroplast genomes of S. bicolor and S. timorense to retrieve valuable chloroplast molecular resources for Sorghum. The chloroplast genomes ranged in length from 140,629 to 140,755 bp, and their gene contents, gene orders, and GC contents were similar to those for other Poaceae species but were slightly different in the number of SSRs. Comparative analyses among the four chloroplast genomes revealed 651 variable sites, 137 indels, and nine small inversions. Four highly divergent DNA regions (rps16-trnQ, trnG-trnM, rbcL-psaI, and rps15-ndhF), which were suitable for phylogenetic and species identification, were detected in the Sorghum chloroplast genomes. A phylogenetic analysis strongly supported that Sorghum is a monophyletic group in the tribe Andropogoneae. Overall, the genomic resources in this study could provide potential molecular markers for phylogeny and species identification in Sorghum.
Project description:The introgression lines (ILs) from cv. M82 (Solanum lycopersicum) × LA0716 (S. pennellii) have been proven to be exceptionally useful for genetic analysis and gene cloning. The introgressions were originally defined by RFLP markers at their development. The objectives of this study are to develop polymorphic SSR markers, and to re-define the DNA introgression from LA0716 in the ILs. Tomato sequence data was scanned by software to generate SSR markers. In total, 829 SSRs, which could be robustly amplified by PCR, were developed. Among them, 658 SSRs were dinucleotide repeats, 162 were trinucleotide repeats, and nine were tetranucleotide repeats. The 829 SSRs together with 96 published RFLPs were integrated into the physical linkage map of S. lycopersicum. Introgressions of DNA fragments from LA0716 were re-defined among the 75 ILs using the newly developed SSRs. A specific introgression of DNA fragment from LA0716 was identified in 72 ILs as described previously by RFLP, whereas the specific DNA introgression described previously were not detected in the ILs LA4035, LA4059 and LA4091. The physical location of each investigated DNA introgression was finely determined by SSR mapping. Among the 72 ILs, eight ILs showed a shorter and three ILs (IL3-2, IL12-3 and IL12-3-1) revealed a longer DNA introgression than that framed by RFLPs. Furthermore, 54 previously undefined segments were found in 21 ILs, ranging from 1 to 11 DNA introgressions per IL. Generally, the newly developed SSRs provide additional markers for genetic studies of tomatoes, and the fine definition of DNA introgressions from LA0716 would facilitate the use of the ILs for genetic analysis and gene cloning.
Project description:Plant genomes are complex and contain large amounts of repetitive DNA including microsatellites that are distributed across entire genomes. Whole genome sequences of several monocot and dicot plants that are available in the public domain provide an opportunity to study the origin, distribution and evolution of microsatellites, and also facilitate the development of new molecular markers. In the present investigation, a genome-wide analysis of microsatellite distribution in monocots (Brachypodium, sorghum and rice) and dicots (Arabidopsis, Medicago and Populus) was performed. A total of 797,863 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in the whole genome sequences of six plant species. Characterization of these SSRs revealed that mono-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant repeats, and that the frequency of repeats decreased with increase in motif length both in monocots and dicots. However, the frequency of SSRs was higher in dicots than in monocots both for nuclear and chloroplast genomes. Interestingly, GC-rich repeats were the dominant repeats only in monocots, with the majority of them being present in the coding region. These coding GC-rich repeats were found to be involved in different biological processes, predominantly binding activities. In addition, a set of 22,879 SSR markers that were validated by e-PCR were developed and mapped on different chromosomes in Brachypodium for the first time, with a frequency of 101 SSR markers per Mb. Experimental validation of 55 markers showed successful amplification of 80% SSR markers in 16 Brachypodium accessions. An online database 'BraMi' (Brachypodium microsatellite markers) of these genome-wide SSR markers was developed and made available in the public domain. The observed differential patterns of SSR marker distribution would be useful for studying microsatellite evolution in a monocot-dicot system. SSR markers developed in this study would be helpful for genomic studies in Brachypodium and related grass species, especially for the map based cloning of the candidate gene(s).
Project description:Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench) production in many agro-ecologies is constrained by a variety of stresses, including high levels of aluminium (Al) commonly found in acid soils. Therefore, for such soils, growing Al tolerant cultivars is imperative for high productivity.In this study, molecular markers associated with Al tolerance were identified using a mapping population developed by crossing two contrasting genotypes for this trait.Four SSR (Xtxp34, Sb5_236, Sb6_34, and Sb6_342), one STS (CTG29_3b) and three ISSR (811_1400, 835_200 and 884_200) markers produced alleles that showed significant association with Al tolerance. CTG29_3b, 811_1400, Xtxp34 and Sb5_236 are located on chromosome 3 with the first two markers located close to AltSB , a locus that underlie the Al tolerance gene (SbMATE) implying that their association with Al tolerance is due to their linkage to this gene. Although CTG29_3b and 811_1400 are located closer to AltSB , Xtxp34 and Sb5_236 explained higher phenotypic variance of Al tolerance indices. Markers 835_200, 884_200, Sb6_34 and Sb6_342 are located on different chromosomes, which implies the presence of several genes involved in Al tolerance in addition to SbMATE in sorghum.These molecular markers have a high potential for use in breeding for Al tolerance in sorghum.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Sorghum genome mapping based on DNA markers began in the early 1990s and numerous genetic linkage maps of sorghum have been published in the last decade, based initially on RFLP markers with more recent maps including AFLPs and SSRs and very recently, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. It is essential to integrate the rapidly growing body of genetic linkage data produced through DArT with the multiple genetic linkage maps for sorghum generated through other marker technologies. Here, we report on the colinearity of six independent sorghum component maps and on the integration of these component maps into a single reference resource that contains commonly utilized SSRs, AFLPs, and high-throughput DArT markers. RESULTS: The six component maps were constructed using the MultiPoint software. The lengths of the resulting maps varied between 910 and 1528 cM. The order of the 498 markers that segregated in more than one population was highly consistent between the six individual mapping data sets. The framework consensus map was constructed using a "Neighbours" approach and contained 251 integrated bridge markers on the 10 sorghum chromosomes spanning 1355.4 cM with an average density of one marker every 5.4 cM, and were used for the projection of the remaining markers. In total, the sorghum consensus map consisted of a total of 1997 markers mapped to 2029 unique loci (1190 DArT loci and 839 other loci) spanning 1603.5 cM and with an average marker density of 1 marker/0.79 cM. In addition, 35 multicopy markers were identified. On average, each chromosome on the consensus map contained 203 markers of which 58.6% were DArT markers. Non-random patterns of DNA marker distribution were observed, with some clear marker-dense regions and some marker-rare regions. CONCLUSION: The final consensus map has allowed us to map a larger number of markers than possible in any individual map, to obtain a more complete coverage of the sorghum genome and to fill a number of gaps on individual maps. In addition to overall general consistency of marker order across individual component maps, good agreement in overall distances between common marker pairs across the component maps used in this study was determined, using a difference ratio calculation. The obtained consensus map can be used as a reference resource for genetic studies in different genetic backgrounds, in addition to providing a framework for transferring genetic information between different marker technologies and for integrating DArT markers with other genomic resources. DArT markers represent an affordable, high throughput marker system with great utility in molecular breeding programs, especially in crops such as sorghum where SNP arrays are not publicly available.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The sequential nature of gel-based marker systems entails low throughput and high costs per assay. Commonly used marker systems such as SSR and SNP are also dependent on sequence information. These limitations result in high cost per data point and significantly limit the capacity of breeding programs to obtain sufficient return on investment to justify the routine use of marker-assisted breeding for many traits and particularly quantitative traits. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) is a cost effective hybridisation-based marker technology that offers a high multiplexing level while being independent of sequence information. This technology offers sorghum breeding programs an alternative approach to whole-genome profiling. We report on the development, application, mapping and utility of DArT markers for sorghum germplasm.<h4>Results</h4>A genotyping array was developed representing approximately 12,000 genomic clones using PstI+BanII complexity with a subset of clones obtained through the suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) method. The genotyping array was used to analyse a diverse set of sorghum genotypes and screening a Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL) mapping population. Over 500 markers detected variation among 90 accessions used in a diversity analysis. Cluster analysis discriminated well between all 90 genotypes. To confirm that the sorghum DArT markers behave in a Mendelian manner, we constructed a genetic linkage map for a cross between R931945-2-2 and IS 8525 integrating DArT and other marker types. In total, 596 markers could be placed on the integrated linkage map, which spanned 1431.6 cM. The genetic linkage map had an average marker density of 1/2.39 cM, with an average DArT marker density of 1/3.9 cM.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We have successfully developed DArT markers for Sorghum bicolor and have demonstrated that DArT provides high quality markers that can be used for diversity analyses and to construct medium-density genetic linkage maps. The high number of DArT markers generated in a single assay not only provides a precise estimate of genetic relationships among genotypes, but also their even distribution over the genome offers real advantages for a range of molecular breeding and genomics applications.
Project description:Sorghum is one of the most promising bioenergy crops. Stem juice yield, together with stem sugar concentration, determines sugar yield in sweet sorghum. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) is a gene mapping technique for identifying genomic regions containing genetic loci affecting a trait of interest that when combined with deep sequencing could effectively accelerate the gene mapping process. In this study, a dry stem sorghum landrace was characterized and the stem water controlling locus, qSW6, was fine mapped using QTL analysis and the combined BSA and deep sequencing technologies. Results showed that: (i) In sorghum variety Jiliang 2, stem water content was around 80% before flowering stage. It dropped to 75% during grain filling with little difference between different internodes. In landrace G21, stem water content keeps dropping after the flag leaf stage. The drop from 71% at flowering time progressed to 60% at grain filling time. Large differences exist between different internodes with the lowest (51%) at the 7th and 8th internodes at dough stage. (ii) A quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling stem water content mapped on chromosome 6 between SSR markers Ch6-2 and gpsb069 explained about 34.7-56.9% of the phenotypic variation for the 5th to 10th internodes, respectively. (iii) BSA and deep sequencing analysis narrowed the associated region to 339 kb containing 38 putative genes. The results could help reveal molecular mechanisms underlying juice yield of sorghum and thus to improve total sugar yield.
Project description:Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) is one of the most widely distributed molecular markers that have been widely utilized to assess genetic diversity and genetic mapping for important traits in plants. However, the understanding of microsatellite characteristics in Arachis species and the currently available amount of high-quality SSR markers remain limited. In this study, we identified 16,435 genome survey sequences SSRs (GSS-SSRs) and 40,199 expressed sequence tag SSRs (EST-SSRs) in Arachis hypogaea and its wild relative species using the publicly available sequence data. The GSS-SSRs had a density of 159.9-239.8 SSRs/Mb for wild Arachis and 1,015.8 SSR/Mb for cultivated Arachis, whereas the EST-SSRs had the density of 173.5-384.4 SSR/Mb and 250.9 SSRs/Mb for wild and cultivated Arachis, respectively. The trinucleotide SSRs were predominant across Arachis species, except that the dinucleotide accounted for most in A. hypogaea GSSs. From Arachis GSS-SSR and EST-SSR sequences, we developed 2,589 novel SSR markers that showed a high polymorphism in six diverse A. hypogaea accessions. A genetic linkage map that contained 540 novel SSR loci and 105 anchor SSR loci was constructed by case of a recombinant inbred lines F6 population. A subset of 82 randomly selected SSR markers were used to screen 39 wild and 22 cultivated Arachis accessions, which revealed a high transferability of the novel SSRs across Arachis species. Our results provided informative clues to investigate microsatellite patterns across A. hypogaea and its wild relative species and potentially facilitate the germplasm evaluation and gene mapping in Arachis species.