Suppression of glomerulonephritis in NZB/NZW lupus prone mice by adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded regulatory T cells.
ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of unknown cause characterized by expansion of autoreactive lymphocytes. Regulatory T cells (T(regs)) are a component of the normal immune system and contribute to the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. T(reg) abnormalities have been associated with several autoimmune diseases and there is interest in the role of T(regs) in SLE. We previously demonstrated that transfer of expanded CD4(+)CD25(+)CD62L(HI) T(regs) slows the development of lupus in (NZBxNZW)F(1) (B/W) mice. However in the absence of T(reg) specific surface antigens, cell purification remains a compromise between the breadth and purity of the population isolated. Importantly, purified populations always contain Foxp3(-) effector T cells (T(effs)) that theoretically could exacerbate autoimmunity in the recipient. Here we explore the impact of transferring the more comprehensive, but less pure T(reg) subset defined by CD4(+)CD25(+) expression on development of murine lupus. All cells were FACS sorted and expanded prior to adoptive transfer. Development of proteinuria and survival were measured. We found that exogenous expansion of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells produced a population containing 70-85% CD4(+)Foxp3(+)T(regs). Expanded T(regs) had higher CTLA-4 and Foxp3 expression, increased in vitro suppression capacity, and prolonged in vivo survival as compared to freshly isolated cells. Adoptive transfer of expanded CD4(+)CD25(+) T(regs) inhibited the onset of glomerulonephritis and prolonged survival in mice. Importantly the population of T(eff) contained within the adoptively transferred cells had reduced survival and proliferation capacity as compared to either co-transferred T(regs) or transferred T(effs) expanded in the absence of T(regs). These studies demonstrate that adoptive transfer of expanded CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)T(regs) has the capacity to inhibit the onset of murine lupus and that this capacity is significant despite transfer of co-cultured T(eff) cells. These data indicate that when co-expanded with regulatory T cells, exogenously activated T(effs) from autoimmune patients may not pose a significant risk of promoting disease.
Project description:Regulatory T cells (T(regs)) play a pivotal role in preventing autoimmunity, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and organ graft rejection. We previously showed that either germline or induced SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP) deficiency in the host abrogates GVHD. Here we show that SHIP deficiency promotes an increase of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T(regs) and CD4(+)CD25(-)FoxP3(+)"naive" T cells in the periphery that display increased CD103, glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR), OX40, and FcgammaRII/III expression. SHIP deficiency does not compromise T(reg) function because SHIP-deficient CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) T(regs) are as suppressive as wild-type (WT) CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) T(reg). Interestingly, like conventional T(regs), SHIP(-/-) CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells are unresponsive to major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched stimulators and suppress allogeneic responses by T cells in vitro. In addition, SHIP(-/-) CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells mediate reduced lethal GVHD on adoptive transfer to MHC-mismatched hosts. Furthermore, hosts with induced SHIP deficiency exhibit delayed rejection of MHC-mismatched cardiac grafts. Thus, SHIP is required for robust graft-versus-host and host-versus-graft responses by CD4(+) T cell and limits their immunoregulatory capacity. These findings further define the immunosuppressive mechanisms that result from SHIP deficiency and provide additional justification for targeting SHIP in clinical transplantation.
Project description:Adoptive immunotherapy with antitumor T cells is a promising novel approach for the treatment of cancer. However, T-cell therapy may be limited by the cotransfer of regulatory T cells (T(reg)). Here, we explored this hypothesis by using 2 cell surface markers, CD44 and CD137, to isolate antitumor CD4 T cells while excluding T(regs). In a murine model of B-cell lymphoma, only CD137(neg)CD44(hi) CD4 T cells infiltrated tumor sites and provided protection. Conversely, the population of CD137(pos)CD44hi CD4 T cells consisted primarily of activated T(regs). Notably, this CD137(pos) T(reg) population persisted following adoptive transfer and maintained expression of FoxP3 as well as CD137. Moreover, in vitro these CD137(pos) cells suppressed the proliferation of effector cells in a contact-dependent manner, and in vivo adding the CD137(pos)CD44(hi) CD4 cells to CD137(neg)CD44(hi) CD4 cells suppressed the antitumor immune response. Thus, CD137 expression on CD4 T cells defined a population of activated T(regs) that greatly limited antitumor immune responses. Consistent with observations in the murine model, human lymphoma biopsies also contained a population of CD137(pos) CD4 T cells that were predominantly CD25(pos)FoxP3(pos) T(regs). In conclusion, our findings identify 2 surface markers that can be used to facilitate the enrichment of antitumor CD4 T cells while depleting an inhibitory T(reg) population.
Project description:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) poses a global health problem because it readily establishes persistent infection and a vaccine is not available. CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells have been implicated in HCV persistence because their frequency is increased in the blood of HCV-infected patients and their in vitro depletion results in increased IFN-gamma production by HCV-specific T cells. Studying a well-characterized cohort of 16 chimpanzees, the sole animal model for HCV infection, we here demonstrate that the frequency of Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (T(Regs)) and the extent of suppression was as high in spontaneously HCV-recovered chimpanzees as in persistently HCV-infected chimpanzees. Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) T(Regs) suppressed IFN-gamma production, expansion, and activation-induced cell death of HCV-specific T cells after recovery from HCV infection and in persistent HCV infection. Thus, T(Reg) cells control HCV-specific T cells not only in persistent infection but also after recovery, where they may regulate memory T-cell responses by controlling their activation and preventing apoptosis. However, Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) T(Reg) cells of both HCV-recovered and HCV-infected chimpanzees differed from Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+)T(Reg) cells of HCV-naive chimpanzees in increased IL-2 responsiveness and lower T-cell receptor excision circle content, implying a history of in vivo proliferation. This result suggests that HCV infection alters the population of Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) T(Reg) cells.
Project description:In murine models, the adoptive transfer of CD4(+) /CD25(+) regulatory T cells (T(regs) ) inhibited graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Previous work has indicated a critical role for the adhesion molecule L-selectin (CD62L) in the function of T(regs) in preventing GvHD. Here we examined the capacity of naive wild-type (WT), CD62L(-/-) and ex vivo expanded CD62L(Lo) T(regs) to inhibit acute GvHD. Surprisingly, we found that CD62L(-/-) T(regs) were potent suppressors of GvHD, whereas CD62L(Lo) T(regs) were unable to inhibit disease despite being functionally competent to suppress allo T cell responses in vitro. Concomitant with improved outcomes, WT and CD62L(-/-) T(regs) significantly reduced liver pathology and systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine production, although CD62L(-/-) T(regs) were less effective in reducing lung pathology. While accumulation of CD62L(-/-) T(regs) in GvHD target organs was equivalent to WT T(regs) , CD62L(-/-) T(regs) did not migrate as well as WT T(regs) to peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs) over the first 2 weeks posttransplantation. This work demonstrated that CD62L was dispensable for T(reg) -mediated protection from GvHD.
Project description:Increased numbers of T regulatory (T(reg)) cells are found in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but the nature and function of these T(regs) remains unclear. Detailed characterization of the T(regs) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia has not been performed and the degree of heterogeneity of among these cells has not been studied to date. Using 15-color flow cytometry we show that T(reg) cells, defined using CD4, CD25, and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), can be divided into multiple complex subsets based on markers used for naïve, memory, and effector delineation as well as markers of T(reg) activation. Furthermore FOXP3(+) cells can be identified among CD4(+)CD25(-) as well as CD8(+)CD4(-) populations in increased proportions in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia compared with healthy donors. Significantly different frequencies of naïve and effector T(regs) populations are found in healthy donor controls compared with donors with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A population of CCR7(+)CD39(+) T(regs) was significantly associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This population demonstrated slightly reduced suppressive activity compared with total T(regs) or T(regs) of healthy donors. These data suggest that FOXP3-expressing cells, particularly in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia are much more complex for T(reg) sub-populations and transitions than previously reported. These findings demonstrate the complexity of regulation of T-cell responses in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and illustrate the use of high-dimensional analysis of cellular phenotypes in facilitating understanding of the intricacies of cellular immune responses and their dysregulation in cancer.
Project description:CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (T regs) play a major role in the maintenance of self-tolerance and immune suppression, although the mechanisms controlling T reg development and suppressor function remain incompletely understood. Herein, we provide evidence that Kruppel-like factor 10 (KLF10/TIEG1) constitutes an important regulator of T regulatory cell suppressor function and CD4(+)CD25(-) T cell activation through distinct mechanisms involving transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and Foxp3. KLF10 overexpressing CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells induced both TGF-beta1 and Foxp3 expression, an effect associated with reduced T-Bet (Th1 marker) and Gata3 (Th2 marker) mRNA expression. Consistently, KLF10(-/-) CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells have enhanced differentiation along both Th1 and Th2 pathways and elaborate higher levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Furthermore, KLF10(-/-) CD4(+)CD25(-) T cell effectors cannot be appropriately suppressed by wild-type T regs. Surprisingly, KLF10(-/-) T reg cells have reduced suppressor function, independent of Foxp3 expression, with decreased expression and elaboration of TGF-beta1, an effect completely rescued by exogenous treatment with TGF-beta1. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that in response to TGF-beta1, KLF10 can transactivate both TGF-beta1 and Foxp3 promoters, implicating KLF10 in a positive feedback loop that may promote cell-intrinsic control of T cell activation. Finally, KLF10(-/-) CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells promoted atherosclerosis by approximately 2-fold in ApoE(-/-)/scid/scid mice with increased leukocyte accumulation and peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, KLF10 is a critical regulator in the transcriptional network controlling TGF-beta1 in both CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells and T regs and plays an important role in regulating atherosclerotic lesion formation in mice.
Project description:There are few treatments for patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) or recurrent implantation failure (RIF). Women with RPL and unexplained infertility have lower T regulatory cell (T<sub>reg</sub>) expression when compared to fertile controls. A murine model has been developed with depletion of regulatory T cells (DEREG) after administration of diphtheria toxin (DT), resulting in smaller litter sizes, secondary to embryo implantation failure. Numerous murine studies have shown that adoptive transfer of CD4<sup>+</sup>CD25<sup>+</sup>FoxP3<sup>+</sup> T<sub>regs</sub> from donors improves litter sizes in DEREG mice with depleted T<sub>regs</sub>. Our hypothesis is that DEREG mice treated with a single dose of DT will deplete T<sub>regs</sub> and subsequently decrease litter sizes and that treatment with rapamycin (sirolimus; Pfizer) during the time of embryo implantation will increase T<sub>regs</sub> and restore litter sizes nearly back to normal levels. Syngeneic mating of DEREG mice after depletion of T<sub>regs</sub> resulted in smaller litter sizes and this defect was reversed when these DEREG mice were treated with rapamycin at the time of embryo implantation. The importance of T<sub>regs</sub> at the time of embryo implantation has been well established and immunotherapy treatments, such as rapamycin (mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor), may prove to be an effective treatment for patients with RPL, RIF, or unexplained infertility with low T<sub>reg</sub>.
Project description:Adoptive transfer in animal models clearly indicate an essential role of CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T (T(reg)) cells in prevention and treatment of autoimmune and graft-versus-host disease. Thus, T(reg) cell therapies and development of drugs that specifically enhance T(reg) cell function and development represent promising tools to establish dominant tolerance. So far, lack of specific markers to differentiate human T(reg) cells from activated CD4+ CD25+ effector T cells, which also express FOXP3 at different levels, hampered such an approach. Recent identification of the orphan receptor glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant (GARP or LRRC32) as T(reg) cell-specific key molecule that dominantly controls FOXP3 via a positive feedback loop opens up new perspectives for molecular and cellular therapies. This brief review focuses on the role of GARP as a safeguard of a complex regulatory network of human T(reg) cells and its implications for regulatory T cell therapies in autoimmunity and graft-versus-host disease.
Project description:Eggs of the helminth Schistosoma mansoni accumulate in the colon following infection and generate Th2-biassed inflammatory granulomas which become down- modulated in size as the infection proceeds to chronicity. However, although CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (T(regs)) are known to suppress Th1-mediated colitis, it is not clear whether they control Th2-associated pathologies of the large intestine which characterise several helminth infections. Here we used a novel 3D-multiphoton confocal microscopy approach to visualise and quantify changes in the size and composition of colonic granulomas at the acute and chronic phases of S. mansoni infection. We observed decreased granuloma size, as well as reductions in the abundance of DsRed+ T cells and collagen deposition at 14 weeks (chronic) compared to 8 weeks (acute) post-infection. Th2 cytokine production (i.e. IL-4, IL-5) in the colonic tissue and draining mesenteric lymph node (mLN) decreased during the chronic phase of infection, whilst levels of TGF-?1 increased, co-incident with reduced mLN proliferative responses, granuloma size and fibrosis. The proportion of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+T(regs): CD4+ cells in the mLN increased during chronic disease, while within colonic granulomas there was an approximate 4-fold increase. The proportion of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+T(regs) in the mLN that were CD103+ and CCR5+ also increased indicating an enhanced potential to home to intestinal sites. CD4+CD25+ cells suppressed antigen-specific Th2 mLN cell proliferation in vitro, while their removal during chronic disease resulted in significantly larger granulomas, partial reversal of Th2 hypo-responsiveness and an increase in the number of eosinophils in colonic granulomas. Finally, transfer of schistosome infection-expanded CD4+CD25+T(regs) down-modulated the development of colonic granulomas, including collagen deposition. Therefore, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+T(regs) appear to control Th2 colonic granulomas during chronic infection, and are likely to play a role in containing pathology during intestinal schistosomiasis.
Project description:Engagement of the T cell receptor for antigen (TCR) induces formation of signaling complexes mediated through the transmembrane adaptor protein, the linker for activation of T cells (LAT). LAT plays an important role in T cell development, activation, and homeostasis. A knock-in mutation at Tyr136, which is the phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma1-binding site in LAT, leads to a severe autoimmune disease in mice. In this study, we show that CD4+CD25+ T reg cells that expressed Foxp3 transcription factor were nearly absent in both thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs of LAT(Y136F) mice. This defect was not a result of the autoimmune environment as LAT(Y136F) T reg cells also failed to develop in healthy LAT-/- mice that received mixed wild-type and LAT(Y136F) bone marrow cells. Moreover, adoptive transfer of normal CD4+CD25+ T reg cells protected neonatal LAT(Y136F) mice from developing this disease. These T reg cells effectively controlled expansion of CD4+ T cells in LAT(Y136F) mice likely via granzymes and/or TGF-beta-mediated suppression. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Foxp3 conferred a suppressive function in LAT(Y136F) T cells. Our data indicate that the LAT-PLC-gamma1 interaction plays a critical role in Foxp3 expression and the development of CD4+CD25+ T reg cells.