The crystal structures of substrate and nucleotide complexes of Enterococcus faecium aminoglycoside-2''-phosphotransferase-IIa [APH(2'')-IIa] provide insights into substrate selectivity in the APH(2'') subfamily.
ABSTRACT: Aminoglycoside-2''-phosphotransferase-IIa [APH(2'')-IIa] is one of a number of homologous bacterial enzymes responsible for the deactivation of the aminoglycoside family of antibiotics and is thus a major component in bacterial resistance to these compounds. APH(2'')-IIa produces resistance to several clinically important aminoglycosides (including kanamycin and gentamicin) in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, most notably in Enterococcus species. We have determined the structures of two complexes of APH(2'')-IIa, the binary gentamicin complex and a ternary complex containing adenosine-5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)triphosphate (AMPPCP) and streptomycin. This is the first crystal structure of a member of the APH(2'') family of aminoglycoside phosphotransferases. The structure of the gentamicin-APH(2'')-IIa complex was solved by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction methods from a single selenomethionine-substituted crystal and was refined to a crystallographic R factor of 0.210 (R(free), 0.271) at a resolution of 2.5 A. The structure of the AMPPCP-streptomycin complex was solved by molecular replacement using the gentamicin-APH(2'')-IIa complex as the starting model. The enzyme has a two-domain structure with the substrate binding site located in a cleft in the C-terminal domain. Gentamicin binding is facilitated by a number of conserved acidic residues lining the binding cleft, with the A and B rings of the substrate forming the majority of the interactions. The inhibitor streptomycin, although binding in the same pocket as gentamicin, is orientated such that no potential phosphorylation sites are adjacent to the catalytic aspartate residue. The binding of gentamicin and streptomycin provides structural insights into the substrate selectivity of the APH(2'') subfamily of aminoglycoside phosphotransferases, specifically, the selectivity between the 4,6-disubstituted and the 4,5-disubstituted aminoglycosides.
Project description:Enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by nucleotidyltransferases, acetyltransferases and/or phosphotransferases accounts for the majority of aminoglycoside-resistant Acinetobacter isolates. In this study, we investigated the relationship between aminoglycoside resistance and the presence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolate groups with different resistance profiles. Thirty-two clinical A. baumannii isolates were included in this study. Acinetobacter isolates were divided into 4 groups according to results of susceptibility testing. The presence of genes encoding the following aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes; aph (3')-V1, aph (3')-Ia, aac (3)-Ia, aac (3) IIa, aac (6')-Ih, aac (6')-Ib and ant (2')-Ia responsible for resistance was investigated by PCR in all strains. The acetyltransferase (aac (6')-Ib, aac (3)-Ia) and phosphotransferase (aph (3')-Ia) gene regions were identified in the first group, which comprised nine imipenem, meropenem, and gentamicin-resistant isolates. The acetyltransferase (aac (6')-Ib, aac (3)-Ia), phosphotransferase (aph (3')-VI) and nucleotidyltransferase (ant2-Ia) gene regions were identified in the second group, which was composed of nine imipenem-resistant, meropenem-resistant and gentamicin-sensitive isolates. The acetyltransferase (aac (3)-Ia) and phosphotransferase (aph (3')-Ia) regions were identified in the fourth group, which comprised eight imipenem-sensitive, meropenem-sensitive and gentamicin-resistant isolates. Modifying enzyme gene regions were not detected in the third group, which was composed of six imipenem, meropenem and gentamicin-sensitive isolates. Our data are consistent with previous reports, with the exception of four isolates. Both acetyltransferases and phosphotransferases were widespread in A. baumannii clinical isolates in our study. However, the presence of the enzyme alone is insufficient to explain the resistance rates. Therefore, the association between the development of resistance and the presence of the enzyme and other components should be investigated further.
Project description:The deactivation of aminoglycoside antibiotics by chemical modification is one of the major sources of bacterial resistance to this family of therapeutic compounds, which includes the clinically relevant drugs streptomycin, kanamycin and gentamicin. The aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs) form one such family of enzymes responsible for this resistance. The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2''-phosphotransferase-IVa [APH(2'')-IVa] from Enterococcus casseliflavus, has been cloned and the protein (comprising 306 amino-acid residues) has been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The enzyme was crystallized in three substrate-free forms. Two of the crystal forms belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with similar unit-cell parameters, although one of the crystal forms had a unit-cell volume that was approximately 13% smaller than the other and a very low solvent content of around 38%. The third crystal form belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1) and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis was consistent with the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The orthorhombic crystal forms of apo APH(2'')-IVa both diffracted to 2.2 A resolution and the monoclinic crystal form diffracted to 2.4 A resolution; synchrotron diffraction data were collected from these crystals at SSRL (Stanford, California, USA). Structure determination by molecular replacement using the structure of the related enzyme APH(2'')-IIa is proceeding.
Project description:The bifunctional acetyltransferase(6')-Ie-phosphotransferase(2'')-Ia [AAC(6')-Ie-APH(2'')-Ia] is the most important aminoglycoside-resistance enzyme in Gram-positive bacteria, conferring resistance to almost all known aminoglycoside antibiotics in clinical use. Owing to its importance, this enzyme has been the focus of intensive research since its isolation in the mid-1980s but, despite much effort, structural details of AAC(6')-Ie-APH(2'')-Ia have remained elusive. The structure of the Mg2GDP complex of the APH(2'')-Ia domain of the bifunctional enzyme has now been determined at 2.3?Å resolution. The structure of APH(2'')-Ia is reminiscent of the structures of other aminoglycoside phosphotransferases, having a two-domain architecture with the nucleotide-binding site located at the junction of the two domains. Unlike the previously characterized APH(2'')-IIa and APH(2'')-IVa enzymes, which are capable of utilizing both ATP and GTP as the phosphate donors, APH(2'')-Ia uses GTP exclusively in the phosphorylation of the aminoglycoside antibiotics, and in this regard closely resembles the GTP-dependent APH(2'')-IIIa enzyme. In APH(2'')-Ia this GTP selectivity is governed by the presence of a `gatekeeper' residue, Tyr100, the side chain of which projects into the active site and effectively blocks access to the adenine-binding template. Mutation of this tyrosine residue to a less bulky phenylalanine provides better access for ATP to the NTP-binding template and converts APH(2'')-Ia into a dual-specificity enzyme.
Project description:Intragenic recombination leading to mosaic gene formation is known to alter resistance profiles for particular genes and bacterial species. Few studies have examined to what extent aminoglycoside resistance genes undergo intragenic recombination. We screened the GenBank database for mosaic gene formation in homologs of the aph(3')-IIa (nptII) gene. APH(3')-IIa inactivates important aminoglycoside antibiotics. The gene is widely used as a selectable marker in biotechnology and enters the environment via laboratory discharges and the release of transgenic organisms. Such releases may provide opportunities for recombination in competent environmental bacteria. The retrieved GenBank sequences were grouped in three datasets comprising river water samples, duck pathogens and full-length variants from various bacterial genomes and plasmids. Analysis for recombination in these datasets was performed with the Recombination Detection Program (RDP4), and the Genetic Algorithm for Recombination Detection (GARD). From a total of 89 homologous sequences, 83% showed 99-100% sequence identity with aph(3')-IIa originally described as part of transposon Tn5. Fifty one were unique sequence variants eligible for recombination analysis. Only a single recombination event was identified with high confidence and indicated the involvement of aph(3')-IIa in the formation of a mosaic gene located on a plasmid of environmental origin in the multi-resistant isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA96. The available data suggest that aph(3')-IIa is not an archetypical mosaic gene as the divergence between the described sequence variants and the number of detectable recombination events is low. This is in contrast to the numerous mosaic alleles reported for certain penicillin or tetracycline resistance determinants.
Project description:Corynebacterium striatum is an opportunistic pathogen, often multidrug-resistant, which has been associated with serious infections in humans. Aminoglycosides are second-line or complementary antibiotics used for the treatment of Corynebacterium infections. We investigated the susceptibility to six aminoglycosides and the molecular mechanisms involved in aminoglycoside resistance in a collection of 64 Corynebacterium striatum isolated in our laboratory during the period 2005-2009. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using E-test. The mechanisms of aminoglycoside resistance were investigated by PCR and sequencing. The 64 C. striatum were assessed for the possibility of clonal spreading by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Netilmicin and amikacin were active against the 64 C. striatum isolates (MICs90 = 0.38 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively). Twenty-seven of the 64 C. striatum strains showed a MIC90 for kanamycin > 256 mg/L, and 26 out the 27 were positive for the aph(3')-Ic gene. Thirty-six out of our 64 C. striatum were streptomycin resistant, and 23 out of the 36 carried both the aph(3")-Ib and aph(6)-Id genes. The gene aac(3)-XI encoding a new aminoglycoside 3-N acetyl transferase from C. striatum was present in 44 out of the 64 isolates, all of them showing MICs of gentamicin and tobramycin > 1 mg/L. CS4933, a C. striatum showing very low susceptibility to kanamycin and streptomycin, contains an aminoglycoside resistance region that includes the aph(3')-Ic gene, and the tandem of genes aph(3")-Ib and aph(6)-Id. Forty-six major PFGE types were identified among the 64 C. striatum isolates, indicating that they were mainly not clonal. Our results showed that the 64 clinical C. striatum were highly resistant to aminoglycosides and mostly unrelated.
Project description:The APH(2?)-Ia aminoglycoside resistance enzyme forms the C-terminal domain of the bifunctional AAC(6')-Ie/APH(2?)-Ia enzyme and confers high-level resistance to natural 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycosides. In addition, reports have suggested that the enzyme can phosphorylate 4,5-disubstituted compounds and aminoglycosides with substitutions at the N1 position. Previously determined structures of the enzyme with bound aminoglycosides have not indicated how these noncanonical substrates may bind and be modified by the enzyme. We carried out crystallographic studies to directly observe the interactions of these compounds with the aminoglycoside binding site and to probe the means by which these noncanonical substrates interact with the enzyme. We find that APH(2?)-Ia maintains a preferred mode of binding aminoglycosides by using the conserved neamine rings when possible, with flexibility that allows it to accommodate additional rings. However, if this binding mode is made impossible because of additional substitutions to the standard 4,5- or 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycoside architecture, as in lividomycin A or the N1-substituted aminoglycosides, it is still possible for these aminoglycosides to bind to the antibiotic binding site by using alternate binding modes, which explains the low rates of noncanonical phosphorylation activities seen in enzyme assays. Furthermore, structural studies of a clinically observed arbekacin-resistant mutant of APH(2?)-Ia revealed an altered aminoglycoside binding site that can stabilize an alternative binding mode for N1-substituted aminoglycosides. This mutation may alter and expand the aminoglycoside resistance spectrum of the wild-type enzyme in response to newly developed aminoglycosides.
Project description:A gene capable of conferring spectinomycin resistance was isolated from Legionella pneumophila, the agent of Legionnaires' disease. The gene (aph) encoded a 36-kDa protein which has similarity to aminoglycoside phosphotransferases. Biochemical analysis confirmed that aph encodes a phosphotransferase which modifies spectinomycin but not hygromycin, kanamycin, or streptomycin. The strain that was the source of aph demonstrated resistance to spectinomycin, and Southern hybridizations determined that aph also exists in other legionellae.
Project description:Enterococcus casseliflavus UC73 is a clinical blood isolate with high-level resistance to gentamicin. DNA preparations from UC73 failed to hybridize with intragenic probes for aac(6')-Ie-aph(2'')-Ia and aph(2'')-Ic. A 4-kb fragment from UC73 was cloned and found to confer resistance to gentamicin in Escherichia coli DH5alpha transformants. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of a 906-bp open reading frame whose deduced amino acid sequence had a region with homology to the aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme APH(2'')-Ic and to the C-terminal domain of the bifunctional enzyme AAC(6')-APH(2''). The gene is designated aph(2'')-Id, and its observed phosphotransferase activity is designated APH(2'')-Id. A PCR-generated intragenic probe hybridized to the genomic DNA from 17 of 118 enterococcal clinical isolates (108 with high-level gentamicin resistance) from five hospitals. All 17 were vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates, and pulsed-field typing revealed three distinct clones. The combination of ampicillin plus either amikacin or neomycin exhibited synergistic killing against E. casseliflavus UC73. Screening and interpretation of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococci may need to be modified to include detection of APH(2'')-Id.
Project description:A new high-level gentamicin resistance gene, designated aph(2")-Ib, was cloned from Enterococcus faecium SF11770. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 897-bp open reading frame of aph(2")-Ib shares homology with the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes AAC(6')-APH(2"), APH(2")-Ic, and APH(2")-Id. The observed phosphotransferase activity is designated APH(2")-Ib.
Project description:Bacterial resistance towards aminoglycoside antibiotics mainly occurs because of aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). It is thus necessary to provide a rationale for focusing inhibitor development against APHs. The nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) binding site of eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) is structurally conserved with APHs. However, ePK inhibitors cannot be used against APHs due to cross reactivity. Thus, understanding bacterial resistance at the atomic level could be useful to design new inhibitors against such resistant pathogens. Hence, we carried out in vitro studies of APH from newly deposited multidrug-resistant organism Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strain RK. Enzymatic modification studies of different aminoglycoside antibiotics along with purification and characterization revealed a novel class of APH, i.e., APH(5), with molecular weight 27 kDa approximately. Biochemical analysis of virtually screened inhibitor ZINC71575479 by coupled spectrophotometric assay showed complete enzymatic inhibition of purified APH(5). In silico toxicity study comparison of ZINC71575479 with known inhibitor of APH, i.e., tyrphostin AG1478, predicted its acceptable values for 96 h fathead minnow LC50, 48 h Tetrahymena pyriformis IGC50, oral rat LD50, and developmental toxicity using different QSAR methodologies. Thus, the present study gives novel insight into the aminoglycoside resistance and inhibition mechanism of APH(5) by applying experimental and computational techniques synergistically.