Targeting 160 candidate genes for blood pressure regulation with a genome-wide genotyping array.
ABSTRACT: The outcome of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) has challenged the field of blood pressure (BP) genetics as previous candidate genes have not been among the top loci in these scans. We used Affymetrix 500K genotyping data of KORA S3 cohort (n = 1,644; Southern-Germany) to address (i) SNP coverage in 160 BP candidate genes; (ii) the evidence for associations with BP traits in genome-wide and replication data, and haplotype analysis. In total, 160 gene regions (genic region+/-10 kb) covered 2,411 SNPs across 11.4 Mb. Marker densities in genes varied from 0 (n = 11) to 0.6 SNPs/kb. On average 52.5% of the HAPMAP SNPs per gene were captured. No evidence for association with BP was obtained for 1,449 tested SNPs. Considerable associations (P<10(-3)) were detected for the genes, where >50% of HAPMAP SNPs were tagged. In general, genes with higher marker density (>0.2 SNPs/kb) revealed a better chance to reach close to significance associations. Although, none of the detected P-values remained significant after Bonferroni correction (P<0.05/2319, P<2.15 x 10(-5)), the strength of some detected associations was close to this level: rs10889553 (LEPR) and systolic BP (SBP) (P = 4.5 x 10(-5)) as well as rs10954174 (LEP) and diastolic BP (DBP) (P = 5.20 x 10(-5)). In total, 12 markers in 7 genes (ADRA2A, LEP, LEPR, PTGER3, SLC2A1, SLC4A2, SLC8A1) revealed considerable association (P<10(-3)) either with SBP, DBP, and/or hypertension (HYP). None of these were confirmed in replication samples (KORA S4, HYPEST, BRIGHT). However, supportive evidence for the association of rs10889553 (LEPR) and rs11195419 (ADRA2A) with BP was obtained in meta-analysis across samples stratified either by body mass index, smoking or alcohol consumption. Haplotype analysis highlighted LEPR and PTGER3. In conclusion, the lack of associations in BP candidate genes may be attributed to inadequate marker coverage on the genome-wide arrays, small phenotypic effects of the loci and/or complex interaction with life-style and metabolic parameters.
Project description:Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes coding for leptin (LEP) and its receptor (LEPR) might regulate energy balance and be implicated in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present investigation, 1,003 CRC cases and 1,303 matched controls was compared. Five functional SNPs in LEP and LEPR genes were chosen to evaluate the correlation of these chosen SNPs with CRC susceptibility. We used the SNPscanTM genotyping assay to genotype LEP and LEPR SNPs. A significantly decreased risk of CRC was found to be associated with the LEPR rs6588147 polymorphism (GA vs. GG: crude P=0.007 and GA/AA vs. GG: crude P=0.018). With adjustments for risk factors (e.g. age, gender, drinking, BMI and smoking), these associations were not changed. In subgroup analyses, the association of LEP rs2167270 with a decreased risk of CRC was found in the ?61 years old subgroup. For LEPR rs1137100, the association of this SNP with an increased susceptibility of CRC was found in the BMI <24 kg/m2 subgroup. In subgroup analyses for LEPR rs6588147, we identified that this locus also decreased the susceptibility of CRC in the male subgroup, <61 years old subgroup, never smoking subgroup and never drinking subgroup. For LEPR rs1137101, the relationship of this polymorphism with a decreased susceptibility to CRC was found in the never drinking subgroup. In summary, the present study highlights that LEPR rs6588147, rs1137101 and LEP rs2167270 may decrease the risk of CRC. However, LEPR rs1137100 is associated with susceptibility to CRC. Further case-control studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to validate our findings.
Project description:Body mass is inversely related to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. Leptin, an essential cytokine regulating food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, and fat metabolism may be part of the mechanistic pathway. We investigated 50 tagging and candidate SNPs in the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes for associations with premenopausal breast cancer incidence using 405 cases and 810 controls nested within the Nurses' Health Study II. We also examined associations between these SNPs and circulating leptin (among 910 women) and breast cancer grade (among 267 patients). Permutation tests were performed to adjust for multiple testing. We did not detect a significant association between SNPs in the LEP or LEPR gene and either breast cancer incidence or plasma leptin levels. Among cases, 14 SNPs of the LEPR gene were significantly associated with cancer grade, and rs1137101 (Q223R) survived multiple testing adjustment (adjusted P = 0.04). The G carriers of rs1137101 were more likely to have poorly differentiated than well-differentiated cancers. Our data suggest that common genetic variation in the LEP or LEPR gene has no strong association with premenopausal breast cancer risk. The LEPR gene might be associated with breast cancer grade.
Project description:Appetite regulatory neural network and adipocyte homeostasis molecular pathways are critical to long-term weight maintenance. Associations between obesity-related phenotypes and four genes in these pathways - leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2R) and peptide YY (PYY) were examined in CARDIA Study participants (aged 18-30 at recruitment in 1985-6). Weight, BMI and waist circumference were measured at baseline and at years 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20. Genotyping was conducted using tag SNPs characterising common genetic variations in these genes. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models estimated associations between SNPs and repeated anthropometric measurements, controlling for sex and age. False discovery rate was used to adjust for multiple testing. In African-Americans, SNPs across the LEP gene demonstrated significant overall associations with all obesity-related phenotypes. The associations between LEP rs17151919 with weight tended to strengthen with time - the difference in weight associated with each additional minor allele increased from 2.6 kg at baseline to 4.8 kg at year 20 (SNP*time interaction p = 0.0193). NPY2R gene SNPs were associated with waist circumference among African-American men (p = 0.0462). In Caucasians, LEP SNPs also tended to be associated with weight (p = 0.0471), and PYY rs11684664 was associated with obesity-related phenotypes in women only (p = 0.010-0.026). Several LEP, and NPY2R and PYY SNPs were associated with obesity-related phenotypes in young adults, particularly among African-Americans.
Project description:Adipocytokines are produced by visceral fat, and levels may be associated with breast cancer risk. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adipocytokine genes adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP), and the leptin receptor (LEPR) were associated with basal-like or luminal A breast cancer subtypes. 104 candidate and tag SNPs were genotyped in 1776 of 2022 controls and 1972 (200 basal-like, 679 luminal A) of 2311 cases from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS), a population-based case-control study of whites and African Americans. Breast cancer molecular subtypes were determined by immunohistochemistry. Genotype odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Haplotype ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using Hapstat. Interactions with waist-hip ratio were evaluated using a multiplicative interaction term. Ancestry was estimated from 144 ancestry informative markers (AIMs), and included in models to control for population stratification. Candidate SNPs LEPR K109R (rs1137100) and LEPR Q223R (rs1137101) were positively associated with luminal A breast cancer, whereas ADIPOQ +45 T/G (rs2241766), ADIPOQ +276 G/T (rs1501299), and LEPR K656N (rs8129183) were not associated with either subtype. Few patterns were observed among tag SNPs, with the exception of 3 LEPR SNPs (rs17412175, rs9436746, and rs9436748) that were in moderate LD and inversely associated with basal-like breast cancer. However, no SNP associations were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Haplotypes in LEP and LEPR were associated with both basal-like and luminal A subtypes. There was no evidence of interaction with waist-hip ratio. Data suggest associations between LEPR candidate SNPs and luminal A breast cancer in the CBCS and LEPR intron 2 tag SNPs and basal-like breast cancer. Replication in additional studies where breast cancer subtypes have been defined is necessary to confirm these potential associations.
Project description:We investigated the influence of Leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) SNPs on habitual physical activity (PA) and body composition response to a unilateral, upper body resistance training (RT) program.European-derived American volunteers (men=111, women=131, 23.4 ± 5.4 yr, 24.4 ± 4.6 kg·m(-2)) were genotyped for LEP 19 G>A (rs2167270), and LEPR 326 A>G (rs1137100), 668 A>G (rs1137101), 3057 G>A (rs1805096), and 1968 G>C (rs8179183). They completed the Paffenbarger PA Questionnaire. Arm muscle and subcutaneous fat volumes were measured before and after 12 wk of supervised RT with MRI. Multivariate and repeated measures ANCOVA tested differences among phenotypes by genotype and gender with age and body mass index as covariates.Adults with the LEP 19 GG genotype reported more kcal/wk in vigorous intensity PA (1273.3 ± 176.8, p=0.017) and sports/recreation (1922.8 ± 226.0, p<0.04) than A allele carriers (718.0 ± 147.2, 1328.6 ± 188.2, respectively). Those with the LEP 19 GG genotype spent more h/wk in light intensity PA (39.7 ± 1.6) than A allele carriers (35.0 ± 1.4, p=0.03). In response to RT, adults with the LEPR 668 G allele gained greater arm muscle volume (67,687.05 ± 3186.7 vs. 52,321.87 ± 5125.05 mm(3), p=0.01) and subcutaneous fat volume (10,599.89 ± 3683.57 vs. -5224.73 ± 5923.98 mm(3), p=0.02) than adults with the LEPR 668 AA genotype, respectively.LEP19 G>A and LEPR 668 A>G associated with habitual PA and the body composition response to RT. These LEP and LEPR SNPs are located in coding exons likely influencing LEP and LEPR function. Further investigation is needed to confirm our findings and establish mechanisms for LEP and LEPR genotype and PA and body composition associations we observed.
Project description:Objective. To identify the frequency of obesity and metabolic complications in child and adolescent users of risperidone. Potential associations with clinical parameters and SNPs of the HTR2C, DRD2, LEP, LEPR, MC4R, and CYP2D6 genes were analyzed. Methods. Samples from 120 risperidone users (8-20 years old) were collected and SNPs were analyzed, alongside assessment of chronological and bone ages, prescribed and weight-adjusted doses, use of other psychotropic drugs, waist circumference, BMI z-scores, blood pressure, HOMA-IR index, fasting levels of serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, transaminases, and leptin. Results. Thirty-two (26.7%) patients were overweight and 5 (4.2%) obese. Hypertension was recorded in 8 patients (6.7%), metabolic syndrome in 6 (5%), and increased waist circumference in 20 (16.7%). The HOMA-IR was high for 22 patients (18.3%), while total cholesterol and triglycerides were high in 20 (16.7%) and 41 (34.2%) patients, respectively. SNP associations were found for LEP, HTR2C, and CYP2D6 with BMI; CYP2D6 with blood pressure, ALT, and HOMA-IR; HTR2C and LEPR with leptin levels; MC4R and DRD2 with HOMA-IR; HTR2C with WC; and LEP with ALT. Conclusions. Although not higher than in the general pediatric population, a high frequency of patients was overweight/obese, with abnormalities in metabolic parameters and some pharmacogenetic associations.
Project description:Obesity is associated with circulating levels of adiponectin and leptin and endometrial cancer risk. Little is known about whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes that encode adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP), adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1), adiponectin receptor 2 (ADIPOR2), and leptin receptor (LEPR) are associated with endometrial cancer.The authors selected 87 tagging SNPs to capture common genetic variants in these 5 genes. These SNPs were evaluated in 1028 endometrial cancer cases and 1932 community controls recruited from Chinese women. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).Three of the 10 SNPs evaluated in the ADIPOQ gene were significantly associated with reduced cancer risk. The OR for women homozygous for the minor allele (A/A) for rs3774262 was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48-0.97) compared with women homozygous for the major allele (G/G). Similar results were found for SNPs rs1063539 and rs12629945 in ADIPOQ, which were in linkage disequilibrium with rs3774262. These associations became nonsignificant after Bonferroni correction was applied. Controls with the minor allele A at rs3774262 had lower weight, smaller waist and hip circumferences, and lower body mass index than controls with the major allele G (all P < .05). Women homozygous for the minor allele (T/T) of rs2071045 in the LEP gene also had significantly lower risk (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54-0.90) than women homozygous for the major allele (C/C). No other SNPs in the LEP, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2, or LEPR genes were found to be associated with cancer risk.Although a chance finding cannot be ruled out, the consistency of findings for gene-endometrial cancer risk and gene-obesity measurements suggests that genetic polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene may play a role in endometrial cancer development.
Project description:To explore the association of LEP and leptin receptor (LEPR) gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a Chinese population. Four LEP SNPs (rs11761556, rs12706832, rs2071045 and rs2167270) and nine LEPR SNPs (rs10749754, rs1137100, rs1137101, rs13306519, rs8179183, rs1805096, rs3790434, rs3806318 and rs7518632) were genotyped in a cohort of 633 patients with SLE and 559 healthy controls. Genotyping of SNPs was performed with improved multiple ligase detection reaction (iMLDR). No significant differences were detected for the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies of all 13 SNPs between patients with SLE and controls. The genotype effects of recessive, dominant and additive models were also analysed, but no significant evidence for association was detected. However, further analysis in patients with SLE showed that the TT genotype and T allele frequencies of the LEP rs2071045 polymorphism were nominally significantly higher in patients with pericarditis (P = 0.012, P = 0.011, respectively). In LEPR, the GA/AA genotype and A allele frequencies of the rs1137100 polymorphism were both nominally associated with photosensitivity in patients with SLE (P = 0.043, P = 0.018, respectively). Moreover, the genotype and allele distribution of rs3806318 were also nominally associated with photosensitivity in patients with SLE (P = 0.013, P = 0.008, respectively). No significant differences in serum leptin levels were observed in patients with SLE with different genotypes. In summary, LEP and LEPR SNPs are not associated with genetic susceptibility to SLE, but may contribute to some specific clinical phenotype of this disease; further studies are necessary to elucidate the exact role of LEP and LEPR genes in the pathogenesis of SLE.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Leptin (LEP) is a peptide hormone that acts via leptin receptor (LEPR) binding. Genetic evidence from different human populations has implicated LEP/LEPR in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD), and suggests that certain LEP/LEPR gene polymorphisms may increase the risk of CAD. The aim of this study was to assess two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LEP genes (rs2167270 and rs7799039) and two in LEPR genes (rs6588147, rs1137100) for association with CAD. METHODS:We enrolled 271 North Chinese Han CAD patients, and 113 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood, and the four SNPs were assessed using a MassArray system. RESULTS:The G allele frequency at rs2167270 was significantly higher among CAD cases than among controls. The AG genotype at rs7799039 was associated with a significantly decreased risk of CAD unlike the AA genotype used as the reference. The A allele was significantly associated with the CAD patient group. Interestingly, statistically significant differences in genotype and allele frequency at LEP rs2167270 and rs7799039 existed among females but not among males. CONCLUSIONS:The current study detected a significant association between genetic variations at LEP rs7799039 and rs2167270 and the risk of CAD in a north Chinese population, and revealed that LEP rs2167270 and rs7799039 gene polymorphisms might act as predisposing factors for CAD.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Poor physical fitness and obesity are risk factors for all cause morbidity and mortality. We aimed to clarify whether common genetic variants of key energy intake determinants in leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), and fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) are associated with aerobic and neuromuscular performance, and whether aerobic fitness can alter the effect of these genotypes on body composition.<h4>Methods</h4>846 healthy Finnish males of Caucasian origin were genotyped for FTO (rs8050136), LEP (rs7799039) and LEPR (rs8179183 and rs1137101) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and studied for associations with maximal oxygen consumption, body fat percent, serum leptin levels, waist circumference and maximal force of leg extensor muscles.<h4>Results</h4>Genotype AA of the FTO SNP rs8050136 associated with higher BMI and greater waist circumference compared to the genotype CC. In general linear model, no significant interaction for FTO genotype-relative VO(2)max (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) or FTO genotype-absolute VO(2)max (L·min(-1)) on BMI or waist circumference was found. Main effects of aerobic performance on body composition traits were significant (p<0.001). Logistic regression modelling found no significant interaction between aerobic fitness and FTO genotype. LEP SNP rs7799039, LEPR SNPs rs8179183 and rs1137101 did not associate with any of the measured variables, and no significant interactions of LEP or LEPR genotype with aerobic fitness were observed. In addition, none of the studied SNPs associated with aerobic or neuromuscular performance.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Aerobic fitness may not modify the effect of FTO variation on body composition traits. However, relative aerobic capacity associates with lower BMI and waist circumference regardless of the FTO genotype. FTO, LEP and LEPR genotypes unlikely associate with physical performance.