H3 lysine 4 di- and tri-methylation deposited by cryptic transcription attenuates promoter activation.
ABSTRACT: Set1-dependent H3K4 di- and tri-methylation (H3K4me2/3) have been associated with active transcription. Recent data indicate that the H3K4me2/3 also plays a poorly characterized RNA-dependent repressive role. Here, we show that GAL1 promoter is attenuated by the H3K4me2/3 deposited by cryptic transcription. The H3K4me2/3 delay the recruitment of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and TBP on GAL1 promoter. Inactivation of RNA decay components revealed the existence of the RNAPII-dependent unstable RNAs, initiating upstream of GAL1 (GAL1ucut). GAL1ucut RNAs are synthesized in glucose and require the Reb1 transcription factor. Consistent with a regulatory function of the cryptic transcription, Reb1 depletion leads to a decrease of H3K4me3 on GAL10-GAL1 locus in glucose and to an acceleration of GAL1 induction. A candidate approach shows that the RPD3 histone deacetylase attenuates GAL1 induction and is tethered at the GAL10-GAL1 locus by H3K4me2/3 upon repression. Strikingly, Set1-dependent Rpd3 recruitment represses also the usage of a hidden promoter within SUC2, suggesting a general function for H3K4me2/3 in promoter fidelity. Our data support a model wherein certain promoters are embedded in a repressive chromatin controlled by cryptic transcription.
Project description:Despite advances made in understanding the effects of promoter structure on transcriptional activity, limited knowledge exists regarding the role played by chromatin architecture in transcription. Previous work hypothesized that transcription from the bidirectional GAL1/GAL10 promoter is controlled through looping of its UAS region around a nonstandard nucleosome. Here, by editing the GAL1/GAL10 promoter at high resolution, we provide insights into bidirectional expression control. We demonstrate that the first and fourth Gal4 binding sites within the UAS do not functionally contribute to promoter activation. Instead, these sites, along with nearby regulatory regions, contribute to the directional regulation of gene expression. Furthermore, Gal4 binding to the third binding site is critical for gene expression, while binding to the other three sites is not sufficient for transcriptional activation. Because the GAL1/GAL10 UAS can activate gene expression in many eukaryotes, the regulatory mechanism presented is expected to operate broadly across the eukaryotic clade.
Project description:In yeast and humans, previous experiences can lead to epigenetic transcriptional memory: repressed genes that exhibit mitotically heritable changes in chromatin structure and promoter recruitment of poised RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex (RNAPII PIC), which enhances future reactivation. Here, we show that INO1 memory in yeast is initiated by binding of the Sfl1 transcription factor to the cis-acting Memory Recruitment Sequence, targeting INO1 to the nuclear periphery. Memory requires a remodeled form of the Set1/COMPASS methyltransferase lacking Spp1, which dimethylates histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2). H3K4me2 recruits the SET3C complex, which plays an essential role in maintaining this mark. Finally, while active INO1 is associated with Cdk8(-) Mediator, during memory, Cdk8(+) Mediator recruits poised RNAPII PIC lacking the Kin28 CTD kinase. Aspects of this mechanism are generalizable to yeast and conserved in human cells. Thus, COMPASS and Mediator are repurposed to promote epigenetic transcriptional poising by a highly conserved mechanism.
Project description:Various factors differentially recognize trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) near promoters, H3K4me2 just downstream, and promoter-distal H3K4me1 to modulate gene expression. This methylation "gradient" is thought to result from preferential binding of the H3K4 methyltransferase Set1/complex associated with Set1 (COMPASS) to promoter-proximal RNA polymerase II. However, other studies have suggested that location-specific cues allosterically activate Set1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments show that H3K4 methylation patterns on active genes are not universal or fixed and change in response to both transcription elongation rate and frequency as well as reduced COMPASS activity. Fusing Set1 to RNA polymerase II results in H3K4me2 throughout transcribed regions and similarly extended H3K4me3 on highly transcribed genes. Tethered Set1 still requires histone H2B ubiquitylation for activity. These results show that higher-level methylations reflect not only Set1/COMPASS recruitment but also multiple rounds of transcription. This model provides a simple explanation for non-canonical methylation patterns at some loci or in certain COMPASS mutants.
Project description:Eukaryotic transcription is pervasive, and many of the resulting RNAs are non-coding. It is unknown whether ubiquitous transcription is functional or simply reflects stochastic transcriptional noise. By single-molecule visualization of the dynamic interplay between coding and non-coding transcription at the GAL locus in living yeast cells, we show that antisense GAL10 ncRNA transcription can switch between functional and spurious under different conditions. During galactose induction, GAL10 sense transcription occurs in short stochastic bursts, which are unaffected by transcription of antisense GAL10 ncRNA, even when both are present simultaneously at the same locus. In contrast, when GAL10 is not induced, ncRNA transcription is critical to prevent transcriptional leakage of GAL1 and GAL10. Suppression of ncRNA transcription by strand-specific CRISPR/dCas9 results in transcriptional leakage of the inducer GAL1, leading to a more sensitive transcription activation threshold, an alteration of metabolic switching, and a fitness defect in competition experiments.
Project description:Previously expressed inducible genes can remain poised for faster reactivation for multiple cell divisions, a conserved phenomenon called epigenetic transcriptional memory. The <i>GAL</i> genes in <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i> show faster reactivation for up to seven generations after being repressed. During memory, previously produced Gal1 protein enhances the rate of reactivation of <i>GAL1</i>, <i>GAL10</i>, <i>GAL2</i>, and <i>GAL7</i> These genes also interact with the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and localize to the nuclear periphery both when active and during memory. Peripheral localization of <i>GAL1</i> during memory requires the Gal1 protein, a memory-specific <i>cis</i>-acting element in the promoter, and the NPC protein Nup100 However, unlike other examples of transcriptional memory, the interaction with NPC is not required for faster <i>GAL</i> gene reactivation. Rather, downstream of Gal1, the Tup1 transcription factor and growth in glucose promote <i>GAL</i> transcriptional memory. Cells only show signs of memory and only benefit from memory when growing in glucose. Tup1 promotes memory-specific chromatin changes at the <i>GAL1</i> promoter: incorporation of histone variant H2A.Z and dimethylation of histone H3, lysine 4. Tup1 and H2A.Z function downstream of Gal1 to promote binding of a preinitiation form of RNA Polymerase II at the <i>GAL1</i> promoter, poising the gene for faster reactivation. This mechanism allows cells to integrate a previous experience (growth in galactose, reflected by Gal1 levels) with current conditions (growth in glucose, potentially through Tup1 function) to overcome repression and to poise critical <i>GAL</i> genes for future reactivation.
Project description:Previous work links histone methylation by Set2 with transcriptional elongation. yFACT (Spt16-Pob3 and Nhp6) reorganizes nucleosomes and functions in both transcriptional initiation and elongation. We show that growth defects caused by spt16 or pob3 mutations can be suppressed by deleting SET2, suggesting that Set2 and yFACT have opposing roles. Set2 methylates K36 of histone H3, and K36 substitutions also suppress yFACT mutations. In contrast, set1 enhances yFACT mutations. Methylation at H3 K4 by Set1 is required for set2 to suppress yFACT defects. We did not detect an elongation defect at an 8 kb ORF in yFACT mutants. Instead, pob3 mutants displayed reduced binding of both pol II and TBP to the GAL1 promoter. Importantly, both GAL1 transcription and promoter binding of pol II and TBP are significantly restored in the pob3 set2 double mutant. Defects caused by an spt16 mutation are enhanced by either TBP or TFIIA mutants. These synthetic defects are suppressed by set2, demonstrating that yFACT and Set2 oppose one another during transcriptional initiation at a step involving DNA binding by TBP and TFIIA.
Project description:On activation, the GAL genes in yeast are targeted to the nuclear periphery through interaction with the nuclear pore complex. Here we identify two cis-acting "DNA zip codes" from the GAL1-10 promoter that are necessary and sufficient to induce repositioning to the nuclear periphery. One of these zip codes, GRS4, is also necessary and sufficient to promote clustering of GAL1-10 alleles. GRS4, and to a lesser extent GRS5, contribute to stronger expression of GAL1 and GAL10 by increasing the fraction of cells that respond to the inducer. The molecular mechanism controlling targeting to the NPC is distinct from the molecular mechanism controlling interchromosomal clustering. Targeting to the nuclear periphery and interaction with the nuclear pore complex are prerequisites for gene clustering. However, once formed, clustering can be maintained in the nucleoplasm, requires distinct nuclear pore proteins, and is regulated differently through the cell cycle. In addition, whereas targeting of genes to the NPC is independent of transcription, interchromosomal clustering requires transcription. These results argue that zip code-dependent gene positioning at the nuclear periphery and interchromosomal clustering represent interdependent phenomena with distinct molecular mechanisms.
Project description:Cotranscriptional histone methylations by Set1 and Set2 have been shown to affect histone acetylation at promoters and 3' regions of genes, respectively. While histone H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) is thought to promote nucleosome acetylation and remodeling near promoters, we show here that H3K4 dimethylation (H3K4me2) by Set1 leads to reduced histone acetylation levels near 5' ends of genes. H3K4me2 recruits the Set3 complex via the Set3 PHD finger, localizing the Hos2 and Hst1 subunits to deacetylate histones in 5' transcribed regions. Cells lacking the Set1-Set3 complex pathway are sensitive to mycophenolic acid and have reduced polymerase levels at a Set3 target gene, suggesting a positive role in transcription. We propose that Set1 establishes two distinct chromatin zones on genes: H3K4me3 leads to high levels of acetylation and low nucleosome density at promoters, while H3K4me2 just downstream recruits the Set3 complex to suppress nucleosome acetylation and remodeling.
Project description:The GAL1-10 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are regulated by the interaction of cis- and trans-acting factors which facilitate activated transcription in galactose but not in glucose medium. By selecting mutations that allow expression of a defective gal1-10-his3 hybrid promoter, we have identified a novel gene, NGG1, which is required for glucose repression of the GAL10-related his3-G25 promoter. ngg1 was identified as a recessive null mutation that in the presence of a gal80 background resulted in a 300-fold relief of glucose repression for the his3-G25 promoter. This compared with a 20-fold and negligible relief of repression in gal80 and ngg1 strains, respectively. Deletion analysis of the his3-G25 promoter showed a correlation between the number of GAL4p binding sites and the relative level of NGG1p activity. Relief of glucose repression by NGG1 was dependent on the presence of GAL4, but was independent of the GAL4 promoter. In addition, NGG1p activity was seen for a promoter construct containing independent GAL4p binding sites. These results suggest that NGG1p acts to inhibit GAL4p function in glucose medium. We have cloned NGG1 by complementation and found that it contains an open reading frame of 2106 bp which could encode a protein with a molecular weight of 79,230.
Project description:Histone methylation at H3K4 and H3K36 is commonly associated with genes actively transcribed by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and is catalyzed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Set1 and Set2, respectively. Here we report that both methyltransferases can be UV cross-linked to RNA in vivo High-throughput sequencing of the bound RNAs revealed strong Set1 enrichment near the transcription start site, whereas Set2 was distributed along pre-mRNAs. A subset of transcripts showed notably high enrichment for Set1 or Set2 binding relative to RNAPII, suggesting functional posttranscriptional interactions. In particular, Set1 was strongly bound to the SET1 mRNA, Ty1 retrotransposons, and noncoding RNAs from the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacers, consistent with its previously reported silencing roles. Set1 lacking RNA recognition motif 2 (RRM2) showed reduced in vivo cross-linking to RNA and reduced chromatin occupancy. In addition, levels of H3K4 trimethylation were decreased, whereas levels of dimethylation were increased. We conclude that RNA binding by Set1 contributes to both chromatin association and methyltransferase activity.