Structural basis for ADP-mediated transcriptional regulation by P1 and P7 ParA.
ABSTRACT: The accurate segregation of DNA is essential for the faithful inheritance of genetic information. Segregation of the prototypical P1 plasmid par system requires two proteins, ParA and ParB, and a centromere. When bound to ATP, ParA mediates segregation by interacting with centromere-bound ParB, but when bound to ADP, ParA fulfils a different function: DNA-binding transcription autoregulation. The structure of ParA is unknown as is how distinct nucleotides arbitrate its different functions. To address these questions, we carried out structural and biochemical studies. Crystal structures show that ParA consists of an elongated N-terminal alpha-helix, which unexpectedly mediates dimerization, a winged-HTH and a Walker-box containing C-domain. Biochemical data confirm that apoParA forms dimers at physiological concentrations. Comparisons of four apoParA structures reveal a strikingly flexible dimer interface that allows ParA to adopt multiple conformations. The ParA-ADP structure shows that ADP-binding activates DNA binding using a bipartite mechanism. First, it locks in one specific dimer conformation, and second, it induces the folding of two DNA-binding basic motifs that we show are critical for operator binding.
Project description:Walker-box partition systems are ubiquitous in nature and mediate the segregation of bacterial and archaeal DNA. Well-studied plasmid Walker-box partition modules require ParA, centromere-DNA, and a centromere-binding protein, ParB. In these systems, ParA-ATP binds nucleoid DNA and uses it as a substratum to deliver ParB-attached cargo DNA, and ParB drives ParA dynamics, allowing ParA progression along the nucleoid. How ParA-ATP binds nonspecific DNA and is regulated by ParB is unclear. Also under debate is whether ParA polymerizes on DNA to mediate segregation. Here we describe structures of key ParA segregation complexes. The ParA-?,?-imidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (AMPPNP)-DNA structure revealed no polymers. Instead, ParA-AMPPNP dimerization creates a multifaceted DNA-binding surface, allowing it to preferentially bind high-density DNA regions (HDRs). DNA-bound ParA-AMPPNP adopts a dimer conformation distinct from the ATP sandwich dimer, optimized for DNA association. Our ParA-AMPPNP-ParB structure reveals that ParB binds at the ParA dimer interface, stabilizing the ATPase-competent ATP sandwich dimer, ultimately driving ParA DNA dissociation. Thus, the data indicate how harnessing a conformationally adaptive dimer can drive large-scale cargo movement without the requirement for polymers and suggest a segregation mechanism by which ParA-ATP dimers equilibrate to HDRs shown to be localized near cell poles of dividing chromosomes, thus mediating equipartition of attached ParB-DNA substrates.
Project description:Bacteria use partitioning systems based on the ParA ATPase to actively mobilize and spatially organize molecular cargoes throughout the cytoplasm. The bacterium Caulobacter crescentus uses a ParA-based partitioning system to segregate newly replicated chromosomal centromeres to opposite cell poles. Here we demonstrate that the Caulobacter PopZ scaffold creates an organizing center at the cell pole that actively regulates polar centromere transport by the ParA partition system. As segregation proceeds, the ParB-bound centromere complex is moved by progressively disassembling ParA from a nucleoid-bound structure. Using superresolution microscopy, we show that released ParA is recruited directly to binding sites within a 3D ultrastructure composed of PopZ at the cell pole, whereas the ParB-centromere complex remains at the periphery of the PopZ structure. PopZ recruitment of ParA stimulates ParA to assemble on the nucleoid near the PopZ-proximal cell pole. We identify mutations in PopZ that allow scaffold assembly but specifically abrogate interactions with ParA and demonstrate that PopZ/ParA interactions are required for proper chromosome segregation in vivo. We propose that during segregation PopZ sequesters free ParA and induces target-proximal regeneration of ParA DNA binding activity to enforce processive and pole-directed centromere segregation, preventing segregation reversals. PopZ therefore functions as a polar hub complex at the cell pole to directly regulate the directionality and destination of transfer of the mitotic segregation machine.
Project description:ParABS, an important DNA partitioning process in chromosome segregation, includes ParA (an ATPase), ParB (a parS binding protein) and parS (a centromere-like DNA). The homologous proteins of ParA and ParB in Helicobacter pylori are HpSoj and HpSpo0J, respectively. We analyzed the ATPase activity of HpSoj and found that it is enhanced by both DNA and HpSpo0J. Crystal structures of HpSoj and its DNA complexes revealed a typical ATPase fold and that it is dimeric. DNA binding by HpSoj is promoted by ATP. The HpSoj-ATP-DNA complex non-specifically binds DNA through a continuous basic binding patch formed by lysine residues, with a single DNA-binding site. This complex exhibits a DNA-binding adept state with an active ATP-bound conformation, whereas the HpSoj-ADP-DNA complex may represent a transient DNA-bound state. Based on structural comparisons, HpSoj exhibits a similar DNA binding surface to the bacterial ParA superfamily, but the archaeal ParA superfamily exhibits distinct non-specific DNA-binding via two DNA-binding sites. We detected the HpSpo0J-HpSoj-DNA complex by electron microscopy and show that this nucleoid-adaptor complex (NAC) is formed through HpSoj and HpSpo0J interaction and parS DNA binding. NAC formation is promoted by HpSoj participation and specific parS DNA facilitation.
Project description:Plasmid pCXC100 from the Gram-positive bacterium Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis uses a type Ib partition system that includes a centromere region, a Walker-type ATPase ParA and a centromere-binding protein ParB for stable segregation. However, ParB shows no detectable sequence homology to any DNA-binding motif. Here, we study the ParB centromere interaction by structural and biochemical approaches. The crystal structure of the C-terminal DNA-binding domain of ParB at 1.4 Å resolution reveals a dimeric ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) motif, supporting the prevalence of RHH motif in centromere binding. Using hydroxyl radical footprinting and quantitative binding assays, we show that the centromere core comprises nine uninterrupted 9-nt direct repeats that can be successively bound by ParB dimers in a cooperative manner. However, the interaction of ParB with a single subsite requires 18 base pairs covering one immediate repeat as well as two halves of flanking repeats. Through mutagenesis, sequence specificity was determined for each position of an 18-bp subsite. These data suggest an unique centromere recognition mechanism by which the repeat sequence is jointly specified by adjacent ParB dimers bound to an overlapped region.
Project description:Proper chromosome segregation during cell division is essential in all domains of life. In the majority of bacterial species, faithful chromosome segregation is mediated by the tripartite ParABS system, consisting of an ATPase protein ParA, a CTPase and DNA-binding protein ParB, and a centromere-like parS site. The parS site is most often located near the origin of replication and is segregated first after chromosome replication. ParB nucleates on parS before binding to adjacent non-specific DNA to form a multimeric nucleoprotein complex. ParA interacts with ParB to drive the higher-order ParB-DNA complex, and hence the replicating chromosomes, to each daughter cell. Here, we review the various models for the formation of the ParABS complex and describe its role in segregating the origin-proximal region of the chromosome. Additionally, we discuss outstanding questions and challenges in understanding bacterial chromosome segregation.
Project description:Although recent studies have provided a wealth of information about archaeal biology, nothing is known about the molecular basis of DNA segregation in these organisms. Here, we unveil the machinery and assembly mechanism of the archaeal Sulfolobus pNOB8 partition system. This system uses three proteins: ParA; an atypical ParB adaptor; and a centromere-binding component, AspA. AspA utilizes a spreading mechanism to create a DNA superhelix onto which ParB assembles. This supercomplex links to the ParA motor, which contains a bacteria-like Walker motif. The C domain of ParB harbors structural similarity to CenpA, which dictates eukaryotic segregation. Thus, this archaeal system combines bacteria-like and eukarya-like components, which suggests the possible conservation of DNA segregation principles across the three domains of life.
Project description:Segregation of the bacterial multidrug resistance plasmid TP228 requires the centromere-binding protein ParG, the parH centromere, and the Walker box ATPase ParF. The cycling of ParF between ADP- and ATP-bound states drives TP228 partition; ATP binding stimulates ParF polymerization, which is essential for segregation, whereas ADP binding antagonizes polymerization and inhibits DNA partition. The molecular mechanism involved in this adenine nucleotide switch is unclear. Moreover, it is unknown how any Walker box protein polymerizes in an ATP-dependent manner. Here, we describe multiple ParF structures in ADP- and phosphomethylphosphonic acid adenylate ester (AMPPCP)-bound states. ParF-ADP is monomeric but dimerizes when complexed with AMPPCP. Strikingly, in ParF-AMPPCP structures, the dimers interact to create dimer-of-dimer "units" that generate a specific linear filament. Mutation of interface residues prevents both polymerization and DNA segregation in vivo. Thus, these data provide insight into a unique mechanism by which a Walker box protein forms polymers that involves the generation of ATP-induced dimer-of-dimer building blocks.
Project description:The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos-an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.
Project description:Carboxysomes, protein-coated organelles in cyanobacteria, are important in global carbon fixation. However, these organelles are present at low copy in each cell and hence must be segregated to ensure transmission from one generation to the next. Recent studies revealed that a DNA partition-like ParA-ParB system mediates carboxysome maintenance, called McdA-McdB. Here, we describe the first McdA and McdB homolog structures. McdA is similar to partition ParA Walker-box proteins, but lacks the P-loop signature lysine involved in ATP binding. Strikingly, a McdA-ATP structure shows that a lysine distant from the P-loop and conserved in McdA homologs, enables ATP-dependent nucleotide sandwich dimer formation. Similar to partition ParA proteins this ATP-bound form binds nonspecific-DNA. McdB, which we show directly binds McdA, harbors a unique fold and appears to form higher-order oligomers like partition ParB proteins. Thus, our data reveal a new signature motif that enables McdA dimer formation and indicates that, similar to DNA segregation, carboxysome maintenance systems employ Walker-box proteins as DNA-binding motors while McdB proteins form higher order oligomers, which could function as adaptors to link carboxysomes and provide for stable transport by the McdA proteins.
Project description:Bacterial plasmids are extrachromosomal DNA that provides selective advantages for bacterial survival. Plasmid partitioning can be remarkably robust. For high-copy-number plasmids, diffusion ensures that both daughter cells inherit plasmids after cell division. In contrast, most low-copy-number plasmids need to be actively partitioned by a conserved tripartite ParA-type system. ParA is an ATPase that binds to chromosomal DNA; ParB is the stimulator of the ParA ATPase and specifically binds to the plasmid at a centromere-like site, parS. ParB stimulation of the ParA ATPase releases ParA from the bacterial chromosome, after which it takes a long time to reset its DNA-binding affinity. We previously demonstrated in vitro that the ParA system can exploit this biochemical asymmetry for directed cargo transport. Multiple ParA-ParB bonds can bridge a parS-coated cargo to a DNA carpet, and they can work collectively as a Brownian ratchet that directs persistent cargo movement with a ParA-depletion zone trailing behind. By extending this model, we suggest that a similar Brownian ratchet mechanism recapitulates the full range of actively segregated plasmid motilities observed in vivo. We demonstrate that plasmid motility is tuned as the replenishment rate of the ParA-depletion zone progressively increases relative to the cargo speed, evolving from diffusion to pole-to-pole oscillation, local excursions, and, finally, immobility. When the plasmid replicates, the daughters largely display motilities similar to that of their mother, except that when the single-focus progenitor is locally excursive, the daughter foci undergo directed segregation. We show that directed segregation maximizes the fidelity of plasmid partition. Given that local excursion and directed segregation are the most commonly observed modes of plasmid motility in vivo, we suggest that the operation of the ParA-type partition system has been shaped by evolution for high fidelity of plasmid segregation.