Renal injury is a third hit promoting rapid development of adult polycystic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT: The 'two-hit' model is a widely accepted genetic mechanism for progressive cyst formation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. We have previously shown that adult inactivation of Pkd1 using the Mx1Cre(+) allele causes a late onset of focal cystic disease. An explanation for the delayed appearance of cysts is the requirement for an additional independent factor, or 'third hit'. Here we show that renal injury leads to massive cystic disease in the same mouse line. Cysts are labeled with a collecting duct/tubule marker, Lectin Dolichos biflorus Agglutinin, which correlates with the site of Cre-mediated recombination in the collecting system. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling reveals that cyst-lining epithelial cells are comprised of regenerated cells in response to renal injury. These data demonstrate, for the first time, a role for polycystin-1 in kidney injury and repair and indicate that renal injury constitutes a 'third hit' resulting in rapid cyst formation in adulthood.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii infects up to one third of the world's population. A key to the success of T. gondii as a parasite is its ability to persist for the life of its host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The glycosylated cyst wall is the key structural feature that facilitates persistence and oral transmission of this parasite. Because most of the antibodies and reagents that recognize the cyst wall recognize carbohydrates, identification of the components of the cyst wall has been technically challenging. We have identified CST1 (TGME49_064660) as a 250 kDa SRS (SAG1 related sequence) domain protein with a large mucin-like domain. CST1 is responsible for the Dolichos biflorus Agglutinin (DBA) lectin binding characteristic of T. gondii cysts. Deletion of CST1 results in reduced cyst number and a fragile brain cyst phenotype characterized by a thinning and disruption of the underlying region of the cyst wall. These defects are reversed by complementation of CST1. Additional complementation experiments demonstrate that the CST1-mucin domain is necessary for the formation of a normal cyst wall structure, the ability of the cyst to resist mechanical stress, and binding of DBA to the cyst wall. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis demonstrated dysregulation of bradyzoite genes within the various cst1 mutants. These results indicate that CST1 functions as a key structural component that confers essential sturdiness to the T. gondii tissue cyst critical for persistence of bradyzoite forms.
Project description:Intraflagellar transport (IFT) complexes A and B build and maintain primary cilia. In the mouse, kidney-specific or hypomorphic mutant alleles of IFT complex B genes cause polycystic kidneys, but the influence of IFT complex A proteins on renal development is not well understood. In the present study, we found that HoxB7-Cre-driven deletion of the complex A gene Ift140 from collecting ducts disrupted, but did not completely prevent, cilia assembly. Mutant kidneys developed collecting duct cysts by postnatal day 5, with rapid cystic expansion and renal dysfunction by day 15 and little remaining parenchymal tissue by day 20. In contrast to many models of polycystic kidney disease, precystic Ift140-deleted collecting ducts showed normal centrosomal positioning and no misorientation of the mitotic spindle axis, suggesting that disruption of oriented cell division is not a prerequisite to cyst formation in these kidneys. Precystic collecting ducts had an increased mitotic index, suggesting that cell proliferation may drive cyst expansion even with normal orientation of the mitotic spindle. In addition, we observed significant increases in expression of canonical Wnt pathway genes and mediators of Hedgehog and tissue fibrosis in highly cystic, but not precystic, kidneys. Taken together, these studies indicate that loss of Ift140 causes pronounced renal cystic disease and suggest that abnormalities in several different pathways may influence cyst progression.
Project description:Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disorder that is characterized by the accumulation of cysts in the renal parenchyma and progressive decline in renal function. Recent studies suggest that PKD arises from abnormalities of the primary cilium. We have previously shown that kidney-specific inactivation of the ciliogenic gene Kif3a during embryonic development produces kidney cysts and renal failure. Here, we used tamoxifen-inducible, kidney-specific gene targeting to inactivate Kif3a in the postnatal mouse kidney. Kidney-specific inactivation of Kif3a in newborn mice resulted in the loss of primary cilia and produced kidney cysts primarily in the loops of Henle, whereas inactivation in adult mice did not lead to the rapid development of cysts despite a comparable loss of primary cilia. The age-dependence and locations of the cysts suggested that cyst formation required increased rates of cell proliferation. To test this possibility, we stimulated cell proliferation in the adult kidney by inducing acute kidney injury and tubular regeneration. Acute kidney injury induced cyst formation in adult Kif3a mutant mice. Analysis of pre-cystic tubules in Kif3a mutant mice showed that the loss of cilia did not stimulate cell proliferation but instead resulted in aberrant planar cell polarity as manifested by abnormalities in the orientation of cell division. We conclude that primary cilia are required for the maintenance of planar cell polarity in the mammalian kidney and that acute kidney injury exacerbates cystic disease.
Project description:The presence of a few renal cysts is considered of little relevance in healthy adults, although acquired renal cystic disease occurs in advanced kidney failure. The objective of this study was to detail renal cystic and solid lesions and identify any association with clinical characteristics.Clinical-pathologic correlation.Potential kidney donors undergoing a standardized evaluation at the Mayo Clinic in 2000-2008.Age, kidney function, and chronic kidney disease risk factors.Renal cystic and solid lesions by contrast-enhanced computed tomographic images.Cyst number, diameter, and location.After excluding 8 with cystic disease, 7 of whom had autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, there were 1,948 potential kidney donors (42% men; mean age, 43 years). A cortical, medullary, or parapelvic cyst ?5 mm was present in 12%, 14%, or 2.8%. For ages 19-49 years, 39%, 22%, 7.9%, and 1.6% had a cortical or medullary cyst ?2, ?5, ?10, and ?20 mm in diameter. For ages 50-75 years, 63%, 43%, 22%, and 7.8% had a cortical or medullary cyst ?2, ?5, ?10, and ?20 mm in diameter. The 97.5th percentile for number of cortical and medullary cysts ?5 mm increased with age (10 for men and 4 for women in the 60- to 69-year group). After age and sex adjustment, cortical and medullary cysts ?5 mm were associated with higher 24-hour urine albumin excretion, as well as increased body surface area, hypertension, and higher glomerular filtration rate in some analyses. Angiomyolipomas, hyperdense cysts, and enhancing masses or cysts with concerning features for malignancy occurred in 2.2%, 1.2%, and 0.6% and were associated with older age (P ? 0.05 for each).Persons with known chronic kidney disease were excluded.Renal cysts are common, particularly in older men, and may be a marker of early kidney injury because they associate with albuminuria, hypertension, and hyperfiltration.
Project description:A subset of familial and sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) is believed to develop from cystic precursor lesions. Loss of function of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene (VHL) predisposes renal epithelial cells to loss of the primary cilium in response to specific signals. Because the primary cilium suppresses renal cyst formation, loss of the cilium may be an initiating event in the formation of ccRCC. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the consequences of inducible renal epithelium-specific deletion of Vhl together with ablation of the primary cilium via deletion of the kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a) gene. We developed a microcomputed tomography-based imaging approach to allow quantitative longitudinal monitoring of cystic burden, revealing that combined loss of Vhl and Kif3a shortened the latency of cyst initiation, increased the number of cysts per kidney, and increased the total cystic burden. In contrast with findings in other cystic models, cysts in Kif3a mutant mice did not display accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-? (HIF1?), and deletion of both Hif1a and Kif3a did not affect cyst development or progression. Vhl/Kif3a double mutation also increased the frequency of cysts that displayed multilayered epithelial growth, which correlated with an increased frequency of misoriented cystic epithelial cell divisions. These results argue against the involvement of HIF1? in promoting renal cyst growth and suggest that the formation of simple and atypical renal cysts that resemble ccRCC precursor lesions is greatly accelerated by the combined loss of Vhl and the primary cilium.
Project description:Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) exhibits an inflammatory component, but the contribution of inflammation to cyst progression is unknown. Macrophages promote the proliferation of tubular cells following ischemic injury, suggesting that they may have a role in cystogenesis. Furthermore, cultured Pkd1-deficient cells express the macrophage chemoattractants Mcp1 and Cxcl16 and stimulate macrophage migration. Here, in orthologous models of both PKD1 and PKD2, abnormally large numbers of alternatively activated macrophages surrounded the cysts. To determine whether pericystic macrophages contribute to the proliferation of cyst-lining cells, we depleted phagocytic cells from Pkd1(fl/fl);Pkhd1-Cre mice by treating with liposomal clodronate from postnatal day 10 until day 24. Compared with vehicle-treated controls, macrophage-depleted mice had a significantly lower cystic index, reduced proliferation of cyst-lining cells, better-preserved renal parenchyma, and improved renal function. In conclusion, these data suggest that macrophages home to cystic areas and contribute to cyst growth. Interruption of these homing and proliferative signals could have therapeutic potential for PKD.
Project description:To elucidate the molecular pathways that modulate renal cyst growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) Keywords: Disease state analysis Overall design: We performed global gene profiling on renal cysts of different size (small cysts: less than 1 ml, n=5; medium cysts: between 10-25 ml, n=5; large cysts: greater than 50 ml, n=3) and minimally cystic tissue (MCT, n=5) from five PKD1 polycystic kidneys. Additionally, non-cancerous renal cortical tissue from three nephrectomized kidneys with isolated renal cell carcinoma was used as normal control tissue (n=3)
Project description:AKI accelerates cystogenesis. Because cystogenic mutations induce strong transcriptional responses similar to those seen after AKI, these responses may accelerate the progression of cystic renal disease. Here, we modulated the severity of the AKI-like response in Cys1(cpk/cpk) mice, a model that mimics autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Specifically, we induced or inhibited activity of the renoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase (HO) and determined the effects on renal cystogenesis. We found that induction of HO attenuated both renal injury and the rate of cystogenesis, whereas inhibition of HO promoted cystogenesis. HO activity mediated the response of NF?B, which is a hallmark transcriptional feature common to both cystogenesis and AKI. Among the HO-modulated effects we measured, expression of complement component 3 (C3) strongly correlated with cystogenesis, a functionally relevant association as suggested by Cys1(cpk/cpk) mice with genetically induced C3 deficiency. Because both C3 deficiency and HO induction reduce cyst number and cyst areas, these two factors define an injury-stimulated cystogenic pathway that may provide therapeutic targets to slow the formation of new renal cysts and the growth of existing cysts.
Project description:In renal cystic diseases, sustained enlargement of fluid-filled cysts is associated with severe interstitial fibrosis and progressive loss of functioning nephrons. Periostin, a matricellular protein, is highly overexpressed in cyst-lining epithelial cells of autosomal-dominant polycystic disease kidneys (ADPKD) compared with normal tubule cells. Periostin accumulates in situ within the matrix subjacent to ADPKD cysts, binds to ?V?3 and ?V?5 integrins, and stimulates the integrin-linked kinase to promote cell proliferation. We knocked out periostin (Postn) in pcy/pcy mice, an orthologous model of nephronophthisis type 3, to determine whether periostin loss reduces PKD progression in a slowly progressive model of renal cystic disease. At 20 weeks of age, pcy/pcy:Postn(-/-) mice had a 34% reduction in kidney weight/body weight, a reduction in cyst number and total cystic area, a 69% reduction in phosphorylated S6, a downstream component of the mTOR pathway, and fewer proliferating cells in the kidneys compared with pcy/pcy:Postn(+/+) mice. The pcy/pcy Postin knockout mice also had less interstitial fibrosis with improved renal function at 20 weeks and significantly longer survival (51.4 compared with 38.0 weeks). Thus, periostin adversely modifies the progression of renal cystic disease by promoting cyst epithelial cell proliferation, cyst enlargement, and interstitial fibrosis, all contributing to the decline in renal function and premature death.
Project description:To elucidate the molecular pathways that modulate renal cyst growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) Keywords: Disease state analysis We performed global gene profiling on renal cysts of different size (small cysts: less than 1 ml, n=5; medium cysts: between 10-25 ml, n=5; large cysts: greater than 50 ml, n=3) and minimally cystic tissue (MCT, n=5) from five PKD1 polycystic kidneys. Additionally, non-cancerous renal cortical tissue from three nephrectomized kidneys with isolated renal cell carcinoma was used as normal control tissue (n=3). This dataset is part of the TransQST collection.