Identification and characterization of a mammalian protein interacting with 20S proteasome precursors.
ABSTRACT: The assembly of individual mammalian proteasome subunits into catalytically active 20S proteasome is not well understood. Herein, we report the identification and characterization of human and mouse homologues of the yeast proteasome maturating factor Ump1p. We delineate the region of hUMP1 implicated in the specific interaction with proteasome precursors and show that hUMP1 protein is absent from the mature form of the 20S proteasome. We also show that the transcript level of mammalian UMP1 is increased after IFN-gamma treatment and that mammalian UMP1 is functionally related to but not interchangeable with its yeast homologue.
Project description:Proteasomes are responsible for most intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotes. The 20S proteasome comprises a dyad-symmetric stack of four heptameric rings made from 14 distinct subunits. How it assembles is not understood. Most subunits in the central pair of beta-subunit rings are synthesized in precursor form. Normally, the beta5 (Doa3) propeptide is essential for yeast proteasome biogenesis, but overproduction of beta7 (Pre4) bypasses this requirement. Bypass depends on a unique beta7 extension, which contacts the opposing beta ring. The resulting proteasomes appear normal but assemble inefficiently, facilitating identification of assembly intermediates. Assembly occurs stepwise into precursor dimers, and intermediates contain the Ump1 assembly factor and a novel complex, Pba1-Pba2. beta7 incorporation occurs late and is closely linked to the association of two half-proteasomes. We propose that dimerization is normally driven by the beta5 propeptide, an intramolecular chaperone, but beta7 addition overcomes an Ump1-dependent assembly checkpoint and stabilizes the precursor dimer.
Project description:The 26S proteasome, a central enzyme for ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, is a highly complex structure comprising 33 distinct subunits. Recent studies have revealed multiple dedicated chaperones involved in proteasome assembly both in yeast and in mammals. However, none of these chaperones is essential for yeast viability. PAC1 is a mammalian proteasome assembly chaperone that plays a role in the initial assembly of the 20S proteasome, the catalytic core of the 26S proteasome, but does not cause a complete loss of the 20S proteasome when knocked down. Thus, both chaperone-dependent and -independent assembly pathways exist in cells, but the contribution of the chaperone-dependent pathway remains unclear. To elucidate its biological significance in mammals, we generated PAC1 conditional knockout mice. PAC1-null mice exhibited early embryonic lethality, demonstrating that PAC1 is essential for mammalian development, especially for explosive cell proliferation. In quiescent adult hepatocytes, PAC1 is responsible for producing the majority of the 20S proteasome. PAC1-deficient hepatocytes contained normal amounts of the 26S proteasome, but they completely lost the free latent 20S proteasome. They also accumulated ubiquitinated proteins and exhibited premature senescence. Our results demonstrate the importance of the PAC1-dependent assembly pathway and of the latent 20S proteasomes for maintaining cellular integrity.
Project description:Intracellular degradation of many eukaryotic proteins requires their covalent ligation to ubiquitin. We previously identified a ubiquitin-dependent degradation pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the DOA pathway. Independent work has suggested that a major mechanism of cellular proteolysis involves a large multisubunit protease(s) called the 20S proteasome. We demonstrate here that Doa3 and Doa5, two essential components of the DOA pathway, are subunits of the proteasome. Biochemical analyses of purified mutant proteasomes suggest functions for several conserved proteasome subunit residues. All detectable proteasome particles purified from doa3 or doa5 cells have altered physical properties; however, the mutant particles contain the same 14 different subunits as the wild-type enzyme, indicating that most or all yeast 20S proteasomes comprise a uniform population of hetero-oligomeric complexes rather than a mixture of particles of variable subunit composition. Unexpectedly, we found that the yeast Doa3 and Pre3 subunits are synthesized as precursors which are processed in a manner apparently identical to that of related mammalian proteasome subunits implicated in antigen presentation, suggesting that biogenesis of the proteasome particle is highly conserved between yeast and mammals.
Project description:The three-dimensional fold of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) 20S proteasome is similar to yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 20S proteasome. The twenty eight subunits complex corresponding to two copies of seven distinct ? and seven distinct ? subunits shares >35% sequence identity with equivalent subunits of the yeast 20S proteasome. Bortezomib (Velcade®) - a known inhibitor of the three catalytic subunits; ?1, ?2, ?5 of the yeast 20S proteasome can bind in the equivalent subunits of the Pf 20S proteasome and is in agreement with experimental results. The model defines the binding mode of the bortezomib inhibitor within the catalytic subunits of the Pf 20S proteasome and provides the structural basis for the design of Pf 20S proteasome-specific inhibitors. The substitutions associated within the catalytic subunits of Pf 20S proteasome relative to yeast 20S proteasome; Thr21-Ser, Thr22-Ser, Thr31-Ser, Thr35-Asn, Ala49-Ser (in ?1 subunit), Ser20-Ala, Gln22-Glu (?2) and Thr21-Ser, Ala22-Met, Gln53-Leu (?5) may influence the relative caspase-like, tryptic-like and chymotryptic-like activities of the Pf 20S proteasome. The plasmodia-specific 'large' insert comprising fifty four amino acid residues (in ?1 subunit) of the Pf 20S proteasome is distant from the catalytic sites.
Project description:During the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), maternal proteins in oocytes are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), and new proteins are synthesized from the zygotic genome. However, the specific mechanisms underlying the UPS at the MZT are not well understood. We identified a molecule named zygote-specific proteasome assembly chaperone (ZPAC) that is specifically expressed in mouse gonads, and expression of ZPAC was transiently increased at the mouse MZT. ZPAC formed a complex with Ump1 and associated with precursor forms of 20S proteasomes. Transcription of ZPAC genes was also under the control of an autoregulatory feedback mechanism for the compensation of reduced proteasome activity similar to Ump1 and 20S proteasome subunit gene expression. Knockdown of ZPAC in early embryos caused a significant reduction of proteasome activity and decrease in Ump1 and mature proteasomes, leading to accumulation of proteins that need to be degraded at the MZT and early developmental arrest. Therefore, a unique proteasome assembly pathway mediated by ZPAC is important for progression of the mouse MZT.
Project description:The quality control of proteins mediated by the plasticity of the proteasome system is regulated by the timely and flexible formation of this multisubunit proteolytic enzyme complex. Adaptable biogenesis of the 20S proteasome core complex is therefore of vital importance for adjusting to changing proteolytic requirements. However, the molecular mechanism and the cellular sites of mammalian proteasome formation are still unresolved. By using precursor complex-specific antibodies, we now show that the main steps in 20S core complex formation take place at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Thereby, the proteasome maturation protein (POMP)--an essential factor of mammalian proteasome biogenesis--interacts with ER membranes, binds to alpha1-7 rings, recruits beta-subunits stepwise and mediates the association of mammalian precursor complexes with the ER. Thus, POMP facilitates the main steps in 20S core complex formation at the ER to coordinate the assembly process and to provide cells with freshly formed proteasomes at their site of function.
Project description:We have determined distinct roles for different proteasome complexes in adenovirus (Ad) E1A-dependent transcription. We show that the 19S ATPase, S8, as a component of 19S ATPase proteins independent of 20S (APIS), binds specifically to the E1A transactivation domain, conserved region 3 (CR3). Recruitment of APIS to CR3 enhances the ability of E1A to stimulate transcription from viral early gene promoters during Ad infection of human cells. The ability of CR3 to stimulate transcription in yeast is similarly dependent on the functional integrity of yeast APIS components, Sug1 and Sug2. The 20S proteasome is also recruited to CR3 independently of APIS and the 26S proteasome. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that E1A, S8 and the 20S proteasome are recruited to both Ad early region gene promoters and early region gene sequences during Ad infection, suggesting their requirement in both transcriptional initiation and elongation. We also demonstrate that E1A CR3 transactivation and degradation sequences functionally overlap and that proteasome inhibitors repress E1A transcription. Taken together, these data demonstrate distinct roles for APIS and the 20S proteasome in E1A-dependent transactivation.
Project description:The Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear gene RPM2 encodes a component of the mitochondrial tRNA-processing enzyme RNase P. Cells grown on fermentable carbon sources do not require mitochondrial tRNA processing activity, but still require RPM2, indicating an additional function for the Rpm2 protein. RPM2-null cells arrest after 25 generations on fermentable media. Spontaneous mutations that suppress arrest occur with a frequency of approximately 9 x 10(-6). The resultant mutants do not grow on nonfermentable carbon sources. We identified two loci responsible for this suppression, which encode proteins that influence proteasome function or assembly. PRE4 is an essential gene encoding the beta-7 subunit of the 20S proteasome core. A Val-to-Phe substitution within a highly conserved region of Pre4p that disrupts proteasome function suppresses the growth arrest of RPM2-null cells on fermentable media. The other locus, UMP1, encodes a chaperone involved in 20S proteasome assembly. A nonsense mutation in UMP1 also disrupts proteasome function and suppresses Deltarpm2 growth arrest. In an RPM2 wild-type background, pre4-2 and ump1-2 strains fail to grow at restrictive temperatures on nonfermentable carbon sources. These data link proteasome activity with Rpm2p and mitochondrial function.
Project description:The multifunctional protein helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) is thought to interfere with the activity of the 20S proteasome; however, no sites of interaction have been identified for either protein. Here, we first show that the Potato virus Y (PVY) HC-Pro protein can interact with three Arabidopsis 20S proteasome subunits (PAA, PBB, and PBE), using a yeast two-hybrid system and the bimolecular fluorescence complement assay. In addition, yeast two-hybrid analysis of the interaction between several mutant subunits of the 20S proteasome and PVY HC-Pro confirmed that residues 81 to 140 of PAA, 1 to 80 of PBB, and 160 to 274 of PBE are necessary for binding PAA, PBB, and PBE to PVY HC-Pro, respectively. Deletion mutant analysis of PVY HC-Pro showed that the N terminus (residues 1 to 97) is necessary for its interaction with three Arabidopsis 20S proteasome subunits. The ability of HC-Pro to interact and interfere with the activity of the 20S proteasome may help explain the molecular basis of its multifunctional character.
Project description:Oxidatively modified ferritin is selectively recognized and degraded by the 20S proteasome. Concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) higher than 10 micromol/mg of protein are able to prevent proteolytic degradation. Exposure of the protease to high amounts of oxidants (H2O2, peroxynitrite and hypochlorite) inhibits the enzymic activity of the 20S proteasome towards the fluorogenic peptide succinyl-leucine-leucine-valine-tyrosine-methylcoumarylamide (Suc-LLVY-MCA), as well as the proteolytic degradation of normal and oxidant-treated ferritin. Fifty per cent inhibition of the degradation of the protein substrates was achieved using 40 micromol of H2O2/mg of proteasome. No change in the composition of the enzyme was revealed by electrophoretic analysis up to concentrations of 120 micromol of H2O2/mg of proteasome. In further experiments, it was found that the 26S proteasome, the ATP- and ubiquitin-dependent form of the proteasomal system, is much more susceptible to oxidative stress. Whereas degradation of the fluorogenic peptide, Suc-LLVY-MCA, by the 20S proteasome was inhibited by 50% with 12 micromol of H2O2/mg, 3 micromol of H2O2/mg was enough to inhibit ATP-stimulated degradation by the 26S proteasome by 50%. This loss in activity could be followed by the loss of band intensity in the non-denaturing gel. Therefore we concluded that the 20S proteasome was more resistant to oxidative stress than the ATP- and ubiquitin-dependent 26S proteasome. Furthermore, we investigated the activity of both proteases in K562 cells after H2O2 treatment. Lysates from K562 cells are able to degrade oxidized ferritin at a higher rate than non-oxidized ferritin, in an ATP-independent manner. This effect could be followed even after treatment of the cells with H2O2 up to a concentration of 2mM. The lactacystin-sensitive ATP-stimulated degradation of the fluorogenic peptide Suc-LLVY-MCA declined, after treatment of the cells with 1mM H2O2, to the same level as that obtained without ATP stimulation. Therefore, we conclude that the regulation of the 20S proteasome by various regulators takes place during oxidative stress. This provides further evidence for the role of the 20S proteasome in the secondary antioxidative defences of mammalian cells.