Distinct methylation patterns in histone H3 at Lys-4 and Lys-9 correlate with up- & down-regulation of genes by ethanol in hepatocytes.
ABSTRACT: Ethanol induced liver injury is associated with a global change in gene expression but its mechanisms are not known. We studied whether alcohol-induced gene expression is associated with post-translational methylations of histone H3. Primary culture of rat hepatocytes was treated with ethanol (50 or 100 mM) for 24 h and the status of methylation of H3 at lys 4 (H3dimeK4) or lys 9 (H3dimeK9) was monitored by Western blotting using antibodies to dimethylated histone H3 at lys 4 or lys 9. The cells exposed to ethanol showed strikingly opposing behaviors in methylation patterns; H3dimeK9 methylation was decreased whereas H3dimeK4 increased. Similar results were obtained in the interphase nuclei. Their binding on the metaphase chromosomes exhibits distinct site specific pattern of accumulation. Next, chromatin immunoprecipitation of the ethanol treated samples with antibodies for methylated lys 4 or lys 9 histone H3 followed by amplification of the immunoprecipitated DNA, was used to determine their association with the promoters of genes up- or downregulated by ethanol. Lys4 methylation was associated with ethanol upregulated genes (Adh, GST-yc2) whereas lys 9 methylation with downregulated genes (Lsdh, cytP4502c11) demonstrating a difference between these two methylations. These results suggest that exposure of hepatocytes to ethanol changes the expression of several susceptible genes which are associated with site specific modification of dimethylated forms of histone H3 amino termini at their regulatory regions.
Project description:The chromodomain of Drosophila Polycomb protein is essential for maintaining the silencing state of homeotic genes during development. Recent studies suggest that Polycomb mediates the assembly of repressive higher-order chromatin structures in conjunction with the methylation of Lys 27 of histone H3 by a Polycomb group repressor complex. A similar mechanism in heterochromatin assembly is mediated by HP1, a chromodomain protein that binds to histone H3 methylated at Lys 9. To understand the molecular mechanism of the methyl-Lys 27 histone code recognition, we have determined a 1.4-A-resolution structure of the chromodomain of Polycomb in complex with a histone H3 peptide trimethylated at Lys 27. The structure reveals a conserved mode of methyl-lysine binding and identifies Polycomb-specific interactions with histone H3. The structure also reveals a dPC dimer in the crystal lattice that is mediated by residues specifically conserved in the Polycomb family of chromodomains. The dimerization of dPC can effectively account for the histone-binding specificity and provides new mechanistic insights into the function of Polycomb. We propose that self-association is functionally important for Polycomb.
Project description:UHRF1 is an important epigenetic regulator connecting DNA methylation and histone methylations. UHRF1 is required for maintenance of DNA methylation through recruiting DNMT1 to DNA replication forks. Recent studies have shown that the plant homeodomain (PHD) of UHRF1 recognizes the N terminus of unmodified histone H3, and the interaction is inhibited by methylation of H3R2, whereas the tandem tudor domain (TTD) of UHRF1 recognizes trimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3). However, how the two domains of UHRF1 coordinately recognize histone methylations remains elusive. In this report, we identified that PHD largely enhances the interaction between TTD and H3K9me3. We present the crystal structure of UHRF1 containing both TTD and PHD (TTD-PHD) in complex with H3K9m3 peptide at 3.0 Å resolution. The structure shows that TTD-PHD binds to the H3K9me3 peptide with 1:1 stoichiometry with the two domains connected by the H3K9me3 peptide and a linker region. The TTD interacts with residues Arg-8 and trimethylated Lys-9, and the PHD interacts with residues Ala-1, Arg-2, and Lys-4 of the H3K9me3 peptide. The biochemical experiments indicate that PHD-mediated recognition of unmodified H3 is independent of the TTD, whereas TTD-mediated recognition of H3K9me3 PHD. Thus, both TTD and PHD are essential for specific recognition of H3K9me3 by UHRF1. Interestingly, the H3K9me3 peptide induces conformational changes of TTD-PHD, which do not affect the autoubiquitination activity or hemimethylated DNA binding affinity of UHRF1 in vitro. Taken together, our studies provide structural insight into the coordinated recognition of H3K9me3 by the TTD and PHD of UHRF1.
Project description:The rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis is the transcription of ribosomal RNA, which is controlled by environmental conditions. The JmjC enzyme KDM2A/JHDM1A/FbxL11 demethylates mono- and dimethylated Lys 36 of histone H3, but its function is unclear. Here, we show that KDM2A represses the transcription of ribosomal RNA. KDM2A was localized in nucleoli and bound to the ribosomal RNA gene promoter. Overexpression of KDM2A repressed the transcription of ribosomal RNA in a demethylase activity-dependent manner. When ribosomal RNA transcription was reduced under starvation, a cell-permeable succinate that inhibited the demethylase activity of KDM2A prevented the reduction of ribosomal RNA transcription. Starvation reduced the levels of mono- and dimethylated Lys 36 of histone H3 marks on the rDNA promoter, and treatment with the cell-permeable succinate suppressed the reduction of the marks during starvation. The knockdown of KDM2A increased mono- and dimethylated Lys 36 of histone H3 marks, and suppressed the reduction of ribosomal RNA transcription under starvation. These results show a novel mechanism by which KDM2A activity is stimulated by starvation to reduce ribosomal RNA transcription.
Project description:Cellular proteins are subject to frequent methylation on lysine residues, introduced by specific methyltransferases, and each lysine residue can receive up to three methyl groups. Histone methylations, which are key determinants of chromatin state and transcriptional status, have been subject to particularly intense studies, but methylations on non-histone protein substrates are also abundant and biologically significant. Numerous studies have addressed lysine methylation in the realm of cancer biology. A recent study used an antibody-based approach to investigate the methylation of Lys-561 of the stress-inducible Hsp70 protein HSPA1, focusing exclusively on dimethylated HSPA1, concluding that it was elevated in cancer [Cho et al. (2012), Nat. Commun.,3, 1072]. In the present study, we have performed a more extensive analysis of HSPA1 methylation status in cancer samples, using protein mass spectrometry. We found that the four methylation states of Lys561 on HSPA1 (un-, mono-, di- and trimethylated) could be measured accurately and reproducibly in samples from carcinomas. We investigated HSPA1 methylation in 70 effusions, representing 53 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas and 17 breast carcinomas. Notably, we found the trimethylated form of HSPA1 to be predominant in the cancer samples. HSPA1 methylation was studied for association with clinicopathologic parameters, including chemotherapy response and survival. The trimethylated form was more prevalent in breast carcinoma effusions (p = 0.014), whereas the dimethylated (p = 0.025), monomethylated (p = 0.004) and unmethylated (p = 0.021) forms were overrepresented in the ovarian carcinomas. For the ovarian carcinomas, the monomethylated (p = 0.028) and unmethylated (p = 0.007) forms were significantly related to the presence of higher residual disease volume, while the unmethylated form was significantly associated with poor overall (p = 0.015) and progression-free (p = 0.012) survival. In conclusion, lysine methylation of HSPA1 differs between metastatic breast and ovarian carcinoma, and unmethylated HSPA1 shows potential as a prognostic marker in high-grade serous carcinoma.
Project description:The yeast Set2 histone methyltransferase is a critical enzyme that plays a number of key roles in gene transcription and DNA repair. Recently, the human homologue, SETD2, was found to be recurrently mutated in a significant percentage of renal cell carcinomas, raising the possibility that the activity of SETD2 is tumor-suppressive. Using budding yeast and human cell line model systems, we examined the functional significance of two evolutionarily conserved residues in SETD2 that are recurrently mutated in human cancers. Whereas one of these mutations (R2510H), located in the Set2 Rpb1 interaction domain, did not result in an observable defect in SETD2 enzymatic function, a second mutation in the catalytic domain of this enzyme (R1625C) resulted in a complete loss of histone H3 Lys-36 trimethylation (H3K36me3). This mutant showed unchanged thermal stability as compared with the wild type protein but diminished binding to the histone H3 tail. Surprisingly, mutation of the conserved residue in Set2 (R195C) similarly resulted in a complete loss of H3K36me3 but did not affect dimethylated histone H3 Lys-36 (H3K36me2) or functions associated with H3K36me2 in yeast. Collectively, these data imply a critical role for Arg-1625 in maintaining the protein interaction with H3 and specific H3K36me3 function of this enzyme, which is conserved from yeast to humans. They also may provide a refined biochemical explanation for how H3K36me3 loss leads to genomic instability and cancer.
Project description:53BP1 (also called TP53BP1) is a chromatin-associated factor that promotes immunoglobulin class switching and DNA double-strand-break (DSB) repair by non-homologous end joining. To accomplish its function in DNA repair, 53BP1 accumulates at DSB sites downstream of the RNF168 ubiquitin ligase. How ubiquitin recruits 53BP1 to break sites remains unknown as its relocalization involves recognition of histone H4 Lys?20 (H4K20) methylation by its Tudor domain. Here we elucidate how vertebrate 53BP1 is recruited to the chromatin that flanks DSB sites. We show that 53BP1 recognizes mononucleosomes containing dimethylated H4K20 (H4K20me2) and H2A ubiquitinated on Lys?15 (H2AK15ub), the latter being a product of RNF168 action on chromatin. 53BP1 binds to nucleosomes minimally as a dimer using its previously characterized methyl-lysine-binding Tudor domain and a carboxy-terminal extension, termed the ubiquitination-dependent recruitment (UDR) motif, which interacts with the epitope formed by H2AK15ub and its surrounding residues on the H2A tail. 53BP1 is therefore a bivalent histone modification reader that recognizes a histone 'code' produced by DSB signalling.
Project description:DNA CpG methylation and histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation are two major repressive epigenetic modifications, and these methylations are positively correlated with one another in chromatin. Here we show that G9a or G9a-like protein (GLP) dimethylate the amino-terminal lysine 44 (K44) of mouse Dnmt3a (equivalent to K47 of human DNMT3A) in vitro and in cells overexpressing G9a or GLP. The chromodomain of MPP8 recognizes the dimethylated Dnmt3aK44me2. MPP8 also interacts with self-methylated GLP in a methylation-dependent manner. The MPP8 chromodomain forms a dimer in solution and in crystals, suggesting that a dimeric MPP8 molecule could bridge the methylated Dnmt3a and GLP, resulting in a silencing complex of Dnmt3a-MPP8-GLP/G9a on chromatin templates. Together, these findings provide a molecular explanation, at least in part, for the co-occurrence of DNA methylation and H3K9 methylation in chromatin.
Project description:Aldosterone is a major regulator of epithelial Na(+) absorption and acts in large part through induction of the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) gene in the renal collecting duct. We previously identified Dot1a as an aldosterone early repressed gene and a repressor of ENaCalpha transcription through mediating histone H3 Lys-79 methylation associated with the ENaCalpha promoter. Here, we report a novel aldosterone-signaling network involving AF9, Dot1a, and ENaCalpha. AF9 and Dot1a interact in vitro and in vivo as evidenced in multiple assays and colocalize in the nuclei of mIMCD3 renal collecting duct cells. Overexpression of AF9 results in hypermethylation of histone H3 Lys-79 at the endogenous ENaCalpha promoter at most, but not all subregions examined, repression of endogenous ENaCalpha mRNA expression and acts synergistically with Dot1a to inhibit ENaCalpha promoter-luciferase constructs. In contrast, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of AF9 causes the opposite effects. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays reveal that overexpressed FLAG-AF9, endogenous AF9, and Dot1a are each associated with the ENaCalpha promoter. Aldosterone negatively regulates AF9 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Thus, Dot1a-AF9 modulates histone H3 Lys-79 methylation at the ENaCalpha promoter and represses ENaCalpha transcription in an aldosterone-sensitive manner. This mechanism appears to be more broadly applicable to other aldosterone-regulated genes because overexpression of AF9 alone or in combination with Dot1a inhibited mRNA levels of three other known aldosterone-inducible genes in mIMCD3 cells.
Project description:Methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3 Lys-4) or lysine 9 (H3 Lys-9) is known to define active and silent chromosomal domains respectively from fission yeast to humans. However, in budding yeast, H3 Lys-4 methylation is also necessary for silent chromatin assembly at telomeres and ribosomal DNA. Here we demonstrate that deletion of set1, which encodes a protein containing an RNA recognition motif at its amino terminus and a SET domain at the carboxy terminus, abolishes H3 Lys-4 methylation in fission yeast. Unlike in budding yeast, Set1-mediated H3 Lys-4 methylation is not required for heterochromatin assembly at the silent mating-type region and centromeres in fission yeast. Our analysis suggests that H3 Lys-4 methylation is a stable histone modification present throughout the cell cycle, including mitosis. The loss of H3 Lys-4 methylation in set1Delta cells is correlated with a decrease in histone H3 acetylation levels, suggesting a mechanistic link between H3 Lys-4 methylation and acetylation of the H3 tail. We suggest that methylation of H3 Lys-4 primarily acts in the maintenance of transcriptionally poised euchromatic domains, and that this modification is dispensable for heterochromatin formation in fission yeast, which instead utilizes H3 Lys-9 methylation.
Project description:Set2-mediated H3 Lys(36) methylation is a histone modification that has been demonstrated to function in transcriptional elongation by recruiting the Rpd3S histone deacetylase complex to repress intragenic cryptic transcription. Recently, we identified a trans-histone pathway in which the interaction between the N terminus of Set2 and histone H4 Lys(44) is needed to mediate trans-histone H3 Lys(36) di- and trimethylation. In the current study, we demonstrate that mutation of the lysine 44 residue in histone H4 or the Set2 mutant lacking the histone H4 interaction motif leads to intragenic cryptic transcripts, indicating that the Set2 and histone H4 interaction is important to repress intragenic cryptic transcription. We also determine that histone H2A residues (Leu(116) and Leu(117)), which are in close proximity to histone H4 Lys(44), are needed for proper trans-histone H3 Lys(36) methylation. Similar to H4 Lys(44) mutants, histone H2A Leu(116) and Leu(117) mutations exhibited decreased H3 Lys(36) di- and trimethylation, increased histone H4 acetylation, increased resistance to 6-azauracil, and cryptic transcription. Interestingly, the combined histone H4 Lys(44) and H2A mutations have more severe methylation defects and increased H4 acetylation levels. Furthermore, we identify that additional histone H2A and H3 core residues are also needed for H3 Lys(36) di- and trimethylation. Overall, our results show and suggest that multiple H4, H2A, and H3 residues contribute to and form a Set2 docking/recognition site on the nucleosomal surface so that proper Set2-mediated H3 Lys(36) di- and trimethylation, histone acetylation, and transcriptional elongation can occur.