Adsorption of hydroxamate siderophores and EDTA on goethite in the presence of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate.
ABSTRACT: Siderophore-promoted iron acquisition by microorganisms usually occurs in the presence of other organic molecules, including biosurfactants. We have investigated the influence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the adsorption of the siderophores DFOB (cationic) and DFOD (neutral) and the ligand EDTA (anionic) onto goethite (alpha-FeOOH) at pH 6. We also studied the adsorption of the corresponding 1:1 Fe(III)-ligand complexes, which are products of the dissolution process. Adsorption of the two free siderophores increased in a similar fashion with increasing SDS concentration, despite their difference in molecule charge. In contrast, SDS had little effect on the adsorption of EDTA. Adsorption of the Fe-DFOB and Fe-DFOD complexes also increased with increasing SDS concentrations, while adsorption of Fe-EDTA decreased. Our results suggest that hydrophobic interactions between adsorbed surfactants and siderophores are more important than electrostatic interactions. However, for strongly hydrophilic molecules, such as EDTA and its iron complex, the influence of SDS on their adsorption seems to depend on their tendency to form inner-sphere or outer-sphere surface complexes. Our results demonstrate that surfactants have a strong influence on the adsorption of siderophores to Fe oxides, which has important implications for siderophore-promoted dissolution of iron oxides and biological iron acquisition.
Project description:Although the biochemistry of bacterial and fungal siderophores has been intensively studied in laboratory cultures, their distribution and impacts on nutrient cycling and microbial communities in soils remain poorly understood. The detection of siderophores in soil is an analytical challenge because of the complexity of the soil matrix and their structural diversity. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a suitable method for the sensitive analysis of siderophores in complex samples; however, siderophore extraction into liquid phases for analysis by LC-MS is problematic because of their adsorption to soil particles and organic matter. To determine extraction efficiencies of structurally diverse siderophores, spike-recovery experiments were set up with standards representing the three main siderophore classes: the hydroxamate desferrioxamine B (DFOB), the ?-hydroxycarboxylate rhizoferrin, and the catecholate protochelin. Previously used solvent extractions with water or methanol recovered only a small fraction (< 35%) of siderophores, including < 5% for rhizoferrin and protochelin. We designed combinatorial chemical extractions (22 total solutions) to target siderophores associated with different soil components. A combination of calcium chloride and ascorbate achieved high and, for some soils, quantitative extraction of DFOB and rhizoferrin. Protochelin analysis was complicated by potential fast oxidation and interactions with colloidal soil components. Using the optimized extraction method, we detected ?-hydroxycarboxylate type siderophores (viz. rhizoferrin, vibrioferrin, and aerobactin) in soil for the first time. Concentrations reached 461 pmol g-1, exceeding previously reported concentrations of siderophores in soil and suggesting a yet unrecognized importance of ?-hydroxycarboxylate siderophores for biological interactions and biogeochemical processes in soil.
Project description:Iron is an essential element for all organisms, and microorganisms produce small molecule iron-chelators, siderophores, to efficiently acquire Fe(III). Gram-positive bacteria possess lipoprotein siderophore-binding proteins (SBPs) on the membrane. Some of the SBPs bind both apo-siderophores (iron-free) and Fe-siderophore (iron-chelated) and only import Fe-siderophores. When the SBP initially binds an apo-siderophore, the SBP uses the Gram-positive siderophore-shuttle mechanism (the SBPs exchange Fe(III) from a Fe-siderophore to the apo-siderophore bound to the protein) and/or displacement mechanism (the apo-siderophore bound to the SBP is released and a Fe-siderophore is then bound to the protein) to import the Fe-siderophore. Previously, we reported that the Bacillus cereus SBP, YxeB, exchanges Fe(III) from a ferrioxamine B (FO) to a desferrioxamine B (DFO) bound to YxeB using the siderophore-shuttle mechanism although the iron exchange was indirectly elucidated. Synthetic Cr-DFO (inert metal FO analog) and Ga-DFO (nonreducible FO analog) are bound to YxeB and imported via YxeB and the corresponding permeases and ATPase. YxeB exchanges Fe(III) from FO and Ga(III) from Ga-DFO to DFO bound to the protein, indicating that the metal-exchange occurs without metal reduction. YxeB also binds DFO derivatives including acetylated DFO (apo-siderophore) and acetylated FO (AcFO, Fe-siderophore). The iron from AcFO is transferred to DFO when bound to YxeB, giving direct evidence of iron exchange. Moreover, YxeB also uses the displacement mechanism when ferrichrome (Fch) is added to the DFO:YxeB complex. Uptake by the displacement mechanism is a minor pathway compared to the shuttle mechanism.
Project description:More than 60% of species examined from a total of 421 strains of heterotrophic marine bacteria which were isolated from marine sponges and seawater were observed to have no detectable siderophore production even when Fe(III) was present in the culture medium at a concentration of 1.0 pM. The growth of one such non-siderophore-producing strain, alpha proteobacterium V0210, was stimulated under iron-limited conditions with the addition of an isolated exogenous siderophore, N,N'-bis (2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-O-serylserine from a Vibrio sp. Growth was also stimulated by the addition of three exogenous siderophore extracts from siderophore-producing bacteria. Radioisotope studies using (59)Fe showed that the iron uptake ability of V0210 increased only with the addition of exogenous siderophores. Biosynthesis of a hydroxamate siderophore by V0210 was shown by paper electrophoresis and chemical assays for the detection of hydroxamates and catechols. An 85-kDa iron-regulated outer membrane protein was induced only under iron-limited conditions in the presence of exogenous siderophores. This is the first report of bacterial iron uptake through an induced siderophore in response to exogenous siderophores. Our results suggest that siderophores are necessary signaling compounds for growth and for iron uptake by some non-siderophore-producing marine bacteria under iron-limited conditions.
Project description:Small molecule iron-chelators, siderophores, are very important in facilitating the acquisition of Fe(III), an essential element for pathogenic bacteria. Many Gram-negative outer-membrane transporters and Gram-positive lipoprotein siderophore-binding proteins have been characterized, and the binding ability of outer-membrane transporters and siderophore-binding proteins for Fe-siderophores has been determined. However, there is little information regarding the binding ability of these proteins for apo-siderophores, the iron-free chelators. Here we report that Bacillus cereus YxeB facilitates iron-exchange from Fe-siderophore to apo-siderophore bound to the protein, the first Gram-positive siderophore-shuttle system. YxeB binds ferrioxamine B (FO, Fe-siderophore)/desferrioxamine B (DFO, apo-siderophore) in vitro. Disc-diffusion assays and growth assays using the yxeB mutant reveal that YxeB is responsible for importing the FO. Cr-DFO (a FO analog) is bound by YxeB in vitro and B. cereus imports or binds Cr-DFO in vivo. In vivo uptake assays using Cr-DFO and FO and growth assays using DFO and Cr-DFO show that B. cereus selectively imports and uses FO when DFO is present. Moreover, in vitro competition assays using Cr-DFO and FO clearly demonstrate that YxeB binds only FO, not Cr-DFO, when DFO is bound to the protein. Iron-exchange from FO to DFO bound to YxeB must occur when DFO is initially bound by YxeB. Because the metal exchange rate is generally first order in replacement ligand concentration, protein binding of the apo-siderophore acts to dramatically enhance the iron exchange rate, a key component of the Gram-positive siderophore-shuttle mechanism.
Project description:Iron (Fe) is the most important metal in biology. Despite its abundance, Fe is mostly present as a ferric form in soils, strongly limiting its bioavailability. To overcome the challenge of Fe acquisition, many microorganisms produce siderophores to retrieve Fe from natural sources. Another ubiquitous feature of bacteria in natural environments is biofilm formation. Previous studies showed that external Fe strongly influenced biofilm formation in several bacteria, suggesting that this microenvironment plays a mechanistic role in micronutrient acquisition for bacteria. Here, we applied a complementary set of analytical methods and deletion mutants to evaluate the role of biofilm formation, siderophore production, and their interaction in Fe homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis We observed that Fe homeostasis, i.e., active growth at a constant intracellular Fe concentration, requires both siderophore production and biofilm formation. Also, we report that in B. subtilis, both biofilm formation and siderophore production are required to achieve active Fe acquisition from the medium and to sustain normal growth. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the formation of biofilm slightly enhances the kinetics of Fe complexation by catechol siderophores and markedly improves siderophore use efficiency. These results provide new perspectives on the mechanism underlying siderophore-based acquisition of Fe in biofilm-forming bacteria.IMPORTANCE Iron acquisition is of fundamental importance for microorganisms, since this metal is generally poorly bioavailable under natural conditions. In the environment, most bacteria are found tightly packed within multicellular communities named biofilms. Here, using the soil Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, we show that biofilm formation and the production of siderophores, i.e., small molecules specifically binding metals, are both essential to ensure Fe uptake from the medium and maintain cellular Fe homeostasis. The biofilm matrix appears to play an important role favoring the efficient usage of siderophores. Taken together, our results demonstrate a close link between biofilm formation and iron acquisition in B. subtilis, allowing a better comprehension of how bacteria can cope with metal limitation under environmental conditions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Iron is essential for bacterial survival. Bacterial siderophores are small molecules with unmatched capacity to scavenge iron from proteins and the extracellular milieu, where it mostly occurs as insoluble Fe<sup>3+</sup>. Siderophores chelate Fe<sup>3+</sup> for uptake into the cell, where it is reduced to soluble Fe<sup>2+</sup>. Siderophores are key molecules in low soluble iron conditions. The ability of bacteria to synthesize proprietary siderophores may have increased bacterial evolutionary fitness; one way that bacteria diversify siderophore structure is by incorporating different polyamine backbones while maintaining the catechol moieties.<h4>Results</h4>We report that Serratia plymuthica V4 produces a variety of siderophores, which we term the siderome, and which are assembled by the concerted action of enzymes encoded in two independent gene clusters. Besides assembling serratiochelin A and B with diaminopropane, S. plymuthica utilizes putrescine and the same set of enzymes to assemble photobactin, a siderophore found in the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. The enzymes encoded by one of the gene clusters can independently assemble enterobactin. A third, independent operon is responsible for biosynthesis of the hydroxamate siderophore aerobactin, initially described in Enterobacter aerogenes. Mutant strains not synthesizing polyamine-siderophores significantly increased enterobactin production levels, though lack of enterobactin did not impact the production of serratiochelins. Knocking out SchF0, an enzyme involved in the assembly of enterobactin alone, significantly reduced bacterial fitness.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study shows the natural occurrence of serratiochelins, photobactin, enterobactin, and aerobactin in a single bacterial species and illuminates the interplay between siderophore biosynthetic pathways and polyamine production, indicating routes of molecular diversification. Given its natural yields of diaminopropane (97.75??mol/g DW) and putrescine (30.83??mol/g DW), S. plymuthica can be exploited for the industrial production of these compounds.
Project description:Dissolution of Fe(III) phases is a key process in making iron available to biota and in the mobilization of associated trace elements. Recently, we have demonstrated that submicromolar concentrations of Fe(II) significantly accelerate rates of ligand-controlled dissolution of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides at circumneutral pH. Here, we extend this work by studying isotope exchange and dissolution with lepidocrocite (Lp) and goethite (Gt) in the presence of 20 or 50 ?M desferrioxamine-B (DFOB). Experiments with Lp at pH 7.0 were conducted in carbonate-buffered suspensions to mimic environmental conditions. We applied a simple empirical model to determine dissolution rates and a more complex kinetic model that accounts for the observed isotope exchange and catalytic effect of Fe(II). The fate of added tracer 57Fe(II) was strongly dependent on the order of addition of 57Fe(II) and ligand. When DFOB was added first, tracer 57Fe remained in solution. When 57Fe(II) was added first, isotope exchange between surface and solution could be observed at pH 6.0 but not at pH 7.0 and 8.5 where 57Fe(II) was almost completely adsorbed. During dissolution of Lp with DFOB, ratios of released 56Fe and 57Fe were largely independent of DFOB concentrations. In the absence of DFOB, addition of phenanthroline 30 min after tracer 57Fe desorbed predominantly 56Fe(II), indicating that electron transfer from adsorbed 57Fe to 56Fe of the Lp surface occurs on a time scale of minutes to hours. In contrast, comparable experiments with Gt desorbed predominantly 57Fe(II), suggesting a longer time scale for electron transfer on the Gt surface. Our results show that addition of 1-5 ?M Fe(II) leads to dynamic charge transfer between dissolved and adsorbed species and to isotope exchange at the surface, with the dissolution of Lp by ligands accelerated by up to 60-fold.
Project description:Pyochelin (Pch) and enantio-pyochelin (EPch) are enantiomer siderophores that are produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens, respectively, under iron limitation. Pch promotes growth of P. aeruginosa when iron is scarce, and EPch carries out the same biological function in P. fluorescens. However, the two siderophores are unable to promote growth in the heterologous species, indicating that siderophore-mediated iron uptake is highly stereospecific. In the present work, using binding and iron uptake assays, we found that FptA, the Fe-Pch outer membrane transporter of P. aeruginosa, recognized (K(d) = 2.5 +/- 1.1 nm) and transported Fe-Pch but did not interact with Fe-EPch. Likewise, FetA, the Fe-EPch receptor of P. fluorescens, was specific for Fe-EPch (K(d) = 3.7 +/- 2.1 nm) but did not bind and transport Fe-Pch. Growth promotion experiments performed under iron-limiting conditions confirmed that FptA and FetA are highly specific for Pch and EPch, respectively. When fptA and fetA along with adjacent transport genes involved in siderophore uptake were swapped between the two bacterial species, P. aeruginosa became able to utilize Fe-EPch as an iron source, and P. fluorescens was able to grow with Fe-Pch. Docking experiments using the FptA structure and binding assays showed that the stereospecificity of Pch recognition by FptA was mostly due to the configuration of the siderophore chiral centers C4'' and C2'' and was only weakly dependent on the configuration of the C4' carbon atom. Together, these findings increase our understanding of the stereospecific interaction between Pch and its outer membrane receptor FptA.
Project description:Siderophores are essential factors for iron (Fe) acquisition in bacteria during colonization and infection of eukaryotic hosts, which restrain iron access through iron-binding protein, such as lactoferrin and transferrin. The synthesis of siderophores by Escherichia coli is considered to be fully regulated at the transcriptional level by the Fe-responsive transcriptional repressor Fur. Here we characterized two different pathways that promote the production of the siderophore enterobactin via the action of the small RNA RyhB. First, RyhB is required for normal expression of an important enterobactin biosynthesis polycistron, entCEBAH. Second, RyhB directly represses the translation of cysE, which encodes a serine acetyltransferase that uses serine as a substrate for cysteine biosynthesis. Reduction of CysE activity by RyhB allows serine to be used as building blocks for enterobactin synthesis through the nonribosomal peptide synthesis pathway. Thus, RyhB plays an essential role in siderophore production and may modulate bacterial virulence through optimization of siderophore production.
Project description:Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough. This pathogenic bacterium can obtain the essential nutrient iron using its native alcaligin siderophore and by utilizing xeno-siderophores such as desferrioxamine B, ferrichrome, and enterobactin. Previous genome-wide expression profiling identified an iron repressible B. pertussis gene encoding a periplasmic protein (FbpABp). A previously reported crystal structure shows significant similarity between FbpABp and previously characterized bacterial iron binding proteins, and established its iron-binding ability. Bordetella growth studies determined that FbpABp was required for utilization of not only unchelated iron, but also utilization of iron bound to both native and xeno-siderophores. In this in vitro solution study, we quantified the binding of unchelated ferric iron to FbpABp in the presence of various anions and importantly, we demonstrated that FbpABp binds all the ferric siderophores tested (native and xeno) with ?M affinity. In silico modeling augmented solution data. FbpABp was incapable of iron removal from ferric xeno-siderophores in vitro. However, when FbpABp was reacted with native ferric-alcaligin, it elicited a pronounced change in the iron coordination environment, which may signify an early step in FbpABp-mediated iron removal from the native siderophore. To our knowledge, this is the first time the periplasmic component of an iron uptake system has been shown to bind iron directly as Fe(3+) and indirectly as a ferric siderophore complex.