Hypothalamic neuroendocrine circuitry is programmed by maternal obesity: interaction with postnatal nutritional environment.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Early life nutrition is critical for the development of hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis. We previously showed that intrauterine and early postnatal overnutrition programmed hypothalamic neurons expressing the appetite stimulator neuropeptide Y (NPY) and suppressor proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in offspring at weaning. However, the long-term effects of such programming and its interactions with post-weaning high-fat-diet (HFD) consumption are unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or HFD for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal day 1, litters were adjusted to 3/litter to induce postnatal overnutrition (vs. 12 in control). At postnatal day 20, half of the rats from each maternal group were weaned onto chow or HFD for 15 weeks. Hypothalamic appetite regulators, and fuel (glucose and lipid) metabolic markers were measured. RESULTS:Offspring from obese dams gained more weight than those from lean dams independent of post-weaning diet. Maternal obesity interacted with post-weaning HFD consumption to cause greater levels of hyperphagia, adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and glucose intolerance in offspring. This was linked to increased hypothalamic NPY signaling and leptin resistance in adult offspring. Litter size reduction had a detrimental impact on insulin and adiponectin, while hypothalamic NPY and POMC mRNA expression were suppressed in the face of normal energy intake and weight gain. CONCLUSIONS:Maternal obesity, postnatal litter size reduction and post-weaning HFD consumption caused obesity via different neuroendocrine mechanism. There were strong additive effects of maternal obesity and post-weaning HFD consumption to increase the metabolic disorders in offspring.
Project description:Intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition program hyperphagia, adiposity and glucose intolerance in offspring. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been linked to increased risk of obesity. FTO is highly expressed in hypothalamic regions critical for energy balance and hyperphagic phenotypes were linked with FTO SNPs. As nutrition during fetal development can influence the expression of genes involved in metabolic function, we investigated the impact of maternal obesity on FTO.Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or high fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal day 1 (PND1), some litters were adjusted to 3 pups (vs. 12 control) to induce postnatal overnutrition. At PND20, rats were weaned onto chow or HFD for 15 weeks. FTO mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and liver, as well as hepatic markers of lipid metabolism were measured.At weaning, hypothalamic FTO mRNA expression was increased significantly in offspring of obese mothers and FTO was correlated with both visceral and epididymal fat mass (P<0.05); body weight approached significance (P?=?0.07). Hepatic FTO and Fatty Acid Synthase mRNA expression were decreased by maternal obesity. At 18 weeks, FTO mRNA expression did not differ between groups; however body weight was significantly correlated with hypothalamic FTO. Postnatal HFD feeding significantly reduced hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1a but did not affect the expression of other hepatic markers investigated. FTO was not affected by chronic HFD feeding.Maternal obesity significantly impacted FTO expression in both hypothalamus and liver at weaning. Early overexpression of hypothalamic FTO correlated with increased adiposity and later food intake of siblings exposed to HFD suggesting upregulation of FTO may contribute to subsequent hyperphagia, in line with some human data. No effect of maternal obesity was observed on FTO in adulthood.
Project description:Maternal obesity and consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy has a negative impact on offspring, including an increased risk for the development of obesity in adolescence. The mechanism for this transferred metabolic risk is unclear, but many studies have focused on the brain due to its important role in appetite and body-weight regulation. Two main pathways regulate appetite in the brain; homeostatic regulation that occurs predominantly in hypothalamic circuits and hedonic regulation of feeding that occurs via dopaminergic pathways. The current proposal examined the impact of early HFD exposure on the dopaminergic control of hedonic feeding pathways in a translational nonhuman primate model. Japanese macaque offspring from mothers consuming a control (CTR) or HFD were weaned onto control or HFD at an average 8 months of age yielding four groups: maternal and post-weaning control diet (mCTRpCTR), maternal control diet and post-weaning HFD (mCTRpHFD), maternal HFD and post-weaning control diet (mHFDpCTR) and maternal and post-weaning HFD (mHFDpHFD). Brains from 13-month-old offspring were evaluated for expression of neuropeptides that regulate dopaminergic pathways including orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Orexin cell numbers in the LH were significantly increased in animals exposed to a post-weaning HFD, while no difference was observed for orexin mRNA content or MCH cell numbers. Orexin fiber projections to the rostral VTA were significantly reduced in mCTRpHFD, mHFDpCTR, and mHFDpHFD groups, but these differences were not significant in the caudal VTA. There was no difference in the percentage of dopamine neurons receiving close appositions from orexin fibers in either the rostral or caudal VTA, nor was there any difference between groups in the number of orexin contacts per TH cell. In conclusion, the current study finds that prolonged early exposure to HFD during the in utero and postnatal period causes alterations at several levels in the dopaminergic circuits regulating reward.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To utilize a nonhuman primate model to examine the impact of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption and pre-pregnancy obesity on offspring intake of palatable food and to examine whether maternal HFD consumption impaired development of the dopamine system, critical for the regulation of hedonic feeding. METHODS:The impact of exposure to maternal HFD and obesity on offspring consumption of diets of varying composition was assessed after weaning. The influence of maternal HFD consumption on the development of the prefrontal cortex-dopaminergic system at 13 months of age was also examined. RESULTS:During a preference test, offspring exposed to maternal HFD consumption and obesity displayed increased intake of food high in fat and sugar content relative to offspring from lean control mothers. Maternal HFD consumption suppressed offspring dopamine signaling (as assessed by immunohistochemistry) relative to control offspring. Specifically, there was decreased abundance of dopamine fibers and of dopamine receptor 1 and 2 proteins. CONCLUSIONS:This study reveals that offspring exposed to both maternal HFD consumption and maternal obesity during early development are at increased risk for obesity due to overconsumption of palatable energy-dense food, a behavior that may be related to reduced central dopamine signaling.
Project description:Purpose:Maternal obesity has emerged as an important risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders in the offspring. The hypothalamus as the center of energy homeostasis regulation is known to function based on complex neuronal networks that evolve during fetal and early postnatal development and maintain their plasticity into adulthood. Development of hypothalamic feeding networks and their functional plasticity can be modulated by various metabolic cues, especially in early stages of development. Here, we aimed at determining the underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to disturbed hypothalamic network formation in offspring of obese mouse dams. Methods:Female mice were fed either a control diet (CO) or a high-fat diet (HFD) after weaning until mating and during pregnancy and gestation. Male offspring was sacrificed at postnatal day (P) 21. The hypothalamus was subjected to gene array analysis, quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. Results:P21 HFD offspring displayed increased body weight, circulating insulin levels, and strongly increased activation of the hypothalamic insulin signaling cascade with a concomitant increase in ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA1) expression. At the same time, the global gene expression profile in CO and HFD offspring differed significantly. More specifically, manifest influences on several key pathways of hypothalamic neurogenesis, axogenesis, and regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity were detectable. Target gene expression analysis revealed significantly decreased mRNA expression of several neurotrophic factors and co-factors and their receptors, accompanied by decreased activation of their respective intracellular signal transduction. Conclusion:Taken together, these results suggest a potential role for disturbed neurotrophin signaling and thus impaired neurogenesis, axogenesis, and synaptic plasticity in the pathogenesis of the offspring's hypothalamic feeding network dysfunction due to maternal obesity.
Project description:In the present project we examined the effects of maternal obesity to offspring hypothalamic tissue at postnatal day (P) 21. Maternal obesity has emerged as an important risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders in the offspring.To obtain an overview of affected genes in the offsprings hypothalamus, the center of hunger and satiety in the brain, we performed whole genome microarray expression profiling. Female mice were fed either a control diet (SD) or a high fat diet (HFD) after weaning until mating and during pregnancy and gestation. On P21, male pups were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for further analyses. The hypothalamus was cut immediately caudal to the optic chiasm. The dissection was limited laterally by the hypothalamic sulci and dorsally by the mammillothalamic tract. Hypothalamic tissue was immediately frozen at −80° C. A maximum of two offspring per dam were analysed to minimize litter-dependent bias. All studies were performed using male offspring. Overall design: Microarray experiments of mice hypothalamic RNA were performed as single-color experiments using 4_44K Mouse (v2) Whole Genome Arrays from Agilent Technologies (Santa Clara, CA). First, differentially expressed genes between the CO group and HFD group, were identified using the Rank Product test. Genes were called significant with a percentage false positive below 0.001. All statistical calculations were performed using R version 3.1.2 and Bioconductor. Functional Annotation Clustering was performed by DAVID Bioinformatics Resources (http://david 6.7.abcc.ncifcrf.gov/home.jsp).
Project description:Perinatal exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet (HFD) consumption not only poses metabolic risks to offspring but also impacts brain development and mental health. Using a non-human primate model, we observed a persistent increase in anxiety in juvenile offspring exposed to a maternal HFD. Postweaning HFD consumption also increased anxiety and independently increased stereotypic behaviors. These behavioral changes were associated with modified cortisol stress response and impairments in the development of the central serotonin synthesis, with altered tryptophan hydroxylase-2 mRNA expression in the dorsal and median raphe. Postweaning HFD consumption decreased serotonergic immunoreactivity in area 10 of the prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to HFD consumption programs development of the brain and endocrine system, leading to behavioral impairments associated with mental health and neurodevelopmental disorders. Also, an early nutritional intervention (consumption of the control diet at weaning) was not sufficient to ameliorate many of the behavioral changes, such as increased anxiety, that were induced by maternal HFD consumption. Given the level of dietary fat consumption and maternal obesity in developed nations these findings have important implications for the mental health of future generations.
Project description:SCOPE:We investigated the long-term effects of maternal high-fat consumption and post-weaning exercise on offspring obesity susceptibility and insulin resistance. METHODS:C57BL/6J dams were fed either a high-fat (HFD, 40% kcal fat) or low-fat (LFD, 10% kcal fat) semi-synthetic diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both maternal diet groups (mLFD; mHFD) received a LFD. At week 7, half of the mice got access to a running wheel (+RW) as voluntary exercise training. To induce obesity, all offspring groups (mLFD +/-RW and mHFD +/-RW) received HFD from week 15 until week 25. RESULTS:Compared to mLFD, mHFD offspring were more prone to HFD-induced body fat gain and exhibited an increased liver mass which was not due to increased hepatic triglyceride levels. RW improved the endurance capacity in mLFD, but not in mHFD offspring. Additionally, mHFD offspring +RW exhibited higher plasma insulin levels during glucose tolerance test and an elevated basal pancreatic insulin production compared to mLFD offspring. CONCLUSION:Taken together, maternal HFD reduced offspring responsiveness to the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise training regarding the improvement of endurance capacity, reduction of fat mass gain, and amelioration of HFD-induced insulin resistance.
Project description:The contributions of maternal diet and obesity in shaping offspring microbiome remain unclear. Here we employed a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity via high-fat diet feeding (HFD, 45% fat calories) for 12 wk prior to conception on offspring gut microbial ecology. Male and female offspring were provided access to control or HFD from weaning until 17 wk of age. Maternal HFD-associated programming was sexually dimorphic, with male offspring from HFD dams showing hyper-responsive weight gain to postnatal HFD. Likewise, microbiome analysis of offspring cecal contents showed differences in ?-diversity, ?-diversity and higher Firmicutes in male compared to female mice. Weight gain in offspring was significantly associated with abundance of Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiaceae families and Adlercreutzia, Coprococcus and Lactococcus genera. Sex differences in metagenomic pathways relating to lipid metabolism, bile acid biosynthesis and immune response were also observed. HFD-fed male offspring from HFD dams also showed worse hepatic pathology, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, altered expression of bile acid regulators (Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1 and Cyp39a1) and serum bile acid concentrations. These findings suggest that maternal HFD alters gut microbiota composition and weight gain of offspring in a sexually dimorphic manner, coincident with fatty liver and a pro-inflammatory state in male offspring.
Project description:Previous reports have shown that the early postnatal environment has the ability to modify the obesity phenotype of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. To determine whether this early postnatal environment affects hypothalamic signaling systems involved in energy balance, OLETF pups and lean Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) pups were cross-fostered to same or opposite strain Dams (designated as LdLp: LETO pups with LETO dams; LdOp: OLETF pups with LETO dams; OdLp: LETO pups with OLETF dams; and OdOp: OLETF pups with OLETF dams). Hypothalamic gene expression was examined at postnatal day 23 (PND 23) and PND 90 as OdOp rats started to gain more body weight at PND 23 and developed obesity at PND 90 relative to lean control LdLp rats. On PND 23, neuropeptide Y (Npy) gene expression was significantly increased in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) in both LdOp and OdOp pups compared to LdLp pups. Maternal environment did not affect DMH Npy expression in LETO weanlings. On PND 90, maternal environment during the cross-fostering period had a major effect on DMH Npy expression. Levels were significantly increased in both OdOp and OdLp rats relative to those in LdOp rats and LdLp controls. Reduced expression of Npy in the DMH of LdOp rats was consistent with their reduction of body weight compared to OdOp rats. In contrast to DMH Npy, gene expression for Npy and proopiomelanocortin in the arcuate nucleus appeared to appropriately respond to alterations in body weight and plasma leptin levels. Levels of oxytocin gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus were lower in offspring raised by LETO dams apparently responding to the higher DMH NPY levels. Together, our results demonstrate effects of both genotype and early postnatal environment on obesity of OLETF rats and further suggest an important role of DMH NPY in the development of obesity of OLETF rats.
Project description:Maternal smoking leads to intrauterine undernutrition and is associated with low birthweight and higher risk of offspring obesity. Intrauterine smoke exposure (SE) may alter neuroendocrine mediators regulating energy homeostasis as chemicals in cigarette smoke can reach the fetus. Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption causes fetal overnutrition; however, combined effects of HFD and SE are unknown. Thus we investigated the impact of combined maternal HFD and SE on adiposity and energy metabolism in offspring.Female Balb/c mice had SE (2 cigarettes/day, 5 days/week) or were sham exposed for 5 weeks before mating. Half of each group was fed HFD (33% fat) versus chow as control. The same treatment continued throughout gestation and lactation. Female offspring were fed chow after weaning and sacrificed at 12 weeks.Birthweights were similar across maternal groups. Faster growth was evident in pups from SE and/or HFD dams before weaning. At 12 weeks, offspring from HFD-fed dams were significantly heavier than those from chow-fed dams (chow-sham 17.6±0.3 g; chow-SE 17.8±0.2 g; HFD-sham 18.7±0.3 g; HFD-SE 18.8±0.4 g, P<0.05 maternal diet effect); fat mass was significantly greater in offspring from chow+SE, HFD+SE and HFD+sham dams. Both maternal HFD and SE affected brain lactate transport. Glucose intolerance and impaired brain response to insulin were observed in SE offspring, and this was aggravated by maternal HFD consumption.While maternal HFD led to increased body weight in offspring, maternal SE independently programmed adverse health outcomes in offspring. A smoke free environment and healthy diet during pregnancy is desirable to optimize offspring health.