Cdh1 regulates cell cycle through modulating the claspin/Chk1 and the Rb/E2F1 pathways.
ABSTRACT: APC/Cdh1 is a major cell cycle regulator and its function has been implicated in DNA damage repair; however, its exact role remains unclear. Using affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified Claspin as a novel Cdh1-interacting protein and further demonstrated that Claspin is a novel Cdh1 ubiquitin substrate. As a result, inactivation of Cdh1 leads to activation of the Claspin/Chk1 pathway. Previously, we demonstrated that Rb interacts with Cdh1 to influence its ability to degrade Skp2. Here, we report that Cdh1 reciprocally regulates the Rb pathway through competing with E2F1 to bind the hypophosphorylated form of Rb. Although inactivation of Cdh1 in HeLa cells, with defective p53/Rb pathways, led to premature S phase entry, acute depletion of Cdh1 in primary human fibroblasts resulted in premature senescence. Acute loss of many other major tumor suppressors, including PTEN and VHL, also induces premature senescence in a p53- or Rb-dependent manner. Similarly, we showed that inactivation of the p53/Rb pathways by overexpression of SV40 LT-antigen partially reversed Cdh1 depletion-induced growth arrest. Therefore, loss of Cdh1 is only beneficial to cells with abnormal p53 and Rb pathways, which helps explain why Cdh1 loss is not frequently found in many tumors.
Project description:Claspin is an adaptor protein that facilitates the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated phosphorylation and activation of Chk1, a key effector kinase in the DNA damage response. Efficient termination of Chk1 signaling in mitosis and during checkpoint recovery requires SCF(betaTrCP)-dependent destruction of Claspin. Here, we identify the deubiquitylating enzyme ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) as a novel regulator of Claspin stability. Claspin and USP7 interact in vivo, and USP7 is required to maintain steady-state levels of Claspin. Furthermore, USP7-mediated deubiquitylation markedly prolongs the half-life of Claspin, which in turn increases the magnitude and duration of Chk1 phosphorylation in response to genotoxic stress. Finally, we find that in addition to the M phase-specific, SCF(betaTrCP)-mediated degradation, Claspin is destabilized by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and thus remains unstable in G1. Importantly, we demonstrate that USP7 specifically opposes the SCF(betaTrCP)- but not APC(Cdh1)-mediated degradation of Claspin. Thus, Claspin turnover is controlled by multiple ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation activities, which together provide a flexible means to regulate the ATR-Chk1 pathway.
Project description:Whereas many components regulating the progression from S phase through G2 phase into mitosis have been identified, the mechanism by which these components control this critical cell cycle progression is still not fully elucidated. Cyclin A/Cdk2 has been shown to regulate the timing of Cyclin B/Cdk1 activation and progression into mitosis although the mechanism by which this occurs is only poorly understood. Here we show that depletion of Cyclin A or inhibition of Cdk2 during late S/early G2 phase maintains the G2 phase arrest by reducing Cdh1 transcript and protein levels, thereby stabilizing Claspin and maintaining elevated levels of activated Chk1 which contributes to the G2 phase observed. Interestingly, the Cyclin A/Cdk2 regulated APC/C(Cdh1) activity is selective for only a subset of Cdh1 targets including Claspin. Thus, a normal role for Cyclin A/Cdk2 during early G2 phase is to increase the level of Cdh1 which destabilises Claspin which in turn down regulates Chk1 activation to allow progression into mitosis. This mechanism links S phase exit with G2 phase transit into mitosis, provides a novel insight into the roles of Cyclin A/Cdk2 in G2 phase progression, and identifies a novel role for APC/C(Cdh1) in late S/G2 phase cell cycle progression.
Project description:Cellular senescence results in proliferation arrest and acquisition of hallmarks such as the Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP). Senescence is involved in regulating numerous physio-pathological responses, including embryonic development, cancer, and several aging-related diseases. Only a few kinases, centered on the RAS signaling pathway, have been identified as inducing premature senescence. About possible other senescence-regulating kinases and signaling pathways, practically little is known. By screening a library of activated kinases, we identified 33 kinases whose constitutive expression decreases cell proliferation and induces expression of senescence markers; p16 and SASP components. Focusing on some kinases showing the strongest pro-senescence effects, we observed that they all induce expression of SASP-component genes through activation of an NF-?B-dependent transcriptional program. Furthermore, inhibition of the p53 or Rb pathway failed to prevent the SASP-inducing effect of pro-senescence kinases. Inhibition of the NF-?B, p53, or Rb pathway proved insufficient to prevent kinase-triggered cell cycle arrest. We have thus identified a repertoire of novel pro-senescence kinases and pathways. These results will open new perspectives in the understanding on the role of cellular senescence in various physio-pathological responses.
Project description:Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase aberrantly expressed in a variety of tumor types, most notably in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) where a chromosomal translocation generates the oncogenic fusion protein, Nucleophosmin-ALK (NPM-ALK). Whilst much is known regarding the mechanism of transformation by NPM-ALK, the existence of cellular defence pathways to prevent this pathological process has not been investigated. Employing the highly tractable primary murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) system we show that cellular transformation is not an inevitable consequence of NPM-ALK activity but is combated by p53 and Rb. Activation of p53 and/or Rb by NPM-ALK triggers a potent proliferative block with features reminiscent of senescence. While loss of p53 alone is sufficient to circumvent NPM-ALK-induced senescence and permit cellular transformation, sole loss of Rb permits continued proliferation but not transformation due to p53-imposed restraints. Furthermore, NPM-ALK attenuates p53 activity in an Rb and MDM2 dependent manner but this activity is not sufficient to bypass senescence. These data indicate that senescence may constitute an effective barrier to ALK-induced malignancies that ultimately must be overcome for tumor development.
Project description:TopBP1 and Claspin are adaptor proteins that facilitate phosphorylation of Chk1 by the ATR kinase in response to genotoxic stress. Despite their established requirement for Chk1 activation, the exact way in which TopBP1 and Claspin control Chk1 phosphorylation remains unclear. We show that TopBP1 tightly colocalizes with ATR in distinct nuclear subcompartments generated by DNA damage. Although depletion of TopBP1 by RNA interference (RNAi) strongly impaired phosphorylation of multiple ATR targets, including Chk1, Nbs1, Smc1, and H2AX, it did not interfere with ATR assembly at the sites of DNA damage. These findings challenge the current concept of ATR activation by recruitment to damaged DNA. In contrast, Claspin, like Chk1, remained distributed throughout the nucleus both before and after DNA damage. Consistently, the RNAi-mediated ablation of Claspin selectively abrogated ATR's ability to phosphorylate Chk1 but not other ATR targets. In addition, downregulation of Claspin mimicked Chk1 inactivation by inducing spontaneous DNA damage. Finally, we show that TopBP1 is required for the DNA damage-induced interaction between Claspin and Chk1. Together, these results suggest that while TopBP1 is a general regulator of ATR, Claspin operates downstream of TopBP1 to selectively regulate the Chk1-controlled branch of the genotoxic stress response.
Project description:Previously we demonstrated that endometrium-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMESCs) via activation of the ATM/p53/p21/Rb pathway enter the premature senescence in response to oxidative stress. Down regulation effects of the key components of this signaling pathway, particularly ATM and p53, on a fate of stressed hMESCs have not yet been investigated. In the present study by using the specific inhibitors Ku55933 and Pifithrin-?, we confirmed implication of both ATM and p53 in H(2)O(2)-induced senescence of hMESCs. ATM or p53 down regulation was shown to modulate differently the cellular fate of H(2)O(2)-treated hMESCs. ATM inhibition allowed H(2)O(2)-stimulated hMESCs to escape the permanent cell cycle arrest due to loss of the functional ATM/p53/p21/Rb pathway, and induced bypass of mitosis and re-entry into S phase, resulting in tetraploid cells. On the contrary, suppression of the p53 transcriptional activity caused a pronounced cell death of H(2)O(2)-treated hMESCs via autophagy induction. The obtained data clearly demonstrate that down regulation of ATM or p53 shifts senescence of human endometrial stem cells toward tetraploidization or autophagy.
Project description:The RB and p53 tumor suppressors are mediators of DNA damage response, and compound inactivation of RB and p53 is a common occurrence in human cancers. Surprisingly, their cooperation in DNA damage signaling in relation to tumorigenesis and therapeutic response remains enigmatic. In the context of individuals with heritable retinoblastoma, there is a predilection for secondary tumor development, which has been associated with the use of radiation-therapy to treat the primary tumor. Furthermore, while germline mutations of the p53 gene are critical drivers for cancer predisposition syndromes, it is postulated that extrinsic stresses play a major role in promoting varying tumor spectrums and disease severities. In light of these studies, we examined the tumor suppressor functions of these proteins when challenged by exposure to therapeutic stress. To examine the cooperation of RB and p53 in tumorigenesis, and in response to therapy-induced DNA damage, a combination of genetic deletion and dominant negative strategies was employed. Results indicate that loss/inactivation of RB and p53 is not sufficient for cellular transformation. However, these proteins played distinct roles in response to therapy-induced DNA damage and subsequent tumorigenesis. Specifically, RB status was critical for cellular response to damage and senescence, irrespective of p53 function. Loss of RB resulted in a dramatic evolution of gene expression as a result of alterations in epigenetic programming. Critically, the observed changes in gene expression have been specifically associated with tumorigenesis, and RB-deficient, recurred cells displayed oncogenic characteristics, as well as increased resistance to subsequent challenge with discrete therapeutic agents. Taken together, these findings indicate that tumor suppressor functions of RB and p53 are particularly manifest when challenged by cellular stress. In the face of such challenge, RB is a critical suppressor of tumorigenesis beyond p53, and RB-deficiency could promote significant cellular evolution, ultimately contributing to a more aggressive disease.
Project description:Oncogenic signals lead to premature senescence in normal human cells causing a proliferation arrest and the elimination of these defective cells by immune cells. Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) prevents aberrant cell division and tumor initiation. In order to identify new regulators of OIS, we performed a loss-of-function genetic screen and identified that the loss of SCN9A allowed cells to escape from OIS. The expression of this sodium channel increased in senescent cells during OIS. This upregulation was mediated by NF-?B transcription factors, which are well-known regulators of senescence. Importantly, the induction of SCN9A by an oncogenic signal or by p53 activation led to plasma membrane depolarization, which in turn, was able to induce premature senescence. Computational and experimental analyses revealed that SCN9A and plasma membrane depolarization mediated the repression of mitotic genes through a calcium/Rb/E2F pathway to promote senescence. Taken together, our work delineates a new pathway, which involves the NF-?B transcription factor, SCN9A expression, plasma membrane depolarization, increased calcium, the Rb/E2F pathway and mitotic gene repression in the regulation of senescence. This work thus provides new insight into the involvement of ion channels and plasma membrane potential in the control of senescence.
Project description:In primary cells, overexpression of oncogenes such as Ras(V12) induces premature senescence rather than transformation. Senescence is an irreversible form of G1 arrest that requires the p19ARF/p53 and p16INK4a/pRB pathways and may suppress tumorigenesis in vivo. Here we show that the transcription factor C/EBPbeta is required for Ras(V12)-induced senescence. C/EBPbeta-/- mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) expressing Ras(V12) continued to proliferate despite unimpaired induction of p19ARF and p53, and lacked morphological features of senescent fibroblasts. Enforced C/EBPbeta expression inhibited proliferation of wild-type MEFs and also slowed proliferation of p19Arf-/- and p53-/- cells, indicating that C/EBPbeta acts downstream or independently of p19ARF/p53 to suppress growth. C/EBPbeta was unable to inhibit proliferation of MEFs lacking all three RB family proteins or wild-type cells expressing dominant negative E2F-1 and, instead, stimulated their growth. C/EBPbeta decreased expression of several E2F target genes and was associated with their promoters in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, suggesting that C/EBPbeta functions by repressing genes required for cell cycle progression. C/EBPbeta is therefore a novel component of the RB:E2F-dependent senescence program activated by oncogenic stress in primary cells.
Project description:Adenovirus-mediated sensitization of cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs depends on simultaneous interactions of early viral genes with cell death and survival pathways. It is unclear what cellular factors mediate these interactions in the presence of DNA-damaging drugs. We found that adenovirus prevents Chk1-mediated checkpoint activation through inactivation of Mre11 and downregulation of the pChk1 adaptor-protein, Claspin, in cells with high levels of DNA-damage induced by the cytotoxic drugs gemcitabine and irinotecan. The mechanisms for Claspin downregulation involve decreased transcription and increased degradation, further attenuating pChk1-mediated signalling. Live cell imaging demonstrated that low doses of gemcitabine caused multiple mitotic aberrations including multipolar spindles, micro- and multi-nucleation and cytokinesis failure. A mutant virus with the anti-apoptotic E1B19K-gene deleted (Ad?19K) further enhanced cell killing, Claspin downregulation, and potentiated drug-induced DNA damage and mitotic aberrations. Decreased Claspin expression and inactivation of Mre11 contributed to the enhanced cell killing in combination with DNA-damaging drugs. These results reveal novel mechanisms that are utilised by adenovirus to ensure completion of its life cycle in the presence of cellular DNA damage. Taken together, our findings reveal novel cellular targets that may be exploited when developing improved anti-cancer therapeutics.