MURC/Cavin-4 and cavin family members form tissue-specific caveolar complexes.
ABSTRACT: Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF)/Cavin is a cytoplasmic protein whose expression is obligatory for caveola formation. Using biochemistry and fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based approaches, we now show that a family of related proteins, PTRF/Cavin-1, serum deprivation response (SDR)/Cavin-2, SDR-related gene product that binds to C kinase (SRBC)/Cavin-3, and muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein (MURC)/Cavin-4, forms a multiprotein complex that associates with caveolae. This complex can constitutively assemble in the cytosol and associate with caveolin at plasma membrane caveolae. Cavin-1, but not other cavins, can induce caveola formation in a heterologous system and is required for the recruitment of the cavin complex to caveolae. The tissue-restricted expression of cavins suggests that caveolae may perform tissue-specific functions regulated by the composition of the cavin complex. Cavin-4 is expressed predominantly in muscle, and its distribution is perturbed in human muscle disease associated with Caveolin-3 dysfunction, identifying Cavin-4 as a novel muscle disease candidate caveolar protein.
Project description:Caveolae are abundant cell-surface organelles involved in lipid regulation and endocytosis. We used comparative proteomics to identify PTRF (also called Cav-p60, Cavin) as a putative caveolar coat protein. PTRF-Cavin selectively associates with mature caveolae at the plasma membrane but not Golgi-localized caveolin. In prostate cancer PC3 cells, and during development of zebrafish notochord, lack of PTRF-Cavin expression correlates with lack of caveolae, and caveolin resides on flat plasma membrane. Expression of PTRF-Cavin in PC3 cells is sufficient to cause formation of caveolae. Knockdown of PTRF-Cavin reduces caveolae density, both in mammalian cells and in the zebrafish. Caveolin remains on the plasma membrane in PTRF-Cavin knockdown cells but exhibits increased lateral mobility and accelerated lysosomal degradation. We conclude that PTRF-Cavin is required for caveola formation and sequestration of mobile caveolin into immobile caveolae.
Project description:Caveolin-1 and caveolae are differentially polarized in migrating cells in various models, and caveolin-1 expression has been shown to quantitatively modulate cell migration. PTRF/cavin-1 is a cytoplasmic protein now established to be also necessary for caveola formation. Here we tested the effect of PTRF expression on cell migration. Using fluorescence imaging, quantitative proteomics, and cell migration assays we show that PTRF/cavin-1 modulates cellular polarization, and the subcellular localization of Rac1 and caveolin-1 in migrating cells as well as PKC? caveola recruitment. PTRF/cavin-1 quantitatively reduced cell migration, and induced mesenchymal epithelial reversion. Similar to caveolin-1, the polarization of PTRF/cavin-1 was dependent on the migration mode. By selectively manipulating PTRF/cavin-1 and caveolin-1 expression (and therefore caveola formation) in multiple cell systems, we unveil caveola-independent functions for both proteins in cell migration.
Project description:Caveolae are an abundant feature of the plasma membrane in many cells. Until recently, they were generally considered to be membrane invaginations whose formation primarily driven by integral membrane proteins called caveolins. However, the past decade has seen the emergence of the cavin family of peripheral membrane proteins as essential coat components and regulators of caveola biogenesis. In this Commentary, we summarise recent data on the role of cavins in caveola formation, highlighting structural studies that provide new insights into cavin coat assembly. In mammals, there are four cavin family members that associate through homo- and hetero-oligomerisation to form distinct subcomplexes on caveolae, which can be released into the cell in response to stimuli. Studies from several labs have provided a better understanding of cavin stoichiometry and the molecular basis for their oligomerisation, as well as identifying interactions with membrane phospholipids that may be important for caveola function. We propose a model in which coincident, low-affinity electrostatically controlled protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions allow the formation of caveolae, generating a meta-stable structure that can respond to plasma membrane stress by release of cavins.
Project description:We investigated eight families with a novel subtype of congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL4) of whom five members had died from sudden cardiac death during their teenage years. ECG studies revealed features of long-QT syndrome, bradycardia, as well as supraventricular and ventricular tachycardias. Further symptoms comprised myopathy with muscle rippling, skeletal as well as smooth-muscle hypertrophy, leading to impaired gastrointestinal motility and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in some children. Additionally, we found impaired bone formation with osteopenia, osteoporosis, and atlanto-axial instability. Homozygosity mapping located the gene within 2 Mbp on chromosome 17. Prioritization of 74 candidate genes with GeneDistiller for high expression in muscle and adipocytes suggested PTRF-CAVIN (Polymerase I and transcript release factor/Cavin) as the most probable candidate leading to the detection of homozygous mutations (c.160delG, c.362dupT). PTRF-CAVIN is essential for caveolae biogenesis. These cholesterol-rich plasmalemmal vesicles are involved in signal-transduction and vesicular trafficking and reside primarily on adipocytes, myocytes, and osteoblasts. Absence of PTRF-CAVIN did not influence abundance of its binding partner caveolin-1 and caveolin-3. In patient fibroblasts, however, caveolin-1 failed to localize toward the cell surface and electron microscopy revealed reduction of caveolae to less than 3%. Transfection of full-length PTRF-CAVIN reestablished the presence of caveolae. The loss of caveolae was confirmed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in combination with fluorescent imaging. PTRF-CAVIN deficiency thus presents the phenotypic spectrum caused by a quintessential lack of functional caveolae.
Project description:Caveolae are specialized domains of the plasma membrane. Formation of these invaginations is dependent on the expression of Caveolin-1 or -3 and proteins of the cavin family. In response to stress, caveolae disassemble and cavins are released from caveolae, allowing cavins to potentially interact with intracellular targets. Here, we describe the intracellular (non-plasma membrane) cavin interactome using biotin affinity proteomics and mass spectrometry. We validate 47 potential cavin-interactor proteins using a cell-free expression system and protein-protein binding assays. These data, together with pathway analyses, reveal unknown roles for cavin proteins in metabolism and stress signaling. We validated the interaction between one candidate interactor protein, protein phosphatase 1 alpha (PP1?), and Cavin-1 and -3 and show that UV treatment causes release of Cavin3 from caveolae allowing interaction with, and inhibition of, PP1?. This interaction increases H2AX phosphorylation to stimulate apoptosis, identifying a pro-apoptotic signaling pathway from surface caveolae to the nucleus.
Project description:Several studies have suggested crosstalk between different clathrin-independent endocytic pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms and functional relevance of these interactions are unclear. Caveolins and cavins are crucial components of caveolae, specialized microdomains that also constitute an endocytic route. Here we show that specific caveolar proteins are independently acting negative regulators of clathrin-independent endocytosis. Cavin-1 and Cavin-3, but not Cavin-2 or Cavin-4, are potent inhibitors of the clathrin-independent carriers/GPI-AP enriched early endosomal compartment (CLIC/GEEC) endocytic pathway, in a process independent of caveola formation. Caveolin-1 (CAV1) and CAV3 also inhibit the CLIC/GEEC pathway upon over-expression. Expression of caveolar protein leads to reduction in formation of early CLIC/GEEC carriers, as detected by quantitative electron microscopy analysis. Furthermore, the CLIC/GEEC pathway is upregulated in cells lacking CAV1/Cavin-1 or with reduced expression of Cavin-1 and Cavin-3. Inhibition by caveolins can be mimicked by the isolated caveolin scaffolding domain and is associated with perturbed diffusion of lipid microdomain components, as revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies. In the absence of cavins (and caveolae) CAV1 is itself endocytosed preferentially through the CLIC/GEEC pathway, but the pathway loses polarization and sorting attributes with consequences for membrane dynamics and endocytic polarization in migrating cells and adult muscle tissue. We also found that noncaveolar Cavin-1 can act as a modulator for the activity of the key regulator of the CLIC/GEEC pathway, Cdc42. This work provides new insights into the regulation of noncaveolar clathrin-independent endocytosis by specific caveolar proteins, illustrating multiple levels of crosstalk between these pathways. We show for the first time a role for specific cavins in regulating the CLIC/GEEC pathway, provide a new tool to study this pathway, identify caveola-independent functions of the cavins and propose a novel mechanism for inhibition of the CLIC/GEEC pathway by caveolin.
Project description:Mutations in the PTRF/Cavin-1 gene cause congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4 (CGL4) associated with myopathy. Additionally, long-QT syndrome and fatal cardiac arrhythmia are observed in patients with CGL4 who have homozygous PTRF/Cavin-1 mutations. PTRF/Cavin-1 deficiency shows reductions of caveolae and caveolin-3 (Cav3) protein expression in skeletal muscle, and Cav3 deficiency in the heart causes cardiac hypertrophy with loss of caveolae. However, it remains unknown how loss of PTRF/Cavin-1 affects cardiac morphology and function. Here, we present a characterization of the hearts of PTRF/Cavin-1-null (PTRF-/-) mice. Electron microscopy revealed the reduction of caveolae in cardiomyocytes of PTRF-/- mice. PTRF-/- mice at 16 weeks of age developed a progressive cardiomyopathic phenotype with wall thickening of left ventricles and reduced fractional shortening evaluated by echocardiography. Electrocardiography revealed that PTRF-/- mice at 24 weeks of age had low voltages and wide QRS complexes in limb leads. Histological analysis showed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy accompanied by progressive interstitial/perivascular fibrosis. Hypertrophy-related fetal gene expression was also induced in PTRF-/- hearts. Western blotting analysis and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that Cav3 expression was suppressed in PTRF-/- hearts compared with that in wild-type (WT) ones. ERK1/2 was activated in PTRF-/- hearts compared with that in WT ones. These results suggest that loss of PTRF/Cavin-1 protein expression is sufficient to induce a molecular program leading to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy, which is partly attributable to Cav3 reduction in the heart.
Project description:Dysfunction of caveolae is involved in human muscle disease, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this paper, we have functionally characterized mouse and zebrafish models of caveolae-associated muscle disease. Using electron tomography, we quantitatively defined the unique three-dimensional membrane architecture of the mature muscle surface. Caveolae occupied around 50% of the sarcolemmal area predominantly assembled into multilobed rosettes. These rosettes were preferentially disassembled in response to increased membrane tension. Caveola-deficient cavin-1(-/-) muscle fibers showed a striking loss of sarcolemmal organization, aberrant T-tubule structures, and increased sensitivity to membrane tension, which was rescued by muscle-specific Cavin-1 reexpression. In vivo imaging of live zebrafish embryos revealed that loss of muscle-specific Cavin-1 or expression of a dystrophy-associated Caveolin-3 mutant both led to sarcolemmal damage but only in response to vigorous muscle activity. Our findings define a conserved and critical role in mechanoprotection for the unique membrane architecture generated by the caveolin-cavin system.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK) associated with caveolae, invaginations of the plasma membrane that regulate vesicular transport, endocytosis and intracellular signaling. IGF-IR internalization represents a key mechanism of down-modulation of receptors number on plasma membrane. IGF-IR interacts directly with Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the most relevant protein of caveolae. Recently it has been demonstrated that the Polymerase I and Transcript Release Factor I (PTRF/Cavin) is required for caveolae biogenesis and function. The role of Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin in IGF-IR internalization is still to be clarified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the interaction of IGF-IR with Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin in the presence of IGF1in human Hacat cells. We show that IGF-IR internalization triggers Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin translocation from plasma membrane to cytosol and increases IGF-IR interaction with these proteins. In fact, Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin co-immunoprecipitate with IGF-IR during receptor internalization. We found a different time course of co-immunoprecipitation between IGF-IR and Cav-1 compared to IGF-IR and PTRF/Cavin. Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin silencing by siRNA differently affect surface IGF-IR levels following IGF1 treatment: Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin silencing significantly affect IGF-IR rate of internalization, while PTRF/Cavin silencing also decreases IGF-IR plasma membrane recovery. Since Cav-1 phosphorylation could have a role in IGF-IR internalization, the mutant Cav-1Y14F lacking Tyr14 was transfected. Cav-1Y14F transfected cells showed a reduced internalization of IGF-IR compared with cells expressing wild type Cav-1. Receptor internalization was not impaired by Clathrin silencing. These findings support a critical role of caveolae in IGF-IR intracellular traveling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that Caveolae play a role in IGF-IR internalization. Based on these findings, Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin could represent two relevant and distinct targets to modulate IGF-IR function.
Project description:Caveolae are specialized invaginations of the plasma membrane found in numerous cell types. They have been implicated as playing a role in a variety of physiological processes and are typically characterized by their association with the caveolin family of proteins. We show here by means of targeted gene disruption in mice that a distinct caveolae-associated protein, Cavin/PTRF, is an essential component of caveolae. Animals lacking Cavin have no morphologically detectable caveolae in any cell type examined and have markedly diminished protein expression of all three caveolin isoforms while retaining normal or above normal caveolin mRNA expression. Cavin-knockout mice are viable and of normal weight but have higher circulating triglyceride levels, significantly reduced adipose tissue mass, glucose intolerance, and hyperinsulinemia--characteristics that constitute a lipodystrophic phenotype. Our results underscore the multiorgan role of caveolae in metabolic regulation and the obligate presence of Cavin for caveolae formation.