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TLR2 deficiency leads to increased Th17 infiltrates in experimental brain abscesses.


ABSTRACT: TLR2 plays a pivotal role in recognizing Staphylococcus aureus, a common etiologic agent of CNS parenchymal infections, such as brain abscess. We previously reported that brain abscesses of TLR2 knockout (KO) mice exhibited elevated IL-17 levels, suggesting the presence of an alternative pathway available to respond to S. aureus infection that may involve Th17 cells. Both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell infiltrates were elevated in brain abscesses of TLR2 KO mice at days 3, 7, and 14 postinfection compared with wild-type animals. Intracellular cytokine staining revealed a significant increase in the frequency of IL-17-producing Th17 cells in TLR2 KO mice with relatively few IFN-gamma-positive cells. gammadelta T cells were also a source of IL-17 in brain abscesses. Microglia, astrocytes, and macrophages were shown to express both IL-17RA and IL-17RC. Despite receptor expression, IL-17 was relatively ineffective at eliciting glial activation, whereas the cytokine augmented the ability of TNF-alpha to induce CXCL2 and CCL2 expression by macrophages. Based on the ability of IL-17 to elicit the release of chemokines and other proinflammatory mediators, we propose that the exaggerated IL-17 response that occurs in TLR2 KO mice functions in a compensatory manner to control brain abscess pathogenesis, with cells other than glia as targets for IL-17 action. This is supported by our findings in which innate immune infiltrates were not significantly different between TLR2 KO and wild-type mice in conjunction with the lack of prolonged alterations in the synthesis of other proinflammatory molecules during the course of infection.

SUBMITTER: Nichols JR 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC2713313 | BioStudies | 2009-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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