Nucleophosmin blocks mitochondrial localization of p53 and apoptosis.
ABSTRACT: Activation of p53 is an important mechanism in apoptosis. However, whether the presence of p53 in mitochondria plays an important role in p53-mediated apoptosis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of NPM (nucleophosmin) significantly suppresses 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-mediated apoptosis, in part, by blocking the mitochondrial localization of p53. Within 1 h following TPA treatment of skin epithelial (JB6) cells, p53 accumulated in mitochondria. Expression of NPM enhances p53 levels in the nucleus but reduces p53 levels in mitochondria, as detected by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis. The suppressive effect of NPM on p53 mitochondrial localization is also observed in TPA-treated primary epithelial cells and in JB6 cells treated with doxorubicin. NPM enhances the expression of p53 target gene p21 and bax. However, the increase in Bax level in the absence of p53 in mitochondria did not lead to an increase in TPA-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the presence of p53 in mitochondria is important. Suppression of NPM by NPM small interfering RNA leads to an increase of p53 levels in mitochondria and apoptosis. Furthermore, suppression of NPM in tumor cells with a high constitutive level of NPM results in p53 translocation to mitochondria and enhances TPA-mediated apoptosis. The results demonstrate the effect of NPM on p53 localization in mitochondria and apoptosis. Together, the data indicate that the presence of p53 in mitochondria plays an important role in stress-induced apoptosis and suggest that NPM may protect cells from apoptosis by reducing the mitochondrial level of p53.
Project description:Protandim, a well defined dietary combination of 5 well-established medicinal plants, is known to induce endogenous antioxidant enzymes, such as manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Our previous studies have shown through the induction of various antioxidant enzymes, products of oxidative damage can be decreased. In addition, we have shown that tumor multiplicity and incidence can be decreased through the dietary administration of Protandim in the two-stage skin carcinogenesis mouse model. It has been demonstrated that cell proliferation is accommodated by cell death during DMBA/TPA treatment in the two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the Protandim diet on apoptosis; and proposed a novel mechanism of chemoprevention utilized by the Protandim dietary combination. Interestingly, Protandim suppressed DMBA/TPA induced cutaneous apoptosis. Recently, more attention has been focused on transcription-independent mechanisms of the tumor suppressor, p53, that mediate apoptosis. It is known that cytoplasmic p53 rapidly translocates to the mitochondria in response to pro-apoptotic stress. Our results showed that Protandim suppressed the mitochondrial translocation of p53 and mitochondrial outer membrane proteins such as Bax. We examined the levels of p53 and MnSOD expression/activity in murine skin JB6 promotion sensitive (P+) and promotion-resistant (P-) epidermal cells. Interestingly, p53 was induced only in P+ cells, not P- cells; whereas MnSOD is highly expressed in P- cells when compared to P+ cells. In addition, wild-type p53 was transfected into JB6 P- cells. We found that the introduction of wild-type p53 promoted transformation in JB6 P- cells. Our results suggest that suppression of p53 and induction of MnSOD may play an important role in the tumor suppressive activity of Protandim.
Project description:Following a genotoxic stress, the tumor suppressor p53 translocates to mitochondria to take part in direct induction of apoptosis, via interaction with BCL-2 family members such as BAK and BAX. We determined the kinetics of the mitochondrial translocation of p53 in HCT-116 and PA-1 cells exposed to different genotoxic stresses (doxorubicin, camptothecin, UVB). This analysis revealed an early escalation in the amount of mitochondrial p53, followed by a peak amount and a decrease of mitochondrial p53 at later time points. We show that the serine 20 phosphorylated form of p53 is present at the mitochondria and that the decrease of p53 mitochondrial level during late apoptosis correlates with a decrease of Ser-20 phosphorylation. Moreover, the S20A p53 mutant translocates well to mitochondria after a genotoxic stress but its mitochondrial localization is very low during late apoptosis when compared to wt p53. The S20A mutant also appears to be compromised for interaction with BAK. We propose here that the level of serine 20 phosphorylation is influential on p53 mitochondrial localization during late apoptosis. Additionally, we report the presence of a new ?45 kDa caspase-cleaved fragment of p53 in the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of apoptotic cells.
Project description:Baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing (Birc)6 gene/BIRC6 (Bruce/APOLLON) encodes an inhibitor of apoptosis and a chimeric E2/E3 ubiquitin ligase in mammals. The physiological role of Bruce in antiapoptosis is unknown. Here, we show that deletion of the C-terminal half of Bruce, including the UBC domain, causes activation of caspases and apoptosis in the placenta and yolk sac, leading to embryonic lethality. This apoptosis is associated with up-regulation and nuclear localization of the tumor suppressor p53 and activation of mitochondrial apoptosis, which includes up-regulation of Bax, Bak, and Pidd, translocation of Bax and caspase-2 onto mitochondria, release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor, and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts are sensitive to multiple mitochondrial death stimuli but resistant to TNF. In addition, eliminating p53 by RNA interference rescues cell viability induced by Bruce ablation in human cell line H460. This viability preservation results from reduced expression of proapoptotic factors Bax, Bak, and Pidd and from prevention of activation of caspase-2, -9, and -3. The amount of second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspase and Omi does not change. We conclude that p53 is a downstream effector of Bruce, and, in response to loss of Bruce function, p53 activates Pidd/caspase-2 and Bax/Bak, leading to mitochondrial apoptosis.
Project description:The ING family of tumor suppressors acts as readers and writers of the histone epigenetic code, affecting DNA repair, chromatin remodeling, cellular senescence, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The best characterized member of the ING family, ING1,interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in a UV-inducible manner. ING1 also interacts with members of the14-3-3 family leading to its cytoplasmic relocalization. Overexpression of ING1 enhances expression of the Bax gene and was reported to alter mitochondrial membrane potential in a p53-dependent manner. Here we show that ING1 translocates to the mitochondria of primary fibroblasts and established epithelial cell lines in response to apoptosis inducing stimuli, independent of the cellular p53 status. The ability of ING1 to induce apoptosis in various breast cancer cell lines correlates well with its degree of translocation to the mitochondria after UV treatment. Endogenous ING1 protein specifically interacts with the pro-apoptotic BCL2 family member BAX, and colocalizes with BAX in a UV-inducible manner. Ectopic expression of a mitochondria-targeted ING1 construct is more proficient in inducing apoptosis than the wild type ING1 protein. Bioinformatic analysis of the yeast interactome indicates that yeast ING proteins interact with 64 mitochondrial proteins. Also, sequence analysis of ING1 reveals the presence of a BH3-like domain. These data suggest a model in which stress-induced cytoplasmic relocalization of ING1 by14-3-3 induces ING1-BAX interaction to promote mitochondrial membrane permeability and represent a paradigm shift in our understanding of ING1 function in the cytoplasm and its contribution to apoptosis [corrected].
Project description:The p53-inducible BH3-only protein PUMA is a key mediator of p53-dependent apoptosis, and PUMA has been shown to function by activating Bax and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. In this study, we describe an ability of PUMA to induce autophagy that leads to the selective removal of mitochondria. This function of PUMA depends on Bax/Bak and can be reproduced by overexpression of Bax. The induction of autophagy coincides with cytochrome c release, and taken together the results suggest that PUMA functions through Bax to induce mitochondrial autophagy in response to mitochondrial perturbations. Surprisingly, inhibition of PUMA or Bax-induced autophagy dampens the apoptotic response, suggesting that under some circumstances the selective targeting of mitochondria for autophagy can enhance apoptosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While tumor suppressor p53 functions primarily as a transcription factor in the nucleus, cellular stress can cause p53 to translocate to the mitochondria and directly trigger a rapid apoptotic response. We have previously shown that fusing p53 (or its DNA binding domain, DBD, alone) to the mitochondrial targeting signal (MTS) from Bak or Bax can target p53 to the mitochondria and induce apoptosis in gynecological cancer cell lines including cervical cancer cells (HeLa; wt p53), ovarian cancer cells (SKOV-3; p53 267del non-expressing), and breast cancer cells (T47D; L194F p53 mutation). However, p53 with Bak or Bax MTSs have not been previously tested in cancers with strong dominant negative (DN) mutant p53 which are capable of inactivating wt p53 by homo-oligomerization. Since p53-Bak or Bax MTS constructs act as monomers, they are not subject to DN inhibition. For this study, the utility of p53-Bak or p53-Bax MTS constructs was tested for ovarian cancers which are known to have varying p53 statuses, including a strong DN contact mutant p53 (Ovcar-3 cells), a p53 DN structural mutant (Kuramochi cells), and a p53 wild type, low expressing cells (ID8). RESULTS:Our mitochondrial p53 constructs were tested for their ability to localize to the mitochondria in both mutant non-expressing p53 (Skov-3) and p53 structural mutant (Kuramochi) cell lines using fluorescence microscopy and a nuclear transcriptional activity assay. The apoptotic activity of these mitochondrial constructs was determined using a mitochondrial outer membrane depolarization assay (TMRE), caspase assay, and a late stage cell death assay (7-AAD). We also tested the possibility of using our constructs with paclitaxel, the current standard of care in ovarian cancer treatment. Our data indicates that our mitochondrial p53 constructs are able to effectively localize to the mitochondria in cancer cells with structural mutant p53 and induce apoptosis in many ovarian cancer cell lines with different p53 statuses. These constructs can also be used in combination with paclitaxel for an increased apoptotic effect. CONCLUSIONS:The results suggest that targeting p53 to mitochondria can be a new strategy for ovarian cancer treatment.
Project description:Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) is a critical activator of neuronal apoptosis induced by a diverse array of neurotoxic insults. However, the downstream substrates of GSK-3beta that ultimately induce neuronal death are unknown. Here, we show that GSK-3beta phosphorylates and regulates the activity of Bax, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member that stimulates the intrinsic (mitochondrial) death pathway by eliciting cytochrome c release from mitochondria. In cerebellar granule neurons undergoing apoptosis, inhibition of GSK-3beta suppressed both the mitochondrial translocation of an expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Bax(alpha) fusion protein and the conformational activation of endogenous Bax. GSK-3beta directly phosphorylated Bax(alpha) on Ser163, a residue found within a species-conserved, putative GSK-3beta phosphorylation motif. Coexpression of GFP-Bax(alpha) with a constitutively active mutant of GSK-3beta, GSK-3beta(Ser9Ala), enhanced the in vivo phosphorylation of wild-type Bax(alpha), but not a Ser163Ala mutant of Bax(alpha), in transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Moreover, cotransfection with constitutively active GSK-3beta promoted the localization of Bax(alpha) to mitochondria and induced apoptosis in both transfected HEK293 cells and cerebellar granule neurons. In contrast, neither a Ser163Ala point mutant of Bax(alpha) nor a naturally occurring splice variant that lacks 13 amino acids encompassing Ser163 (Bax(sigma)) were driven to mitochondria in HEK293 cells coexpressing constitutively active GSK-3beta. In a similar manner, either mutation or deletion of the identified GSK-3beta phosphorylation motif prevented the localization of Bax to mitochondria in cerebellar granule neurons undergoing apoptosis. Our results indicate that GSK-3beta exerts some of its pro-apoptotic effects in neurons by regulating the mitochondrial localization of Bax, a key component of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade.
Project description:p73, a member of the p53 family, shares high sequence homology with p53 and shows many p53-like properties: it binds to p53-DNA target sites, transactivates p53-responsive genes and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Apart from this transcription-dependent effect, less is known about the downstream mechanism(s) by which p73 controls cell fate at the mitochondria. We have previously identified GRAMD4 (alias KIAA0767 or Death-Inducing-Protein) as a novel p53-independent pro-apoptotic target of E2F1, which localizes to mitochondria. In this study, we found that p73-induced apoptosis is mediated by GRAMD4 expression and translocation to the mitochondria. We showed that this protein physically interacts with Bcl-2, promotes Bax mitochondrial relocalization and oligomerization, and is highly efficient in inducing mitochondrial membrane permeabilization with release of cytochrome c and Smac. Overexpression of p73? and p73? isoforms, but not p53, leads to direct GRAMD4 promoter transactivation. In addition, GRAMD4 induces changes in Bcl-2 and Bax protein levels. GRAMD4 transcription is activated in response to cisplatin (cDDP) in a manner dependent on endogenous p73. Using solid tumor xenografts, ectopic expression of GRAMD4 together with cDDP resulted in enhanced cancer killing. Our findings demonstrate that p73 is able to trigger apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway by a new mechanism using pro-apoptotic GRAMD4 as mediator, and strongly support its p53-like function.
Project description:The goal of cancer chemotherapy to induce multi-directional apoptosis as targeting a single pathway is unable to decrease all the downstream effect arises from crosstalk. Present study reports that Withanolide D (WithaD), a steroidal lactone isolated from Withania somnifera, induced cellular apoptosis in which mitochondria and p53 were intricately involved. In MOLT-3 and HCT116p53+/+ cells, WithaD induced crosstalk between intrinsic and extrinsic signaling through Bid, whereas in K562 and HCT116p53-/- cells, only intrinsic pathway was activated where Bid remain unaltered. WithaD showed pronounced activation of p53 in cancer cells. Moreover, lowered apoptogenic effect of HCT116p53-/- over HCT116p53+/+ established a strong correlation between WithaD-mediated apoptosis and p53. WithaD induced Bax and Bak upregulation in HCT116p53+/+, whereas increase only Bak expression in HCT116p53-/- cells, which was coordinated with augmented p53 expression. p53 inhibition substantially reduced Bax level and failed to inhibit Bak upregulation in HCT116p53+/+ cells confirming p53-dependent Bax and p53-independent Bak activation. Additionally, in HCT116p53+/+ cells, combined loss of Bax and Bak (HCT116Bax-Bak-) reduced WithaD-induced apoptosis and completely blocked cytochrome c release whereas single loss of Bax or Bak (HCT116Bax-Bak+/HCT116Bax+Bak-) was only marginally effective after WithaD treatment. In HCT116p53-/- cells, though Bax translocation to mitochondria was abrogated, Bak oligomerization helped the cells to release cytochrome c even before the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. WithaD also showed in vitro growth-inhibitory activity against an array of p53 wild type and null cancer cells and K562 xenograft in vivo. Taken together, WithaD elicited apoptosis in malignant cells through Bax/Bak dependent pathway in p53-wild type cells, whereas Bak compensated against loss of Bax in p53-null cells.
Project description:mtCLIC/CLIC4 (referred to here as mtCLIC) is a p53- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-regulated cytoplasmic and mitochondrial protein that belongs to the CLIC family of intracellular chloride channels. mtCLIC associates with the inner mitochondrial membrane. Dual regulation of mtCLIC by two stress response pathways suggested that this chloride channel protein might contribute to the cellular response to cytotoxic stimuli. DNA damage or overexpression of p53 upregulates mtCLIC and induces apoptosis. Overexpression of mtCLIC by transient transfection reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, releases cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, activates caspases, and induces apoptosis. mtCLIC is additive with Bax in inducing apoptosis without a physical association of the two proteins. Antisense mtCLIC prevents the increase in mtCLIC levels and reduces apoptosis induced by p53 but not apoptosis induced by Bax, suggesting that the two proapoptotic proteins function through independent pathways. Our studies indicate that mtCLIC, like Bax, Noxa, p53AIP1, and PUMA, participates in a stress-induced death pathway converging on mitochondria and should be considered a target for cancer therapy through genetic or pharmacologic approaches.