In vivo regulation of interleukin 1beta in patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes.
ABSTRACT: The investigation of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) in human inflammatory diseases is hampered by the fact that it is virtually undetectable in human plasma. We demonstrate that by administering the anti-human IL-1beta antibody canakinumab (ACZ885) to humans, the resulting formation of IL-1beta-antibody complexes allowed the detection of in vivo-produced IL-1beta. A two-compartment mathematical model was generated that predicted a constitutive production rate of 6 ng/d IL-1beta in healthy subjects. In contrast, patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), a rare monogenetic disease driven by uncontrolled caspase-1 activity and IL-1 production, produced a mean of 31 ng/d. Treatment with canakinumab not only induced long-lasting complete clinical response but also reduced the production rate of IL-1beta to normal levels within 8 wk of treatment, suggesting that IL-1beta production in these patients was mainly IL-1beta driven. The model further indicated that IL-1beta is the only cytokine driving disease severity and duration of response to canakinumab. A correction for natural IL-1 antagonists was not required to fit the data. Together, the study allowed new insights into the production and regulation of IL-1beta in man. It also indicated that CAPS is entirely mediated by IL-1beta and that canakinumab treatment restores physiological IL-1beta production.
Project description:The purpose of this review is to highlight the molecular and clinical characteristics of the cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndrome (CAPS) and its management. CAPS is an autosomal dominantly inherited autoinflammatory disorder associated with mutations in the NLRP3 gene, which ultimately lead to excessive production of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and systemic inflammation. Typical systemic features include fever, urticarial rash and arthralgia, and ultimately amyloidosis. There are also multiple neurological manifestations including, but not restricted to, headache, sensorineural hearing loss, aseptic meningitis, myalgia and optic nerve involvement.Since the recognition of CAPS as a single disease entity and discovery of the underlying causative gene, there has been a major breakthrough in terms of its treatment by pharmacological IL-1? inhibition. Highly targeted therapies against IL-1 have been shown to be remarkably effective in the treatment of CAPS and make early diagnosis of this condition crucial. It is hoped that starting pharmacological intervention in a timely manner will prove neuroprotective. There are three drugs licensed for treatment of CAPS; canakinumab, anakinra and rilonacept. The former two are widely used: canakinumab is a fully humanised anti-IL-1? monoclonal antibody administered as a subcutaneous injection once every 8 weeks starting at a dose of 150 mg in patients weighing more than 40 kg. Anakinra is a recombinant form of the IL-1 receptor antagonist and the adult daily dose is 100 mg subcutaneously. CAPS is a highly debilitating disorder characterised by unregulated IL-1? production driven by autosomal dominantly inherited mutations in the NLRP3 gene. Effective therapies targeted against IL-1 are now available and are vital to prevent long-term complications.
Project description:In healthy monocytes, Toll-like receptor (TLR) engagement induces production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), followed by an antioxidant response involved in IL-1beta processing and secretion. Markers of the antioxidant response include intracellular thioredoxin and extracellular release of reduced cysteine. Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are autoinflammatory diseases in which Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) gene mutations lead to increased IL-1beta secretion. We show in a large cohort of patients that IL-1beta secretion by CAPS monocytes is much faster than that by healthy monocytes. This accelerated kinetics is caused by alterations in the basal redox state, as well as in the redox response to TLR triggering displayed by CAPS monocytes. Indeed, unstimulated CAPS monocytes are under a mild oxidative stress, with elevated levels of both ROS and antioxidants. The redox response to LPS is quickened, with early generation of the reducing conditions favoring IL-1beta processing and secretion, and then rapidly exhausted. Therefore, secretion of IL-1beta is accelerated, but reaches a plateau much earlier than in healthy controls. Pharmacologic inhibition of the redox response hinders IL-1beta release, confirming the functional link between redox impairment and altered kinetics of secretion. Monocytes from patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis display normal kinetics of redox response and IL-1beta secretion, excluding a role of chronic inflammation in the alterations observed in CAPS. We conclude that preexisting redox alterations distinct from CAPS monocytes anticipate the pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecule-induced generation of the reducing environment favorable to inflammasome activation and IL-1beta secretion.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a rare autoinflammatory disease, caused by gain of function mutation in NLRP3 resulting in excess production of interleukin-1 (IL-1). Canakinumab is a human monoclonal antibody against Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), licensed for the treatment of CAPS. The objective of the study was to describe the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a canakinumab vial-sharing programme for paediatric patients with CAPS. METHOD:Retrospective case series and clinical service description of a national specially commissioned CAPS clinic at Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH). Effectiveness was assessed using a CAPS disease activity score (DAS) and serum amyloid A protein (SAA). Adverse events were collected to determine safety. The number of canakinumab vials saved was considered when investigating the cost-effectiveness of vial-sharing. RESULTS:Nineteen/20 (95%) of our paediatric patients achieved minimally active clinical disease activity with canakinumab monotherapy; and 75% achieved both minimally active clinical disease and serological remission using a pre-specified definition based on the CAPS DAS and SAA level. Canakinumab was well tolerated, with only one child developing an infection requiring hospitalisation during the study. Canakinumab vial sharing resulted in 117 vials of canakinumab saved over a 24-month period, equating to a direct drug-related cost saving of £1,385,821, and a conservative estimated 5-year cost-saving of £3,464,552.50. CONCLUSION:We provide further evidence for the effectiveness and safety of canakinumab in children with CAPS, and highlight the cost-effectiveness of a vial-sharing programme for this high cost medicine. We suggest that this could have important implications for the delivery of other high cost medicines used in paediatric practice.
Project description:Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) include a group of rare autoinflammatory disorders, the spectrum of which ranges from the mildest form, ie, familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome to more severe phenotypes, ie, Muckle-Wells syndrome, and chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome, also known as neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease. Three interleukin (IL)-1 antagonists have been tested in adults and children with CAPS, ie, anakinra, a recombinant homolog of the human IL-1 receptor antagonist; rilonacept, a fusion protein comprising the extracellular domains of IL-1 receptor I and the IL-1 adaptor protein, IL-1RAcP, attached to a human immunoglobulin G molecule; and canakinumab, the anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody. Following rapid clinical development, rilonacept and canakinumab were approved by both the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in adults and children. This review describes how the study of CAPS has helped us to understand better the way the innate immune system works, the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory syndromes, and the key role of IL-1. It also reviews the effects of IL-1 blockade in CAPS and other disorders, in particular systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, adult-onset Still's disease, and gout. Finally, this review covers some issues addressed by very recent and ongoing work regarding treatment indications, from orphan diseases to common disorders, continuous versus intermittent treatment, the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and optimal dosages of the different drugs, as well as the need for Phase IV trials, exhaustive registries, and long-term follow-up of several patient cohorts.
Project description:Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) represents a spectrum of three auto-inflammatory syndromes, familial cold auto-inflammatory syndrome (FCAS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease/chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome (NOMID/CINCA) with etiology linked to mutations in the NLRP3 gene resulting in elevated interleukin-1? (IL-1?) release. CAPS is a rare hereditary auto-inflammatory disease, which may start early in childhood and requires a life-long treatment. Canakinumab, a fully human anti-IL-1? antibody, produces sustained selective inhibition of IL-1?. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of canakinumab in the treatment of pediatric CAPS patients.Seven pediatric patients (five children and two adolescents) with CAPS were enrolled in a phase II, open-label study of canakinumab in patients with CAPS. Canakinumab was administered at a dose of 2 mg/kg subcutaneously (s.c.) (for patients with body weight ? 40 kg) or 150 mg s.c. (for patients with body weight > 40 kg) with re-dosing upon each relapse. The primary efficacy variable was time to relapse following achievement of a complete response (defined as a global assessment of no or minimal disease activity and no or minimal rash and values for serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and/or serum amyloid A (SAA) within the normal range, < 10 mg/L).All patients achieved a complete response within seven days after the first dose of canakinumab and responses were reinduced on retreatment following relapse. Improvements in symptoms were evident within 24 hours after the first dose, according to physician assessments. The estimated median time to relapse was 49 days (95% CI 29 to 68) in children who received a dose of 2 mg/kg. Canakinumab was well tolerated. One serious adverse event, vertigo, was reported, but resolved during treatment.Canakinumab, 2 mg/kg or 150 mg s.c., induced rapid and sustained clinical and biochemical responses in pediatric patients with CAPS.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00487708.
Project description:The cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is an autosomal dominant autoinflammatory disease characterized by fever, skin rash, and joint involvement with acute inflammatory response. The genetic defect involves the NLRP3 gene that encodes cryopyrin and leads to an abnormal production of interleukin-1 (IL-1). Therefore, anti-IL-1 treatment represents an effective therapy. One of the most severe manifestations of the disease is secondary amyloidosis that causes renal failure. We present a patient with CAPS who underwent renal transplantation for renal insufficiency caused by amyloidosis. The function of the transplanted kidney deteriorated because of the late administration of IL-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra. This case may indicate the importance of early initiation of anti-IL-1 treatment in CAPS patients who have undergone kidney transplantation.
Project description:Some fungal species are opportunistic pathogens that can cause infection in people with compromised immune systems. Activation of caspase-1 and the subsequent secretion of mature interleukin (IL)-1beta is a major signaling pathway of the innate immune system, but how yeasts induce caspase-1 activation is unknown. We show here that stimulation of macrophages and dendritic cells with heat-killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae or the purified cell wall components zymosan and mannan induced caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta secretion when combined with ATP. Macrophages deficient for the inflammasome adaptor ASC were defective in caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta secretion, suggesting involvement of an ASC-dependent inflammasome. Indeed, caspase-1 activation was abrogated in macrophages lacking the NOD-like (NLR) protein Cryopyrin/Nalp3 and in wild type macrophages pretreated with the pannexin-1 inhibitor probenecid. IL-1beta secretion further required the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptors MyD88 and TRIF, and partially relied on TLR2. We previously showed that bacterial molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan induce activation of caspase-7 through the Cryopyrin inflammasome. Similarly, Cryopyrin and ASC were required for activation of caspase-7 in macrophages stimulated with zymosan or mannan and ATP. These results demonstrate that the conserved fungal components zymosan and mannan require ASC and Cryopyrin for caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta secretion and suggest an important role for the Cryopyrin inflammasome during fungal infections.
Project description:Cryopyrin (CIAS1, NLRP3) and ASC are components of the inflammasome, a multiprotein complex required for caspase-1 activation and cytokine IL-1beta production. CIAS1 mutations underlie autoinflammation characterized by excessive IL-1beta secretion. Disease-associated cryopyrin also causes a program of necrosis-like cell death in macrophages, the mechanistic details of which are unknown. We find that patient monocytes carrying disease-associated CIAS1 mutations exhibit excessive necrosis-like death by a process dependent on ASC and cathepsin B, resulting in spillage of the proinflammatory mediator HMGB1. Shigella flexneri infection also causes cryopyrin-dependent macrophage necrosis with features similar to the death caused by mutant CIAS1. This necrotic death is independent of caspase-1 and IL-1beta, and thus independent of the inflammasome. Furthermore, necrosis of primary macrophages requires the presence of Shigella virulence genes. While similar proteins mediate pathogen-induced cell death in plants, this report identifies cryopyrin as an important host regulator of programmed pathogen-induced necrosis in animals, a process we term pyronecrosis.
Project description:Urticarial rash observed in cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) caused by nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-leucine-rich repeats containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) mutations is effectively suppressed by anti-interleukin (IL)-1 treatment, suggesting a pathophysiological role of IL-1beta in the skin. However, the cellular mechanisms regulating IL-1beta production in the skin of CAPS patients remain unclear. We identified mast cells (MCs) as the main cell population responsible for IL-1beta production in the skin of CAPS patients. Unlike normal MCs that required stimulation with proinflammatory stimuli for IL-1beta production, resident MCs from CAPS patients constitutively produced IL-1beta. Primary MCs expressed inflammasome components and secreted IL-1beta via NLRP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain when stimulated with microbial stimuli known to activate caspase-1. Furthermore, MCs expressing disease-associated but not wild-type NLRP3 secreted IL-1beta and induced neutrophil migration and vascular leakage, the histological hallmarks of urticarial rash, when transplanted into mouse skin. Our findings implicate MCs as IL-1beta producers in the skin and mediators of histamine-independent urticaria through the NLRP3 inflammasome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a rare disease. Knowledge on the quality of life (QoL) and the disease's societal impact is limited. Canakinumab is used in increasing frequency for the treatment of CAPS. METHODS:Observational study in Dutch CAPS patients. Patients completed questionnaires regarding treatment with canakinumab at baseline and retrospectively. Quality of life was assessed using the EQ-5D-5L in adults and CHQ-PF50 in children. Impact on work and school was assessed. Caregivers' quality of life was assessed using the CarerQol. RESULTS:Mean quality of life scores during treatment with canakinumab were 0.769 (EQ-5D-5L), 51.1 (CHQ-P) and 57-1 (CHQ-M). Most patients experienced problems on the pain/discomfort dimension. Higher disease activity and the presence of complications negatively influenced QoL. Half of the patients with a paid job reported absenteeism from work due to CAPS, for an average of 8.7 days in a 4-week period. All schoolgoing patients (N?=?5) reported absence from school due to CAPS, for an average of 2.9 days. Caregivers reported gaining a lot fulfillment from providing care for their family members. CONCLUSION:QoL during treatment is lower than in the general Dutch population. CAPS leads to productivity loss and absenteeism from school, and impacts the quality of life in informal caregivers.