Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in akirin 2 gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat, so-called Shimofuri, is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. The c17-25 expressed sequence tag (EST) has been previously shown to possess expression difference in musculus longissimus muscle between low-marbled and high-marbled steer groups, and to be located within genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for marbling. Thus, the akirin 2 (AKIRIN2) gene containing the c17-25 EST sequence was considered as a positional functional candidate for the gene responsible for marbling. In this study, we explored single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the AKIRIN2 and analyzed association of the SNP with marbling. FINDINGS:A SNP in the 3' untranslated region of the AKIRIN2, referred to as c.*188G>A, was the only difference detected between high- and low-marbled steer groups. The SNP was associated with marbling in 3 experiments using 100 sires (P = 0.041), 753 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 4 sires heterozygous for the c.*188G>A (P = 0.005), and 730 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 3 sires homozygous for the A allele at the c.*188G>A (P = 0.047), in Japanese Black beef cattle. The effect of genotypes of the SNP on subcutaneous fat thickness was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that the AKIRIN2 SNP polymorphism is associated with marbling and may be useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase the levels of marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We have recently reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1) gene were associated with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. As well as EDG1, the titin (TTN) gene, involved in myofibrillogenesis, has been previously shown to possess expression difference in musculus longissimus muscle between low-marbled and high-marbled steer groups, and to be located within genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for marbling. Thus TTN was considered as a positional functional candidate for the gene responsible for marbling. In this study, we explored SNP in TTN and analyzed association of the SNP with marbling. FINDINGS: A SNP in the promoter region of TTN, referred to as g.231054C>T, was the only difference detected between high- and low-marbled steer groups. The SNP was associated with marbling in 3 experiments using 101 sires (P = 0.004), 848 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 5 sires heterozygous for the g.231054C>T (P = 0.046), and 820 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 3 sires homozygous for C allele at the g.231054C>T (P = 0.051), in Japanese Black beef cattle. The effect of genotypes of the SNP on subcutaneous fat thickness was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that in addition to the EDG1 SNPs, the TTN SNP polymorphism is associated with marbling and may be useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase the levels of marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. Further replicate studies will be needed to confirm the allelic association observed here, and to expand the results to evaluate all possible genotypic combinations of alleles.
Project description:Marbling is characterized by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat (IMF). The AKIRIN2, TTN, EDG1, and MYBPC1 genes are well-known marbling-related genes, which were first identified in Japanese Black beef cattle. The objectives of this study were to analyze the correlation of the expression levels of these genes in the longissimus muscle (LM) with IMF content, and the associations between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes and IMF content in Chinese Qinchuan cattle (n = 350). The association analyses showed that the g.42041062G>T SNP in the EDG1 gene was significantly associated with IMF content in Qinchuan (p < 0.05). Further, the expressions of the EDG1 and MYBPC1 were up-regulated (p < 0.05) in LM of Qinchuan cattle group with low IMF content. Down-regulations of the AKIRIN2 and TTN genes (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively) were observed in the Qinchuan cattle group with high IMF content. These results suggest possible effects of the expression levels of selected genes on IMF content in the LM, and the g.42041062G>T SNP in the EDG1 gene might be useful as a molecular marker for IMF content in Qinchuan.
Project description:Red meat is an important dietary source that provides part of the nutritional requirements. Intramuscular fat, known as marbling, is located throughout skeletal muscle. Marbling is a trait of major economic relevance that positively influences sensory quality aspects. The aim of the present study was to identify and better understand biological pathways defining marbling in beef cattle. Pathway analysis was performed in PathVisio with publicly available transcriptomic data from semitendinosus muscle of well-marbled and lean-marbled beef. Moreover, for Bos taurus we created a gene identifier mapping database with bridgeDb and a pathway collection in WikiPathways. The regulation of marbling is possibly the result of the interplay between signaling pathways in muscle, fat, and intramuscular connective tissue. Pathway analysis revealed 17 pathways that were significantly different between well-marbled and lean-marbled beef. The MAPK signaling pathway was enriched, and the signaling pathways that play a role in tissue development were also affected. Interestingly, pathways related to immune response and insulin signaling were enriched.
Project description:Traditional analyses of a QTL on Bota 19 implicate a surfeit of candidates, but each is of marginal significance in explaining the deposition of healthy, low melting temperature fat within marbled muscle of Wagyu cattle. As an alternative approach, we have used genomic, multigenerational segregation to identify 14 conserved, ancestral 20?Mb haplotypes. These determine the degree and rate of marbling in Wagyu and other breeds of cattle. The melting temperature of intramuscular fat is highly heritable and traceable by haplotyping. Fortunately, for the production of healthy beef, some of these haplotypes are sufficiently penetrant to be expressed in heterozygous crossbreds, thereby allowing selection of sires which will improve the healthiness of beef produced under even harsh climatic conditions. The region of Bota 19 is syntenic to a region of Hosa 17 known to be important in muscle metabolism and in determining susceptibility to a form of human muscular dystrophy.
Project description:Adipose tissue in the loin muscle area of beef cattle as a marbling factor is directly associated with beef quality. To elucidate whether properties of proteins involved in depot specific adipose tissue were sex-dependent, we analyzed protein expression of intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) and omental adipose tissue (OMAT) from Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls of Korean native beef cattle by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomic analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis. Two different adipose depots (i.e. intramuscular and omental) were collected from cows (n = 7), steers (n = 7), or bulls (n = 7). LC-MS/MS revealed a total of 55 and 35 proteins in IMAT and OMAT, respectively. Of the 55 proteins identified, 44, 40, and 42 proteins were confirmed to be differentially expressed in IMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, respectively. In OMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, 33, 33, and 22 were confirmed to be differentially expressed, respectively. Tropomyosin (TPM) 1, TPM 2, and TPM3 were subjected to verification by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis in IMAT and OMAT of Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls as key factors closely associated with muscle development. Both mRNA levels and protein levels of TPM1, TPM2, and TPM3 in IMAT were lower in bulls compared to in cows or steers suggesting that they were positively correlated with marbling score and quality grade. Our results may aid the regulation of marbling development and improvement of meat quality grades in beef cattle.
Project description:The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, fat deposition and obesity. For this reason, the FTO gene is a physiological and functional candidate gene for carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The objectives of this study were to identify SNPs in the exonic regions of FTO gene and to evaluate the association of these SNPs with carcass traits in Hanwoo (Korean cattle). In this study, we newly identified two exonic SNPs in Hanwoo population. The g.125550A?>?T SNP was located in exon 3 and the g.175675C?>?T SNP was located in exon 6. Genotyping of the two SNP markers was carried out using PCR-RFLP analysis in Hanwoo steers to evaluate their association with carcass traits. As a result, g.125550A?>?T SNP genotype was significantly associated with effects on marbling score. Animals with the AA and TT homozygous genotypes had a significantly higher marbling score (p?<?0.001) than those with AT heterozygous genotype, and this was significant after Bonferroni correction of the significance threshold (p?=?0.003). Dominance effect was also observed for the marbling score (P?<?0.05) with higher marbling score of homozygous animals. However, no significant associations with meat quality traits were observed for the g.175675C?>?T SNP. Our results suggest that the exonic SNP g.125550A?>?T in the FTO gene may be used as a DNA marker for the selection of Hanwoo with higher marbling.
Project description:This study demonstrated the potential effects of the rumen microbiota on the deposition of intramuscular fat, known as marbling. Previous studies on fatty acid metabolism in beef cattle have mostly focused on biohydrogenating rumen bacteria, whereas those on the overall rumen microbiota-to understand their roles in marbling-have not been systematically performed. The rumen microbiota of 14 Korean beef cattle (Hanwoo), which showed similar carcass characteristics and blood metabolites but different marbling scores, were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The rumen samples were grouped into two extreme marbling score groups of host animals as follows: LMS, marbling score? 4 or HMS, marbling score ?7. Species richness tended to be higher in the HMS group, whereas the overall microbiota differed between LMS and HMS groups. RFP12, Verrucomicrobia, Oscillospira, Porphyromonadaceae, and Paludibacter were differentially abundant in the HMS group, whereas Olsenella was abundant in the LMS group. Some marbling-associated bacterial taxa also contributed to the enrichment of two lipid metabolic pathways including "alpha-linolenic acid metabolism" and "fatty acid biosynthesis" in the HMS microbiome. Taxonomic drivers of fatty acid biosynthesis, particularly in the rumen microbiome of high-marbled meat, could thus be further studied to increase the intramuscular fat content.
Project description:Background:Marbling, or intramuscular fat, is an important factor contributing to the palatability of beef. Vitamin A, through its active metabolite, retinoic acid, promotes the formation of new fat cells (adipogenesis). As intramuscular adipogenesis is active during the neonatal stage, we hypothesized that vitamin A administration during the neonatal stage would enhance intramuscular adipogenesis and marbling. Methods:Angus steer calves (n?=?30), in a completely randomized design, were randomly allotted to three treatment groups at birth, receiving 0, 150,000, or 300,000 IU of vitamin A at both birth and one month of age. A biopsy of the biceps femoris muscle was collected at two months of age. After weaning at 210 d of age, steers were fed a backgrounding diet in a feedlot until 308 d of age, when they were transitioned to a high concentrate finishing diet and implanted with trenbolone/estradiol/tylosin mixture. Steers were harvested at an average of 438 d of age. All diets were formulated to meet nutrient requirements. Results:Weaning weight and weight during the backgrounding phase were linearly increased (P?<? 0.05) by vitamin A level, though no difference in body weight was observed at harvest. Intramuscular fat of steers at 308 d of age, measured by ultrasound, quadratically increased (P?<? 0.05) with vitamin A level from 4.0±0.26 % to 4.9±0.26 %. Similarly, carcass marbling score in the ribeye quadratically increased (P?<?0.05). Conclusion:Administration of vitamin A at birth increased weaning weight and enhanced marbling fat development. Thus, vitamin A administration provides a practical method for increasing marbling and early growth of beef cattle.
Project description:Marbling (intramuscular fat) is a valuable trait that impacts on meat quality and an important factor determining price of beef in the Korean beef market. Animals that are destined for this high marbling market are fed a high concentrate ration for approximately 30 months in the Korean finishing farms. However, this feeding strategy leads to inefficiencies and excessive fat production. This study aimed to identify candidate genes and pathways associated with intramuscular fat deposition on highly divergent marbling phenotypes in adult Hanwoo cattle.Bovine genome array analysis was conducted to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in m. longissimus with divergent marbling phenotype (marbling score 2 to 7). Three data-processing methods (MAS5.0, GCRMA and RMA) were used to test for differential expression (DE). Statistical analysis identified 21 significant transcripts from at least two data-processing methods (P < 0.01). All 21 differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR. Results showed a high concordance in the gene expression fold change between the microarrays and the real time PCR data. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analysis demonstrated that some genes (ADAMTS4, CYP51A and SQLE) over expressed in high marbled animals are involved in a protein catabolic process and a cholesterol biosynthesis process. In addition, pathway analysis also revealed that ADAMTS4 is activated by three regulators (IL-17A, TNF? and TGF?1). QRT-PCR was used to investigate gene expression of these regulators in muscle with divergent intramuscular fat contents. The results demonstrate that ADAMTS4 and TGF?1 are associated with increasing marbling fat. An ADAMTS4/TGF?1 pathway seems to be associated with the phenotypic differences between high and low marbled groups.Marbling differences are possibly a function of complex signaling pathway interactions between muscle and fat. These results suggest that ADAMTS4, which is involved in connective tissue degradation, could play a role in an important biological pathway for building up marbling in cattle. Moreover, ADAMTS4 and TGF?1could potentially be used as an early biological marker for marbling fat content in the early stages of growth.