The capability of catabolic utilization of N-acetylneuraminic acid, a sialic acid, is essential for Vibrio vulnificus pathogenesis.
ABSTRACT: N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, sialic acid) could provide a good substrate for enteropathogenic bacteria in the intestine, when the bacteria invade and colonize in human gut. In order to analyze the role of Neu5Ac catabolism in Vibrio vulnificus pathogenesis, a mutant with disruption of the nanA gene encoding Neu5Ac lyase was constructed by allelic exchanges. The nanA mutant was not able to utilize Neu5Ac as a sole carbon source and revealed an altered colony morphotype with reduced opacity in the presence of Neu5Ac. Compared to the wild type, the nanA mutant exhibited a low level of cytotoxicity toward INT-407 epithelial cells in vitro and reduced virulence in a mouse model. The disruption of nanA also resulted in a substantial decrease in histopathological damage in jejunum and colon tissues from the mouse intestine. These results indicated that NanA plays an important role in V. vulnificus pathogenesis. In addition, the nanA mutant was significantly diminished in growth with and adherence to INT-407 epithelial cells in vitro, and was defective for intestinal colonization, reflecting the impaired ability of the mutant to grow and survive with, persist in, and adhere to the intestine in vivo. Consequently, the combined results suggest that NanA and the capability of catabolic utilization of Neu5Ac contribute to V. vulnificus virulence by ensuring growth, adhesion, and survival during infection.
Project description:A mutant that exhibited less cytotoxic activity toward INT-407 human intestinal epithelial cells than the wild type was screened from a random transposon mutant library of Vibrio vulnificus, and an open reading frame encoding an Fe-S cluster regulator, IscR, was identified using a transposon-tagging method. A mutational analysis demonstrated that IscR contributes to mouse mortality as well as cytotoxicity toward the INT-407 cells, indicating that IscR is essential for the pathogenesis of V. vulnificus. A whole-genome microarray analysis revealed that IscR influenced the expression of 67 genes, of which 52 were upregulated and 15 were downregulated. Among these, 12 genes most likely involved in motility and adhesion to host cells, hemolytic activity, and survival under oxidative stress of the pathogen during infection were selected and experimentally verified to be upregulated by IscR. Accordingly, the disruption of iscR resulted in a significant reduction in motility and adhesion to INT-407 cells, in hemolytic activity, and in resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2 and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH). Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that iscR expression was induced by exposure of V. vulnificus to the INT-407 cells, and the induction appeared to be mediated by ROS generated by the host cells during infection. Consequently, the combined results indicated that IscR is a global regulator that contributes to the overall success in the pathogenesis of V. vulnificus by regulating the expression of various virulence and survival genes in addition to Fe-S cluster genes.
Project description:Quorum sensing is a cell-to-cell communication system known to control many bacterial processes. In the present study, the functions of quorum sensing in the pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus, a food-borne pathogen, were assessed by evaluating the virulence of a mutant deficient in SmcR, a quorum-sensing regulator and homologue of LuxR. When biofilms were used as an inoculum, the smcR mutant was impaired in virulence and colonization capacity in the infection of mice. The lack of SmcR also resulted in decreased histopathological damage in mouse jejunum tissue. These results indicated that SmcR is essential for V. vulnificus pathogenesis. Moreover, the smcR mutant exhibited significantly reduced biofilm detachment. Upon exposure to INT-407 host cells, the wild type, but not the smcR mutant, revealed accelerated biofilm detachment. The INT-407 cells increased smcR expression by activating the expression of LuxS, an autoinducer-2 synthase, indicating that host cells manipulate the cellular level of SmcR through the quorum-sensing signaling of V. vulnificus. A whole-genome microarray analysis revealed that the genes primarily involved in biofilm detachment and formation are up- and downregulated by SmcR, respectively. Among the SmcR-regulated genes, vvpE encoding an elastolytic protease was the most upregulated, and the purified VvpE appeared to dissolve established biofilms directly in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. These results suggest that the host cell-induced SmcR enhances the detachment of V. vulnificus biofilms entering the host intestine and thereby may promote the dispersal of the pathogen to new colonization loci, which is crucial for pathogenesis.
Project description:The marine bacterium Vibrio vulnificus causes food-borne diseases, which may lead to life-threatening septicemia in some individuals. Therefore, identifying virulence factors in V. vulnificus is of high priority. We performed a transcriptome analysis on V. vulnificus after infection of human intestinal HT29-methotrexate cells and found induction of plpA, encoding a putative phospholipase, VvPlpA. Bioinformatics, biochemical, and genetic analyses demonstrated that VvPlpA is a phospholipase A2 secreted in a type II secretion system-dependent manner. Compared with the wild type, the plpA mutant exhibited reduced mortality, systemic infection, and inflammation in mice as well as low cytotoxicity toward the human epithelial INT-407 cells. Moreover, plpA mutation attenuated the release of actin and cytosolic cyclophilin A from INT-407 cells, indicating that VvPlpA is a virulence factor essential for causing lysis and necrotic death of the epithelial cells. plpA transcription was growth phase-dependent, reaching maximum levels during the early stationary phase. Also, transcription factor HlyU and cAMP receptor protein (CRP) mediate additive activation and host-dependent induction of plpA Molecular biological analyses revealed that plpA expression is controlled via the promoter, P plpA , and that HlyU and CRP directly bind to P plpA upstream sequences. Taken together, this study demonstrated that VvPlpA is a type II secretion system-dependent secretory phospholipase A2 regulated by HlyU and CRP and is essential for the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus.
Project description:To assess the role of the flagellum which was detected by immunoscreening of surface proteins of Vibrio vulnificus, an flgE-deleted mutant was constructed and tested for its pathogenicity. The ability of this nonmotile mutant to adhere to INT-407 cells and its role in biofilm were decreased, as was its lethality to mice.
Project description:Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human-adapted pathogen that encounters terminally sialylated glycoconjugates and free sialic acid (Sia) in the airways. Upon scavenging by the bacterial sialidase NanA, Sias serve as carbon sources for the bacteria. Unlike most animals in which cytidine-monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) converts Sia N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) into N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), humans have an inactive CMAH, causing an absence of Neu5Gc and excess Neu5Ac. We find that pneumococcal challenge in Cmah(-/-) mice leads to heightened bacterial loads, virulence, and NanA expression. In vitro, NanA is upregulated in response to Neu5Ac compared with Neu5Gc, a process controlled by the two-component response regulator CiaR and requiring Sia uptake by the transporter SatABC. Additionally, compared with Neu5Gc, Neu5Ac increases pneumococcal resistance to antimicrobial reactive oxygen species in a CiaR-dependent manner. Thus, S. pneumoniae senses and responds to Neu5Ac, leading to CiaR activation and increased virulence and potentially explaining the greater susceptibility in humans.
Project description:Vibrio cholerae, a noninvasive bacterium, colonizes the intestinal epithelium and secretes cholera toxin (CT), a potent enterotoxin that causes the severe fluid loss characteristic of the disease cholera. In this study, we demonstrate that adherence of V. cholerae to the intestinal epithelial cell line INT 407 strongly induces the expression of the major virulence genes ctxAB and tcpA and the virulence regulatory gene toxT. No induction of toxR and tcpP, which encode transcriptional activators of toxT, was observed in adhered bacteria, and the adherence-dependent upregulation of toxT expression was independent of ToxR and TcpP. A sharp increase in the expression of the vieA gene, which encodes a cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) phosphodiesterase, was observed in INT 407-adhered V. cholerae immediately after infection. Induction of toxT, ctxAB, and tcpA in INT 407-adhered vieA mutant strain O395 ?vieA was consistently lower than in the parent strain, although no effect was observed in unadhered bacteria, suggesting that VieA has a role in the upregulation of toxT expression specifically in host cell-adhered V. cholerae. Furthermore, though VieA has both a DNA binding helix-turn-helix domain and an EAL domain conferring c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity, the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity of VieA is necessary and sufficient for the upregulation of toxT expression.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous bacterial pathogen that is the causative agent of numerous acute and chronic infections. S. aureus colonizes the anterior nares of a significant portion of the healthy adult population, but the mechanisms of colonization remain incompletely defined. Sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid [Neu5Ac]) is a bioavailable carbon and nitrogen source that is abundant on mucosal surfaces and in secretions in the commensal environment. Our findings demonstrate that Neu5Ac can serve as an S. aureus carbon source, and we have identified a previously uncharacterized chromosomal locus (nan) that is required for Neu5Ac utilization. Molecular characterization of the nan locus indicates that it contains five genes, organized into four transcripts, and the genes were renamed nanE, nanR, nanK, nanA, and nanT. Initial studies with gene deletions indicate that nanT, predicted to encode the Neu5Ac transporter, and nanA and nanE, predicted to encode catabolic enzymes, are essential for growth on Neu5Ac. Furthermore, a nanE deletion mutant exhibits a growth inhibition phenotype in the presence of Neu5Ac. Transcriptional fusions and Northern blot analyses indicate that NanR represses the expression of both the nanAT and nanE transcripts, which can be relieved with Neu5Ac. Electrophoretic mobility studies demonstrate that NanR binds to the nanAT and nanE promoter regions, and the Neu5Ac catabolic intermediate N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate (ManNAc-6P) relieves NanR promoter binding. Taken together, these data indicate that the nan gene cluster is essential for Neu5Ac utilization and may perform an important function for S. aureus survival in the host.
Project description:Corynebacterium glutamicum metabolizes sialic acid (Neu5Ac) to fructose-6-phosphate (fructose-6P) via the consecutive activity of the sialic acid importer SiaEFGI, N-acetylneuraminic acid lyase (NanA), N-acetylmannosamine kinase (NanK), N-acetylmannosamine-6P epimerase (NanE), N-acetylglucosamine-6P deacetylase (NagA), and glucosamine-6P deaminase (NagB). Within the cluster of the three operons nagAB, nanAKE, and siaEFGI for Neu5Ac utilization a fourth operon is present, which comprises cg2936, encoding a GntR-type transcriptional regulator, here named NanR. Microarray studies and reporter gene assays showed that nagAB, nanAKE, siaEFGI, and nanR are repressed in wild-type (WT) C. glutamicum but highly induced in a ?nanR C. glutamicum mutant. Purified NanR was found to specifically bind to the nucleotide motifs A[AC]G[CT][AC]TGATGTC[AT][TG]ATGT[AC]TA located within the nagA-nanA and nanR-sialA intergenic regions. Binding of NanR to promoter regions was abolished in the presence of the Neu5Ac metabolism intermediates GlcNAc-6P and N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate (ManNAc-6P). We observed consecutive utilization of glucose and Neu5Ac as well as fructose and Neu5Ac by WT C. glutamicum, whereas the deletion mutant C. glutamicum ?nanR simultaneously consumed these sugars. Increased reporter gene activities for nagAB, nanAKE, and nanR were observed in cultivations of WT C. glutamicum with Neu5Ac as the sole substrate compared to cultivations when fructose was present. Taken together, our findings show that Neu5Ac metabolism in C. glutamicum is subject to catabolite repression, which involves control by the repressor NanR.Neu5Ac utilization is currently regarded as a common trait of both pathogenic and commensal bacteria. Interestingly, the nonpathogenic soil bacterium C. glutamicum efficiently utilizes Neu5Ac as a substrate for growth. Expression of genes for Neu5Ac utilization in C. glutamicum is here shown to depend on the transcriptional regulator NanR, which is the first GntR-type regulator of Neu5Ac metabolism not to use Neu5Ac as effector but relies instead on the inducers GlcNAc-6P and ManNAc-6P. The identification of conserved NanR-binding sites in intergenic regions within the operons for Neu5Ac utilization in pathogenic Corynebacterium species indicates that the mechanism for the control of Neu5Ac catabolism in C. glutamicum by NanR as described in this work is probably conserved within this genus.
Project description:N-Acetylneuraminic acid lyase (NAL, E.C. number 22.214.171.124) is a Class I aldolase that catalyzes the reversible aldol cleavage of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) from pyruvate and N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). Due to the high Neu5Ac cleavage activity in most isozyme forms, the enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step of two biocatalytic reactions producing Neu5Ac in industry. We report the biochemical characterization of a novel NAL from a "GRAS" (General recognized as safe) strain C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 (CgNal). Compared to all previously reported NALs, CgNal exhibited the lowest kcat/Km value for Neu5Ac and highest kcat/Km values for ManNAc and pyruvate, which makes CgNal favor industrial Neu5Ac synthesis process in a non-equilibrium condition. The recombinant CgNal reached the highest expression level (480 mg/L culture), and the highest reported yield of Neu5Ac was achieved (194 g/L, 0.63 M). All these unique properties make CgNal a promising biocatalyst for industrial Neu5Ac biosynthesis. Additionally, although showing the best Neu5Ac synthesis activity among the NAL family, CgNal is more related to dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) by phylogenetic analysis. The activities of CgNal towards both NAL's and DHDPS' substrates are fairly high, which indicates CgNal a bi-functional enzyme. The sequence analysis suggests that CgNal might have adopted a unique set of residues for substrates recognition.
Project description:Sialic acids of cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids play a pivotal role in the structure and function of animal tissues. The pattern of cell surface sialylation is species- and tissue-specific, is highly regulated during embryonic development, and changes with stages of differentiation. A prerequisite for the synthesis of sialylated glycoconjugates is the activated sugar-nucleotide cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac), which provides a substrate for Golgi sialyltransferases. Although a mammalian enzymatic activity responsible for the synthesis of CMP-Neu5Ac has been described and the enzyme has been purified to near homogeneity, sequence information is restricted to bacterial CMP-Neu5Ac synthetases. In this paper, we describe the molecular characterization, functional expression, and subcellular localization of murine CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase. Cloning was achieved by complementation of the Chinese hamster ovary lec32 mutation that causes a deficiency in CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase activity. A murine cDNA encoding a protein of 432 amino acids rescued the lec32 mutation and also caused polysialic acid to be expressed in the capsule of the CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase negative Escherichia coli mutant EV5. Three potential nuclear localization signals were found in the murine synthetase, and immunofluorescence studies confirmed predominantly nuclear localization of an N-terminally Flag-tagged molecule. Four stretches of amino acids that occur in the N-terminal region are highly conserved in bacterial CMP-Neu5Ac synthetases, providing evidence for an ancestral relationship between the sialylation pathways of bacterial and animal cells.