Depolarization-induced slow current in cerebellar Purkinje cells does not require metabotropic glutamate receptor 1.
ABSTRACT: Activation of cerebellar Purkinje cells by either brief depolarizing steps or bursts of climbing fiber synaptic activation evokes a slow inward current, which we have previously called depolarization-induced slow current or DISC. DISC is triggered by Ca influx via voltage-sensitive Ca channels and is attenuated by inhibitors of vacuolar ATPase or vesicle fusion. This led us to suggest that DISC required vesicular release of glutamate from the somatodendritic region of Purkinje cells. Furthermore, we found that DISC was attenuated by the mGluR1 antagonist 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester (CPCCOEt), indicating that DISC required autocrine activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1). Here, we have revisited the role of mGluR1 and found that it is, in fact, not required for DISC. CPCCOEt, but not three other specific mGluR1 antagonists (JNJ16259685, alpha-amino-5-carboxy-3-methyl-2-thiopheneacetic acid (3-MATIDA), Bay 36-7620), attenuated DISC, even though all four of these drugs produced near-complete blockade of current evoked by puffs of the exogenous mGluR1/5 agonist DHPG. Cerebellar slices derived from mGluR1 null mice showed substantial DISC that was still attenuated by CPCCOEt. mGluR5 is functionally similar to mGluR1, but is not expressed at high levels in cerebellar Purkinje cells. 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP), an mGluR5 antagonist, did not attenuate DISC, and DISC was still present in Purkinje cells derived from mGluR1/mGluR5 double null mice. Thus, neither mGluR1 nor mGluR5 is required for DISC in cerebellar Purkinje cells.
Project description:Within the group I family of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), substantial evidence points to a role for mGluR5 mechanisms in cocaine's abuse-related behavioral effects, but less is understood about the contribution of mGluR1, which also belongs to the group I mGluR family. The selective mGluR1 antagonist JNJ16259685 [(3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrano-[2,3-b]quinolin-7-yl)-(cis-4-methoxycyclohexyl)-methanone] was used to investigate the role of mGluR1 in the behavioral effects of cocaine and methamphetamine. In drug discrimination experiments, squirrel monkeys were trained to discriminate cocaine from saline by using a two-lever, food-reinforced operant procedure. JNJ16259685 (0.56 mg/kg) pretreatments significantly attenuated cocaine's discriminative stimulus effects and the cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine. In monkeys trained to self-administer cocaine or methamphetamine under a second-order schedule of intravenous drug injection, JNJ16259685 (0.56 mg/kg) significantly reduced drug-reinforced responding, resulting in a downward displacement of dose-response functions. In reinstatement studies, intravenous priming with cocaine accompanied by restoration of a cocaine-paired stimulus reinstated extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior, which was significantly attenuated by JNJ16259685 (0.56 mg/kg). Finally, in experiments involving food rather than drug self-administration, cocaine and methamphetamine increased the rate of responding, and the rate-increasing effects of both psychostimulants were significantly attenuated by JNJ16259685 (0.3 mg/kg). At the doses tested, JNJ16259685 did not significantly suppress food-reinforced behavior (drug discrimination or fixed-interval schedule of food delivery), but did significantly reduce species-typical locomotor activity in observational studies. To the extent that the psychostimulant-antagonist effects of JNJ16259685 are independent of motor function suppression, further research is warranted to investigate other mGluR1 antagonists for potential therapeutic value in psychostimulant abuse.
Project description:Electrophysiological studies described potentiation of NMDA receptor function by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) of group I occurring postsynaptically. Since release-enhancing NMDA receptors exist on noradrenergic terminals and group I mGluRs have recently been identified on these nerve endings, we have investigated if NMDA receptor-mGluR interactions also can occur at the presynaptic level.Rat hippocampus and human neocortex synaptosomes were labelled with [(3)H]noradrenaline and superfused with mGluR agonists and antagonists. NMDA-evoked [(3)H]noradrenaline release was produced by removal of external Mg(2+) or by simultaneous application of NMDA and AMPA in Mg(2+)-containing solutions.The mGluR1/5 agonist 3,5-DHPG, inactive on its own, potentiated both the release of [(3)H]noradrenaline elicited by AMPA/NMDA/glycine and that evoked by NMDA/glycine following Mg(2+) removal. The effect of 3,5-DHPG on the AMPA/NMDA/glycine-induced release was insensitive to the mGluR1 antagonist CPCCOEt, but it was abolished by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP; moreover, it was potentiated by the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator DFB. When NMDA receptors were activated by Mg(2+) removal, both mGluR5 and mGluR1 contributed to the evoked release, the mGluR-mediated release being blocked only by CPCCOEt and MPEP in combination. Experiments with human neocortex synaptosomes show NMDA receptor-mGluR interactions qualitatively similar to those observed in rodents.Group I mGluRs, both of the mGluR1 and mGluR5 subtypes, co-localize with NMDA receptors on noradrenergic terminals of rat hippocampus and human neocortex. Depending on the mode of activation, NMDA receptors exert differential permissive roles on the activation of presynaptic mGluR1 and mGluR5.
Project description:In recent years, it has become clear that, in addition to conventional anterograde transmission, signaling in neural circuits can occur in a retrograde manner. This suggests the additional possibility that postsynaptic release of neurotransmitter might be able to act in an autocrine fashion. Here, we show that brief depolarization of a cerebellar Purkinje cell triggers a slow inward current. This depolarization-induced slow current (DISC) is attenuated by antagonists of mGluR1 or TRP channels. DISC is eliminated by a mixture of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel blockers and is mimicked by a brief climbing fiber burst. DISC is attenuated by an inhibitor of vesicular glutamate transporters or of vesicular fusion. These data suggest that Ca2+-dependent postsynaptic fusion of glutamate-loaded vesicles evokes a slow inward current produced by activation of postsynaptic mGluR1, thereby constituting a useful form of feedback regulation.
Project description:Antagonism of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5) reduces behavioral effects of drugs of abuse, including cocaine. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Activation of mGluR5 increases protein synthesis at synapses. Although mGluR5-induced excessive protein synthesis has been implicated in the pathology of fragile X syndrome, it remains unknown whether group I mGluR-mediated protein synthesis is involved in any behavioral effects of drugs of abuse. We report that group I mGluR agonist DHPG induced more pronounced initial depression of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) followed by modest long-term depression (I-LTD) in dopamine neurons of rat ventral tegmental area (VTA) through the activation of mGluR1. The early component of DHPG-induced depression of IPSCs was mediated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptors, while DHPG-induced I-LTD was dependent on protein synthesis. Western blotting analysis indicates that mGluR1 was coupled to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways to increase translation. We also show that cocaine conditioning activated translation machinery in the VTA via an mGluR1-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, intra-VTA microinjections of mGluR1 antagonist JNJ16259685 and protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide significantly attenuated or blocked the acquisition of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and activation of translation elongation factors. Taken together, these results suggest that mGluR1 antagonism inhibits de novo protein synthesis; this effect may block the formation of cocaine-cue associations and thus provide a mechanism for the reduction in CPP to cocaine.
Project description:Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) function as dimers. Recent work suggests that mGluR1 and mGluR5 may physically interact, but the nature and functional consequences of this relationship have not been addressed. In this study, the functional and pharmacological consequences of this interaction were investigated. Using heterologous expression of mGluR cDNA in rat sympathetic neurons from the superior cervical ganglion and inhibition of the native calcium currents as an assay for receptor activation, a functional interdependence between mGluR1 and mGluR5 was demonstrated. In neurons coexpressing these receptors, combining a selective mGluR1 competitive antagonist with either an mGluR1- or mGluR5-selective negative allosteric modulator (NAM) BAY36-7620 [(3aS,6aS)-hexahydro-5-methylene-6a-(2-naphthalenylmethyl)-1H-cyclopenta[c]furan-1-one] or MPEP [2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride], respectively, strongly occluded signaling by both receptors to an approximately equal degree. By contrast, in cells coexpressing mGluR1 and mGluR2, combining the same mGluR1 competitive inhibitor with an mGluR1 or mGluR2 NAM yielded partial and full inhibition of the response, respectively, as expected for independently acting receptors. In neurons expressing mGluR1 and mGluR5, the selective NAMs each strongly inhibited the response to glutamate, suggesting that these receptors do not interact as heterodimers, which would not be inhibited by selective NAMs. Finally, evidence for a similar mGluR1/mGluR5 functional dependence is shown in medium spiny striatal neurons. Together, these data demonstrate cooperative signaling between mGluR1 and mGluR5 in a manner inconsistent with heterodimerization, and thus suggest an interaction between homodimers.
Project description:We have applied subtype-selective antagonists of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors mGlu1 or mGlu5 [7-(hydroxy-imino) cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester (CPCCOEt) or 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP)] to mixed rat cerebellar cultures containing both Purkinje and granule cells. The action of these two drugs on neuronal survival was cell specific. Although CPCCOEt (1, 10, 30 microm) reduced the survival of Purkinje cells, MPEP (3 or 30 microm) selectively reduced the survival of granule cells. Both effects required an early exposure of cultures to antagonists [from 3 to 6 d in vitro (DIV) for CPCCOEt, and from 3 to 6 or 6 to 9 DIV for MPEP]. Addition of MPEP from 6 to 9, 9 to 13, or 13 to 17 DIV also induced profound morphological changes in the dendritic tree and dendritic spines of Purkinje cells, suggesting that endogenous activation of mGlu5 receptors is required for the age-dependent refinement of Purkinje cell phenotype. In in vivo studies, an early blockade of mGlu1 receptors induced in rats by local injections of LY367385 (20 nmol/2 microl), local injections of mGlu1 antisense oligonucleotides (12 nmol/2 microl), or systemic administration of CPCCOEt (5 mg/kg, s.c.) from postnatal day (P) 3 to P9 reduced the number and dramatically altered the morphology of cerebellar Purkinje cells. In contrast, mGlu5 receptor blockade induced by local injections of antisense oligonucleotides reduced the number of granule cells but also produced substantial morphological changes in the dendritic tree of Purkinje cells. These results provide the first evidence that the development of cerebellar neurons is under the control of mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptors, i.e., the two mGlu receptor subtypes coupled to polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis.
Project description:Brief strong depolarization of cerebellar Purkinje cells produces a slow inward cation current. This current, called depolarization-induced slow current (DISC), is triggered by Ca influx in the Purkinje cell and is attenuated by a blocker of vesicular fusion. Previous work in other brain regions, such as the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, has shown that dopamine can be released from dendrites to produce paracrine and autocrine signaling. Here, we test the hypothesis that postsynaptic release of dopamine and autocrine activation of dopamine receptors is involved in DISC. Light immunohistochemistry showed that D(3) dopamine receptors, vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2), and dopamine plasma membrane transporters (DATs) were all expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. However, their expression was strongest in the gyrus region of cerebellar lobules IX and X. Comparison of DISC across lobules revealed that it was weak in the anterior portions of the cerebellum (lobules II, V, and VI) and strong in lobules IX and X. DISC was blocked by dopamine receptor antagonists (haloperidol, clozapine, eticlopride, and SCH23390). Likewise, DISC was strongly attenuated by inhibitors of VMAT (reserpine and tetrabenazine) and DAT (GBR12909 and rimcazole). These drugs did not produce DISC attenuation through blockade of depolarization-evoked Purkinje cell Ca transients. Purkinje cells in cerebellar slices derived from DAT-null mice expressed DISC, but this DISC ran down at a significantly higher rate than littermate controls. Together, these results suggest that strong Purkinje cell depolarization produces Ca-dependent release of vesicular postsynaptic dopamine that then excites Purkinje cells in an autocrine manner.
Project description:Classical eyeblink conditioning is a representative associative motor learning that requires both the cerebellar cortex and the deep cerebellar nucleus (DCN). Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) is richly expressed in Purkinje cells (PCs) of the cerebellar cortex. Global mGluR1 knock-out (KO) mice show a significantly lower percentage of conditioned response (CR%) than wild-type mice in eyeblink conditioning, and the impaired CR% is restored by the introduction of mGluR1 in PCs. However, the specific roles of mGluR1 in major memory processes, including formation, storage and expression have not yet been defined. We thus examined the role of mGluR1 in these processes of eyeblink conditioning, using mGluR1 conditional KO (cKO) mice harboring a selective and reversible expression of mGluR1 in PCs. We have found that eyeblink memory is not latently formed in the absence of mGluR1 in adult mouse PCs. However, once acquired, eyeblink memory is expressed even after the depletion of mGluR1 in PCs. We thus conclude that mGluR1 in PCs is indispensable for the formation of eyeblink memory, while it is not required for the expression of CR.
Project description:(E)-3-(Pyridin-2-ylethynyl)cyclohex-2-enone O-(2-(3-(18)F-fluoropropoxy)ethyl) oxime ([(18)F]-PSS223) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo to establish its potential as a PET tracer for imaging metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5). [(18)F]-PSS223 was obtained in 20% decay corrected radiochemical yield whereas the non-radioactive PSS223 was accomplished in 70% chemical yield in a S(N)2 reaction of common intermediate mesylate 8 with potassium fluoride. The in vitro binding affinity of [(18)F]-PSS223 was measured directly in a Scatchard assay to give K(d) = 3.34 ± 2.05 nM. [(18)F]-PSS223 was stable in PBS and rat plasma but was significantly metabolized by rat liver microsomal enzymes, but to a lesser extent by human liver microsomes. Within 60 min, 90% and 20% of [(18)F]-PSS223 was metabolized by rat and human microsome enzymes, respectively. In vitro autoradiography on horizontal rat brain slices showed heterogeneous distribution of [(18)F]-PSS223 with the highest accumulation in brain regions where mGluR5 is highly expressed (hippocampus, striatum and cortex). Autoradiography in vitro under blockade conditions with ABP688 confirmed the high specificity of [(18)F]-PSS223 for mGluR5. Under the same blocking conditions but using the mGluR1 antagonist, JNJ16259685, no blockade was observed demonstrating the selectivity of [(18)F]-PSS223 for mGluR5 over mGluR1. Despite favourable in vitro properties of [(18)F]-PSS223, a clear-cut visualization of mGluR5-rich brain regions in vivo in rats was not possible mainly due to a fast clearance from the brain and low metabolic stability of [(18)F]-PSS223.
Project description:Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5), a dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by profound Purkinje cell loss, is caused by mutations in SPTBN2, a gene that encodes ?-III spectrin. SCA5 is the first neurodegenerative disorder reported to be caused by mutations in a cytoskeletal spectrin gene. We have developed a mouse model to understand the mechanistic basis for this disease and show that expression of mutant but not wild-type ?-III spectrin causes progressive motor deficits and cerebellar degeneration. We show that endogenous ?-III spectrin interacts with the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1? (mGluR1?) and that mice expressing mutant ?-III spectrin have cerebellar dysfunction with altered mGluR1? localization at Purkinje cell dendritic spines, decreased mGluR1-mediated responses, and deficient mGluR1-mediated long-term potentiation. These results indicate that mutant ?-III spectrin causes mislocalization and dysfunction of mGluR1? at dendritic spines and connects SCA5 with other disorders involving glutamatergic dysfunction and synaptic plasticity abnormalities.