Electroacupuncture for primary insomnia: a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: STUDY OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture for the treatment of primary insomnia. DESIGN:Randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group. SETTING:A university-based sleep clinic. PARTICIPANTS:Community sample of 60 Chinese adult volunteers who report having insomnia 3 or more nights per week, whose symptoms meet the DSM-IV criteria for primary insomnia for at least 3 months, and who have an Insomnia Severity Index total score of at least 15. Participants were screened with polysomnography and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV prior to randomization. INTERVENTION:Electroacupuncture at Yintang (EX-HN3), Baihui (GV20), bilateral ear Shenmen, Sishencong (EX-HN1), and Anmian (EX) 3 times per week for 3 weeks or placebo acupuncture using Streitberger needles at the same points. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS:Self-reported questionnaires, 1-week sleep diaries, and 3-day actigraphy were collected at baseline and 1 week after treatment. The Insomnia Severity Index was used as the primary outcome measure. Both groups showed significant improvement compared with the pretreatment baseline. One-way analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline scores showed that there were significantly greater improvements in sleep efficiency by sleep diary and actigraphy in the electroacupuncture group. However, no significant between-group differences were observed in the Insomnia Severity Index and other outcome measures. The proportions of subjects having less than 30 minutes of wake after sleep onset and a sleep efficiency of at least 85% at the posttreatment visit were significantly higher in the electroacupuncture group. All adverse events were mild in severity. CONCLUSION:We found a slight advantage of electroacupuncture over placebo acupuncture in the short-term treatment of primary insomnia. Because of some limitations of the current study, further studies are necessary to verify the effectiveness of acupuncture for insomnia.
Project description:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture as an additional treatment for residual insomnia associated with major depressive disorder (MDD).Randomized, placebo-controlled.A psychiatric outpatient clinic.78 Chinese patients with DSM-IV-diagnosed MDD, insomnia complaint, a Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS(17)) score ≤ 18, and fixed antidepressant dosage.Electroacupuncture, minimal acupuncture (superficial needling at non-acupuncture points), or noninvasive placebo acupuncture 3 sessions weekly for 3 weeks.Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), HDRS(17), 1 week sleep diaries, and 3 day actigraphy were administered at baseline, 1 week post-treatment, and 4 week post-treatment. There was significant group by time interaction in ISI, PSQI, and sleep diary-derived sleep efficiency (mixed-effects models, P = 0.04, P = 0.03, and P = 0.01, respectively). Post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed that electroacupuncture and minimal acupuncture were more efficacious than placebo acupuncture in ISI and PSQI at 1 week and 4 week post-treatment. Minimal acupuncture resulted in greater improvement in sleep diary-derived sleep efficiency than placebo acupuncture at 1 week post-treatment. There was no significant between-group difference in actigraphy measures, depressive symptoms, daily functioning, and hypnotic consumption, and no difference in any measures between electroacupuncture and minimal acupuncture.Compared with placebo acupuncture, electroacupuncture and minimal acupuncture resulted in greater improvement in subjective sleep measures at 1 week and 4 week post-treatment. No significant difference was found between electroacupuncture and minimal acupuncture, suggesting that the observed differences could be due to nonspecific effects of needling, regardless of whether it is done according to traditional Chinese medicine theory.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Insomnia with short sleep duration has a more serious negative impact on patient health. The existing literature suggests that medication therapy is more effective for this phenotype of insomnia compared with cognitive-behavioural therapy. However, the potential side effects of hypnotic medications hinder their clinical application. Acupuncture has been widely used in the treatment of insomnia, but it remains unclear whether it has therapeutic efficacy for insomnia with short sleep duration. The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for insomnia with short sleep duration. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This study is designed as a randomised, single-centre, single-blinded, placebo acupuncture controlled trial involving 152 participants. Eligible patients will be divided into two groups according to the objective total sleep time: insomnia with normal sleep duration group and insomnia with short sleep duration group. Then, patients in each group will be randomly assigned to two subgroups, the treatment group (acupuncture) and the control group (placebo acupuncture), in a 1:1 ratio with 38 subjects in each subgroup. The primary outcome is the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index. Secondary outcomes are actigraphy, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Fatigue Severity Scale. All adverse effects will be assessed by the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale. Outcomes will be evaluated at baseline, post treatment, as well as at 1-week and 1-month follow-up. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This protocol has been approved by the ethics committee of Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine (no. 2019-17). Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals for publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ChiCTR1900023473; Pre-results.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Although insomnia is one of the most prevalent and disturbing symptoms among patients with cancer, it has not been properly managed. Electroacupuncture (EA) has received attention as a promising intervention for insomnia, and a few previous studies have reported that this intervention may be beneficial for treating insomnia in patients with cancer. The aim of this pilot study is to explore the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of EA on the sleep disturbance of patients with cancer with insomnia using a subjective method, patient-reported questionnaires and an objective tool, actigraphy, to measure the quality of sleep. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This is a study protocol for a randomised, three-arm, multicentre, pilot clinical trial. A total of 45 patients with cancer who have continuous insomnia related to cancer treatment or cancer itself will be randomly allocated to an EA group, sham EA group or usual care group in equal proportions. The EA group will receive 10 sessions of EA treatment over 4 weeks. The sham EA group will receive sham EA at non-acupoints using non-penetrating Streitberger acupuncture needles with mock EA. The usual care group will not receive EA treatment. All participants will be provided a brochure on the management of sleep disorders regardless of their group assignment. The primary outcome measure is the mean change in the insomnia severity index from the baseline to week 5. Information related to sleep quality will also be obtained through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, a sleep diary and actigraphy. Participants will complete the trial by visiting the research centre at week 9 for follow-up assessment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study protocol was approved by the institutional review boards of each research centre. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The result of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals or presented at academic conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:KCT0002162; Pre-results.
Project description:Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) on treating insomnia in patients with depression. Patients and Methods:In a patient-assessor-blind, randomized and sham controlled trial, 90 depression patients with insomnia were assigned into three different groups, receiving EA in the treatment group, superficial acupuncture at sham points in the control group A, or Streitberger non-insertion sham acupuncture in the control group B. Treatment was applied 3 times weekly for 8 consecutive weeks. The primary outcome was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Secondary outcomes were sleep parameters including sleep efficiency (SE), total sleep time (TST) and numbers of sleep awakenings (SA) recorded in the actigraphy, as well as applying the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAMA). Assessments were performed at the baseline (week 0), week 4, week 8, and week 12. Linear mixed-effects models were used for analyses and all statistical tests were two-sided. Results:Patients in the EA group had more significant improvement in PSQI scores than those in the control groups over time (respectively p<0.001 and p=0.04 for treatment and time interaction). At 8-week posttreatment, the EA group reported a reduction of -6.64 points in PSQI scores compared with -2.23 points in the control group A (95% CI= -5.74 to -2.39) and -2.94 points in the control group B (95% CI= -5.73 to -2.47). Compared with the two control groups, significant between-group differences were seen in SE (both p<0.01) and TST (both p<0.01) at week 8; similar results can be found in HAMD-17, SDS, and HAMA scores as well. However, there were no between-group differences in SA (respectively p=0.24 and p=0.08) after 8-weeks of treatment. Conclusion:Electroacupuncture may improve the sleep quality of patients with depression. Trial Registration:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR); URL: http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=12327; Trial ID: ChiCTR-IIR-16008058.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Insomnia is a global disease with a high incidence and acupuncture therapy is a well appropriate method to treat insomnia. Shenmen (HT 7) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) are the acupoints most commonly used to treat insomnia. Although they can obviously relieve the clinical symptoms of insomnia, it is unclear whether they must be used together, whether the combination of two acupoints may have a synergistic or antagonistic effect, and whether there is a primary or secondary relationship between the two points in the treatment of insomnia. Further studies are needed. Therefore, in this study, we are exploring the acupoint combination effect and biological mechanism of HT 7 and SP 6 in treating insomnia. METHODS/DESIGN:This will be a parallel group randomized controlled trial. The study will recruit 120 patients with insomnia randomly assigned to a control group, an electroacupuncture on HT 7 group, an electroacupuncture on SP 6 group, and an electroacupuncture on HT 7 and SP 6 group. The allocation ratio is 1:1:1:1, with 30 subjects in each group. Meanwhile, ten healthy subjects who meet the study criteria will be recruited as the healthy control group. Patients in the intervention groups will be given ten rounds of electroacupuncture stimulation on the corresponding acupoints for 2 weeks, five times per week, with 2?days of rest between the two treatment courses. Patients in the control group will also receive the same two courses of ten rounds of compensatory acupuncture therapy after a 2-week waiting period for treatment. The major outcome measures of this study include the Sleep Dysfunction Rating Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, combined with the Measure Your Medical Outcome Profile, to evaluate insomnia and the emotional state of patients with insomnia. The secondary outcome measures include sleep composition monitored by polysomnography and measurements of acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, melatonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and metabolic biomarkers in serum. DISCUSSION:In this study, we are exploring the acupoint combination effect and biological mechanism of HT 7 and SP 6 in treating insomnia, which may provide evidence for the clinical application of acupuncture and acupoint selection in the treatment of insomnia. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, Chi-CTR-1800017483. Registered on 1 August 2018.
Project description:Conventional approaches for benzodiazepine tapering have their limitations. Anecdotal studies have shown that acupuncture is a potential treatment for facilitating successful benzodiazepine tapering. As of today, there was no randomized controlled trial examining its efficacy and safety. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of using electroacupuncture as an adjunct treatment to gradual tapering of benzodiazepine doses in complete benzodiazepine cessation in long-term benzodiazepine users.The study protocol of a randomized, assessor- and subject-blinded, controlled trial is presented. One hundred and forty-four patients with histories of using benzodiazepines in ?50% of days for more than 3 months will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either electroacupuncture or placebo electroacupuncture combined with gradual benzodiazepine tapering schedule. Both experimental and placebo treatments will be delivered twice per week for 4 weeks. Major assessments will be conducted at baseline, week 6 and week 16 post-randomization. Primary outcome is the cessation rate of benzodiazepine use. Secondary outcomes include the percentage change in the doses of benzodiazepine usage and the severity of withdrawal symptoms experienced based on the Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptom Questionnaire, insomnia as measured by the Insomnia Severity Index, and anxiety and depressive symptoms as evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Adverse events will also be measured at each study visit.Results of this study will provide high quality evidence of the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture as an adjunct treatment for benzodiazepine tapering in long-term users.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02475538 .
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Sleep disorders including insomnia occur frequently in depressive patients. Acupuncture is a widely recognised therapy to treat depression and sleep disorders in clinical practice. This multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) is aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture (EA) in the treatment of depression patients with insomnia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We describe a protocol for a multicentre RCT. A total of 270 eligible patients in three different healthcare centres in Shanghai will be randomly assigned to one of these three groups: treatment group (EA + standard?care), control A group (sham electroacupuncture + standard?care) and control B group (standard care). Treatment will be given three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. The primary outcome is the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The secondary outcomes are sleep parameters recorded in the actigraphy, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score and Self-rating Anxiety Scale score. Daily dose of patients' antidepressant and sedative-hypnotic medication will be recorded in the dairy. All adverse effects will be assessed by the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale. Outcomes will be evaluated at baseline, 4 weeks post-treatment and 8 weeks post-treatment, as well as at 1-month, 3-month and 6-month follow-up. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The trial has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (2017SHL-KY-04). Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals or presented at academic conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03122080; Pre-results.
Project description:Attentional bias toward sleep-related information is believed to play a key role in insomnia. If attentional bias is indeed of importance, changing this bias should then in turn have effects on insomnia complaints. In this double-blind placebo controlled randomized trial we investigated the efficacy of attentional bias modification training in the treatment of insomnia.We administered baseline, post-test, and one-week follow-up measurements of insomnia severity, sleep-related worry, depression, and anxiety. Participants meeting DSM-5 criteria for insomnia were randomized into an attentional bias training group (n = 67) or a placebo training group (n = 70). Both groups received eight training sessions over the course of two weeks. All participants kept a sleep diary for four consecutive weeks (one week before until one week after the training sessions).There was no additional benefit for the attentional bias training over the placebo training on sleep-related indices/outcome measures.The absence of the effect may be explained by the fact that there was neither attentional bias at baseline nor any reduction in the bias after the training. Either way, this study gives no support for attentional bias modification training as a stand-alone intervention for ameliorating insomnia complaints.
Project description:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of eszopiclone 3 mg, a nonbenzodiazepine medication/hypnotic indicated for the treatment of insomnia with comorbid rheumatoid arthritis (RA).This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted in 153 patients aged 25-64 years with American College of Rheumatology-defined RA who met DSM-IV criteria for insomnia. The data were collected from February to November of 2004. Patients were randomly assigned to either eszopiclone or placebo nightly for 4 weeks, followed by a 2-week placebo run out. Efficacy was evaluated using patient reports of sleep (wake time after sleep onset [WASO], sleep latency [SL], and total sleep time [TST]), daytime function, pain, and RA assessments. Insomnia severity was evaluated using the Insomnia Severity Index. Safety was also evaluated.Eszopiclone significantly improved all patient-reported sleep measures (WASO, SL, and TST), sleep quality, depth of sleep, and daytime function (P < .05 vs placebo). At week 4, 48% of eszopiclone-treated patients had no clinically meaningful insomnia as assessed by ISI score (versus 30% of placebo-treated patients, P = .03). Eszopiclone was significantly better than placebo on some RA-associated pain measures: (1) overall (P = .05), pain (P = .006), and pain and other symptoms (P = .02) scores of the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale, (2) tender joint counts (P = .03) and pain severity scores (P = .023), (3) the activities domain of the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (P = .04), and (4) the role physical (P = .03) and bodily pain (P = .01) scales of the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey. The most commonly reported adverse events with eszopiclone were unpleasant taste and transient increases in RA symptoms.In this pilot study of patients with insomnia comorbid with RA, eszopiclone 3 mg improved all assessed sleep and daytime function measures over the treatment period, as well as some measures of RA-associated pain, disability, and quality of life.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00367965.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:A considerable number of insomnia patients experience sleep disturbance even with long-term use of hypnotic medication. Previous studies have indicated that electroacupuncture (EA) could be an efficacious treatment for managing insomnia. However, few trials have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of EA for treatment-resistant insomnia. This pilot study aims to explore the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness and safety of EA as an adjunct treatment for treatment-resistant insomnia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This is a multicentre, randomised, usual care controlled and assessor-blinded pilot study protocol. Fifty patients presenting with sleep problems who have been taking hypnotic medication for more than 3 months will be randomly allocated to either an EA group or a usual care group at a 1:1 ratio. The EA group will undergo 12 EA treatment sessions twice a week for 6 weeks whereas the usual care group will not receive EA treatment. All the participants will receive a brochure containing educational information on sleep hygiene. The primary outcome will be the measured mean change of the total score of the Insomnia Severity Index from the baseline to week 7. The secondary outcome regarding sleep quality will be measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, a sleep diary and actigraphy. Moreover, we will assess the quality of life, the direct and indirect cost of treating insomnia for economic evaluation. After 4 weeks, the subjects will visit the research sites for a follow-up assessment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval of this study protocol was established by the institutional review boards of the each involved study site. All potential subjects will be provided written informed consent. The results of this study will be accessible in peer-reviewed publications and be presented at academic conference. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:KCT0003235.