Direct interaction between the COG complex and the SM protein, Sly1, is required for Golgi SNARE pairing.
ABSTRACT: The crucial roles of Sec1/Munc18 (SM)-like proteins in membrane fusion have been evidenced in genetic and biochemical studies. SM proteins interact directly with SNAREs and contribute to SNARE pairing by a yet unclear mechanism. Here, we show that the SM protein, Sly1, interacts directly with the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) tethering complex. The Sly1-COG interaction is mediated by the Cog4 subunit, which also interacts with Syntaxin 5 through a different binding site. We provide evidence that disruption of Cog4-Sly1 interaction impairs pairing of SNAREs involved in intra-Golgi transport thereby markedly attenuating Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport. These results highlight the mechanism by which SM proteins link tethering to SNAREpin assembly.
Project description:Vesicular tethers and SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmalemide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptors) are two key protein components of the intracellular membrane-trafficking machinery. The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex has been implicated in the tethering of retrograde intra-Golgi vesicles. Here, using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation approaches, we show that three COG subunits, namely COG4, 6 and 8, are capable of interacting with defined Golgi SNAREs, namely STX5, STX6, STX16, GS27 and SNAP29. Comparative analysis of COG8-STX16 and COG4-STX5 interactions by a COG-based mitochondrial relocalization assay reveals that the COG8 and COG4 proteins initiate the formation of two different tethering platforms that can facilitate the redirection of two populations of Golgi transport intermediates to the mitochondrial vicinity. Our results uncover a role for COG sub-complexes in defining the specificity of vesicular sorting within the Golgi.
Project description:Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) and Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins constitute the core of an ancient vesicle fusion machine that diversified into distinct sets that now function in different trafficking steps in eukaryotic cells. Deciphering their precise mode of action has proved challenging. SM proteins are thought to act primarily through one type of SNARE protein, the syntaxins. Despite high structural similarity, however, contrasting binding modes have been found for different SM proteins and syntaxins. Whereas the secretory SM protein Munc18 binds to the ?closed conformation" of syntaxin 1, the ER-Golgi SM protein Sly1 interacts only with the N-peptide of Sed5. Recent findings, however, indicate that SM proteins might interact simultaneously with both syntaxin regions. In search for a common mechanism, we now reinvestigated the Sly1/Sed5 interaction. We found that individual Sed5 adopts a tight closed conformation. Sly1 binds to both the closed conformation and the N-peptide of Sed5, suggesting that this is the original binding mode of SM proteins and syntaxins. In contrast to Munc18, however, Sly1 facilitates SNARE complex formation by loosening the closed conformation of Sed5.
Project description:Multiple mutations in different subunits of the tethering complex Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) have been identified as a cause for Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) in humans. Yet, the mechanisms by which COG mutations induce the pleiotropic CDG defects have not been fully defined. By detailed analysis of Cog8 deficiency in either HeLa cells or CDG-derived fibroblasts, we show that Cog8 is required for the assembly of both the COG complex and the Golgi Stx5-GS28-Ykt6-GS15 and Stx6-Stx16-Vti1a-VAMP4 SNARE complexes. The assembly of these SNARE complexes is also impaired in cells derived from a Cog7-deficient CDG patient. Likewise, the integrity of the COG complex is also impaired in Cog1-, Cog4- and Cog6-depleted cells. Significantly, deficiency of Cog1, Cog4, Cog6 or Cog8 distinctly influences the production of COG subcomplexes and their Golgi targeting. These results shed light on the structural organization of the COG complex and its subcellular localization, and suggest that its integrity is required for both tethering of transport vesicles to the Golgi apparatus and the assembly of Golgi SNARE complexes. We propose that these two key functions are generally and mechanistically impaired in COG-associated CDG patients, thereby exerting severe pleiotropic defects.
Project description:The proper glycosylation of proteins trafficking through the Golgi apparatus depends upon the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex. Defects in COG can cause fatal congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) in humans. The recent discovery of a form of CDG, caused in part by a COG4 missense mutation changing Arg 729 to Trp, prompted us to determine the 1.9 A crystal structure of a Cog4 C-terminal fragment. Arg 729 is found to occupy a key position at the center of a salt bridge network, thereby stabilizing Cog4's small C-terminal domain. Studies in HeLa cells reveal that this C-terminal domain, while not needed for the incorporation of Cog4 into COG complexes, is essential for the proper glycosylation of cell surface proteins. We also find that Cog4 bears a strong structural resemblance to exocyst and Dsl1p complex subunits. These complexes and others have been proposed to function by mediating the initial tethering between transport vesicles and their membrane targets; the emerging structural similarities provide strong evidence of a common evolutionary origin and may reflect shared mechanisms of action.
Project description:The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is a hetero-octameric complex essential for normal glycosylation and intra-Golgi transport. An increasing number of congenital disorder of glycosylation type II (CDG-II) mutations are found in COG subunits indicating its importance in glycosylation. We report a new CDG-II patient harbouring a p.R729W missense mutation in COG4 combined with a submicroscopical deletion. The resulting downregulation of COG4 expression additionally affects expression or stability of other lobe A subunits. Despite this, full complex formation was maintained albeit to a lower extent as shown by glycerol gradient centrifugation. Moreover, our data indicate that subunits are present in a cytosolic pool and full complex formation assists tethering preceding membrane fusion. By extending this study to four other known COG-deficient patients, we now present the first comparative analysis on defects in transport, glycosylation and Golgi ultrastructure in these patients. The observed structural and biochemical abnormalities correlate with the severity of the mutation, with the COG4 mutant being the mildest. All together our results indicate that intact COG complexes are required to maintain Golgi dynamics and its associated functions. According to the current CDG nomenclature, this newly identified deficiency is designated CDG-IIj.
Project description:The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is required, along with SNARE and Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins, for vesicle docking and fusion at the Golgi. COG, like other multisubunit tethering complexes (MTCs), is thought to function as a scaffold and/or chaperone to direct the assembly of productive SNARE complexes at the sites of membrane fusion. Reflecting this essential role, mutations in the COG complex can cause congenital disorders of glycosylation. A deeper understanding of COG function and dysfunction will likely depend on elucidating its molecular structure. Despite some progress toward this goal, including EM studies of COG lobe A (subunits 1-4) and higher-resolution structures of portions of Cog2 and Cog4, the structures of COG's eight subunits and the principles governing their assembly are mostly unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex between two lobe B subunits, Cog5 and Cog7. The structure reveals that Cog5 is a member of the complexes associated with tethering containing helical rods (CATCHR) fold family, with homology to subunits of other MTCs including the Dsl1, exocyst, and Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complexes. The Cog5-Cog7 interaction is analyzed in relation to the Dsl1 complex, the only other CATCHR-family MTC for which subunit interactions have been characterized in detail. Biochemical and functional studies validate the physiological relevance of the observed Cog5-Cog7 interface, indicate that it is conserved from yeast to humans, and demonstrate that its disruption in human cells causes defects in trafficking and glycosylation.
Project description:The conserved oligomeric Golgi complex is a peripheral membrane protein complex that orchestrates the tethering and fusion of intra-Golgi transport carriers with Golgi membranes. In this study we have investigated the membrane attachment of the COG complex and it's on/off dynamic on Golgi membranes. Several complimentary approaches including knock-sideways depletion, FRAP, and FLIP revealed that assembled COG complex is not diffusing from Golgi periphery in live HeLa cells. Moreover, COG subunits remained membrane-associated even in COG4 and COG7 depleted cells when Golgi architecture was severely affected. Overexpression of myc-tagged COG sub-complexes revealed that different membrane-associated COG partners including ?-COP, p115 and SNARE STX5 preferentially bind to different COG assemblies, indicating that COG subunits interact with Golgi membranes in a multipronged fashion.
Project description:Sec1Munc18-like (SM) proteins functionally interact with soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNARE) in membrane fusion, but the mechanisms of these interactions differ. In vertebrates, SM proteins that mediate exocytosis (Munc18-1, 18-2, and 18c) bind to the closed conformation of syntaxins 1-4, which requires the N-terminal H(abc) domains and SNARE motifs of these syntaxins. In contrast, SM proteins that mediate Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum fusion (Sly1 and Vps45) bind only to short N-terminal sequences of syntaxins 5, 16, or 18, independently of their H(abc) domains and SNARE motifs. We now show that Munc18-1, Sly1, and Vps45 interact with cognate syntaxins via similar, autonomously folded N-terminal domains, but the syntaxin 5-binding surface of the Sly1 N-terminal domain is opposite to the syntaxin 1-binding surface of the Munc18-1 N-terminal domain. In transfected cells, the N-terminal domain of Sly1 specifically disrupts the structure of the Golgi complex, supporting the notion that the interaction of Sly1 with syntaxin 5 is essential for fusion. These data, together with previous results, suggest that a relatively small N-terminal domain of SM proteins is dedicated to mechanistically distinct interactions with SNAREs, leaving the remaining large parts of SM proteins free to execute their as yet unknown function as effector domains.
Project description:Vesicular tethers and SNAREs are two key protein components that govern docking and fusion of intracellular membrane carriers in eukaryotic cells. The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex has been specifically implicated in the tethering of retrograde intra-Golgi vesicles. Using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation approaches, we show that the COG6 subunit of the COG complex is capable of interacting with a subset of Golgi SNAREs, namely STX5, STX6, GS27 and SNAP29. Interaction with SNAREs is accomplished via the universal SNARE-binding motif of COG6. Overexpression of COG6, or its depletion from cells, disrupts the integrity of the Golgi complex. Importantly, COG6 protein lacking the SNARE-binding domain is deficient in Golgi binding, and is not capable of inducing Golgi complex fragmentation when overexpressed. These results indicate that COG6-SNARE interactions are important for both COG6 localization and Golgi integrity.
Project description:Trans-QabcR-SNARE pairing on opposing membranes is crucial for eukaryotic membrane fusion, but how selective pairs of Qabc- and R-SNARE proteins regulate membrane fusion specificity remains elusive. Here, we studied 14 purified full-length SNAREs that function in yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi, intra-Golgi, endosomal, and vacuolar transport by comprehensively testing cis-QabcR-SNARE assembly and fusogenicity of reconstituted SNARE proteoliposomes. Strikingly, the cognate ER-Golgi and intra-Golgi SNARE-complex assemblies were highly stringent, whereas endosomal and vacuolar SNAREs assembled rather promiscuously into the non-cognate mixed complexes. However, these patterns of cis-SNARE assemblies cannot solely explain their potency to be fusogenic via trans-SNARE pairing: Only the vacuolar 3Q-SNARE combination is fusogenic in the absence of additional components; endosomal SNARE-dependent fusogenicity requires membrane-tethering factors; and ER-Golgi SNAREs can be fusogenic by synergistic actions of tethering factors and the cognate Sec1/Munc18-family protein Sly1p. Thus, our findings uncover multiple and distinct strategies of SNAREs to directly mediate fusion specificity.