Mutational and functional analysis of Large in a novel CHO glycosylation mutant.
ABSTRACT: Inactivating mutations of Large reduce the functional glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG) and lead to muscular dystrophy in mouse and humans. The N-terminal domain of Large is most similar to UDP-glucose glucosyltransferases (UGGT), and the C-terminal domain is related to the human i blood group transferase beta1,3GlcNAcT-1. The amino acids at conserved motifs DQD+1 and DQD+3 in the UGGT domain are necessary for mammalian UGGT activity. When the corresponding residues were mutated to Ala in mouse Large, alpha-DG was not functionally glycosylated. A similar result was obtained when a DXD motif in the beta1,3GlcNAcT-1 domain was mutated to AIA. Therefore, the first putative glycosyltransferase domain of Large has properties of a UGGT and the second of a typical glycosyltransferase. Co-transfection of Large mutants affected in the different glycosyltransferase domains did not lead to complementation. While Large mutants were more localized to the endoplasmic reticulum than wild-type Large or revertants, all mutants were in the Golgi, and only very low levels of Golgi-localized Large were necessary to generate functional alpha-DG. When Large was overexpressed in ldlD.Lec1 mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells which synthesize few, if any, mucin O-GalNAc glycans and no complex N-glycans, functional alpha-DG was produced, presumably by modifying O-mannose glycans. To investigate mucin O-GalNAc glycans as substrates of Large, a new CHO mutant Lec15.Lec1 that lacked O-mannose and complex N-glycans was isolated and characterized. Following transfection with Large, Lec15.Lec1 cells also generated functionally glycosylated alpha-DG. Thus, Large may act on the O-mannose, complex N-glycans and mucin O-GalNAc glycans of alpha-DG.
Project description:O-GalNAc glycans or mucin-type glycans are common protein post-translational modifications in eukaryotes. Core 2 O-GalNAc glycans are branched structures that are broadly distributed in glycoproteins and mucins of all types of cells. To better understand their biological roles, it is important to obtain structurally defined Core 2 O-GalNAc glycans. We present here regioselective one-pot multienzyme (OPME) chemoenzymatic strategies to systematically access a diverse array of sialyl Core 2 glycans. Regioselectivity can be achieved by using OPME systems containing a glycosyltransferase with restricted acceptor specificity or by differentiating the branches using altered glycosylation sequences. This work provides a general regioselective strategy to access diverse Core 2 O-GalNAc glycans which can be extended for the synthesis of other complex branched glycans.
Project description:Glycosylation of proteins is an essential process in all eukaryotes and a great diversity in types of protein glycosylation exists in animals, plants and microorganisms. Mucin-type O-glycosylation, consisting of glycans attached via O-linked N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) to serine and threonine residues, is one of the most abundant forms of protein glycosylation in animals. Although most protein glycosylation is controlled by one or two genes encoding the enzymes responsible for the initiation of glycosylation, i.e. the step where the first glycan is attached to the relevant amino acid residue in the protein, mucin-type O-glycosylation is controlled by a large family of up to 20 homologous genes encoding UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (GalNAc-Ts) (EC 126.96.36.199). Therefore, mucin-type O-glycosylation has the greatest potential for differential regulation in cells and tissues. The GalNAc-T family is the largest glycosyltransferase enzyme family covering a single known glycosidic linkage and it is highly conserved throughout animal evolution, although absent in bacteria, yeast and plants. Emerging studies have shown that the large number of genes (GALNTs) in the GalNAc-T family do not provide full functional redundancy and single GalNAc-T genes have been shown to be important in both animals and human. Here, we present an overview of the GalNAc-T gene family in animals and propose a classification of the genes into subfamilies, which appear to be conserved in evolution structurally as well as functionally.
Project description:Alpha-dystroglycan (?-DG) is a ubiquitously expressed receptor for extracellular matrix proteins and some viruses, and plays a pivotal role in a number of pathological events, including cancer progression, muscular dystrophies, and viral infection. The O-glycans on ?-DG are essential for its ligand binding, but the biosynthesis of the functional O-glycans remains obscure. The fact that transient overexpression of LARGE, a putative glycosyltransferase, up-regulates the functional glycans on ?-DG to mediate its ligand binding implied that overexpression of LARGE may be a novel strategy to treat disorders with hypoglycosylation of ?-DG. In this study, we focus on the effects of stable overexpression of Large on ?-DG glycosylation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell and its glycosylation deficient mutants. Surprisingly, stable overexpression of Large in an O-mannosylation null deficient Lec15.2 CHO cells failed to induce the functional glycans on ?-DG. Introducing the wild-type DPM2 cDNA, the deficient gene in the Lec15.2 cells, fully restored the Large-induced functional glycosylation, suggesting that Large induces the functional glycans in a DPM2/O-mannosylation dependent manner. Furthermore, stable overexpression of Large can effectively induce functional glycans on N-linked glycans in the Lec8 cells and ldlD cells growing in Gal deficient media, in both of which circumstances galactosylation are deficient. In addition, supplement of Gal to the ldlD cell culture media significantly reduces the amount of functional glycans induced by Large, suggested that galactosylation suppresses Large to induce the functional glycans. Thus our results revealed a mechanism by which Large competes with galactosyltransferase to target GlcNAc terminals to induce the functional glycans on ?-DG.
Project description:Prolonged contact of opposite mucosal surfaces, which occurs on the ocular surface, oral cavity, reproductive tract, and gut, requires a specialized apical cell surface that prevents adhesion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of mucin O-glycans to the antiadhesive character of human corneal-limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells.Mucin O-glycan biosynthesis in HCLE cells was disrupted by metabolic interference with benzyl-alpha-GalNAc. The cell surface mucin MUC16 and its carbohydrate epitope H185 were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot. HCLE cell surface features were assessed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Cell-cell adhesion assays were performed under static conditions and in a parallel plate laminar flow chamber.Benzyl-alpha-GalNAc disrupted the biosynthesis of O-glycans without affecting apomucin biosynthesis or cell surface morphology. Static adhesion assays showed that the apical surface of differentiated HCLE cells expressing MUC16 and H185 was more antiadhesive than undifferentiated HCLE cells, which lacked MUC16. Abrogation of mucin O-glycosylation in differentiated cultures with benzyl-alpha-GalNAc resulted in increased adhesion of applied corneal epithelial cells and corneal fibroblasts. The antiadhesive effect of mucin O-glycans was further demonstrated by fluorescence video microscopy in dynamic flow adhesion assays. Cationized ferritin labeling of the cell surface indicated that anionic repulsion did not contribute to the antiadhesive character of the apical surface.These results indicate that epithelial O-glycans contribute to the antiadhesive properties of cell surface-associated mucins in corneal epithelial cells and suggest that alterations in mucin O-glycosylation are involved in the pathology of drying mucosal diseases (e.g., dry eye).
Project description:UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (ppGaNTases) initiate the formation of mucin-type, O-linked glycans by catalyzing the transfer of alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine from UDP-GalNAc to Ser or Thr residues of core proteins to form the Tn antigen (GalNAc-alpha-1-O-Ser/Thr). ppGaNTases are unique among glycosyltransferases in containing a C-terminal lectin domain. We present the x-ray crystal structure of a ppGaNTase, murine ppGaNTase-T1, and show that it folds to form distinct catalytic and lectin domains. The association of the two domains forms a large cleft in the surface of the enzyme that contains a Mn2+ ion complexed by invariant D209 and H211 of the "DXH" motif and by invariant H344. Each of the three potential lectin domain carbohydrate-binding sites (alpha, beta, and gamma) is located on the active-site face of the enzyme, suggesting a mechanism by which the transferase may accommodate multiple conformations of glycosylated acceptor substrates. A model of a mucin 1 glycopeptide substrate bound to the enzyme shows that the spatial separation between the lectin alpha site and a modeled active site UDP-GalNAc is consistent with the in vitro pattern of glycosylation observed for this peptide catalyzed by ppGaNTase-T1. The structure also provides a template for the larger ppGaNTase family, and homology models of several ppGaNTase isoforms predict dramatically different surface chemistries consistent with isoform-selective acceptor substrate recognition.
Project description:Mucins, the major components of salivary mucus, are large glycoproteins abundantly modified with O-glycans. Mucins present on the surface of oral tissues contribute greatly to the maintenance of oral hygiene by selectively adhering to the surfaces of microbes via mucin O-glycans. However, due to the complex physicochemical properties of mucins, there have been relatively few detailed analyses of the mechanisms controlling the expression of mucin genes and the glycosyltransferase genes involved in glycosylation. Analysis performed using supported molecular matrix electrophoresis, a methodology developed for mucin analysis, and knockout mice without the polycomb group protein Bmi-1 revealed that Bmi-1 regulates mucin levels in the submandibular gland by suppressing the expression of the mucin Smgc gene, and that Bmi-1 also regulates mucin O-glycosylation via suppression of the glycosyltransferase Gcnt3 gene in the submandibular gland.
Project description:O-GalNAc glycans (or mucin O-glycans) play pivotal roles in diverse biological and pathological processes, including tumor growth and progression. Structurally defined O-GalNAc glycans are essential for functional studies but synthetic challenges and their inherent structural diversity and complexity have limited access to these compounds. Herein, we report an efficient and robust chemoenzymatic modular assembly (CEMA) strategy to construct structurally diverse O-GalNAc glycans. The key to this strategy is the convergent assembly of O-GalNAc cores 1-4 and 6 from three chemical building blocks, followed by enzymatic diversification of the cores by 13 well-tailored enzyme modules. A total of 83 O-GalNAc glycans presenting various natural glycan epitopes are obtained and used to generate a unique synthetic mucin O-glycan microarray. Binding specificities of glycan-binding proteins (GBPs) including plant lectins and selected anti-glycan antibodies towards these O-GalNAc glycans are revealed by this microarray, promoting their applicability in functional O-glycomics. Serum samples from colorectal cancer patients and healthy controls are assayed using the array reveal higher bindings towards less common cores 3, 4, and 6 than abundant cores 1 and 2, providing insights into O-GalNAc glycan structure-activity relationships.
Project description:Mucin-type O-glycosylation occurs on many proteins that transit the Golgi apparatus. These glycans impact structure and function of many proteins and have important roles in cellular biosynthetic processes, signaling and differentiation. Although recent technological advances have enhanced our ability to profile glycosylation of glycoproteins, limitations in the understanding of the biosynthesis of these glycan structures remain. Some of these limitations stem from the difficulty to track the biosynthetic process of mucin-type O-glycosylation, especially when glycans occur in dense clusters in repeat regions of proteins, such as the mucins or immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1). Here, we describe a series of nano-liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses that demonstrate the range of glycosyltransferase enzymatic activities involved in the biosynthesis of clustered O-glycans on IgA1. By utilizing nano-LC-MS relative quantitation of in vitro reaction products, our results provide unique insights into the biosynthesis of clustered IgA1 O-glycans. We have developed a workflow to determine glycoform-specific apparent rates of a human UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltrasnfersase (GalNAc-T EC 188.8.131.52) and demonstrated how pre-existing glycans affect subsequent activity of glycosyltransferases, such as core 1 galactosyltransferase and α2,3- and α2,6-specific sialyltransferases, in successive additions in the biosynthesis of clustered O-glycans. In the context of IgA1, these results have potential to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy, an autoimmune renal disease involving aberrant IgA1 O-glycosylation. In a broader sense, these methods and workflows are applicable to the studies of the concerted and competing functions of other glycosyltransferases that initiate and extend mucin-type core 1 clustered O-glycosylation.
Project description:Several known or putative glycosyltransferases are required for the synthesis of laminin-binding glycans on alpha-dystroglycan (?DG), including POMT1, POMT2, POMGnT1, LARGE, Fukutin, FKRP, ISPD and GTDC2. Mutations in these glycosyltransferase genes result in defective ?DG glycosylation and reduced ligand binding by ?DG causing a clinically heterogeneous group of congenital muscular dystrophies, commonly referred to as dystroglycanopathies. The most severe clinical form, Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS), is characterized by congenital muscular dystrophy and severe neurological and ophthalmological defects. Here, we report two homozygous missense mutations in the ?-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (B3GNT1) gene in a family affected with WWS. Functional studies confirmed the pathogenicity of the mutations. First, expression of wild-type but not mutant B3GNT1 in human prostate cancer (PC3) cells led to increased levels of ?DG glycosylation. Second, morpholino knockdown of the zebrafish b3gnt1 orthologue caused characteristic muscular defects and reduced ?DG glycosylation. These functional studies identify an important role of B3GNT1 in the synthesis of the uncharacterized laminin-binding glycan of ?DG and implicate B3GNT1 as a novel causative gene for WWS.
Project description:Identifying biological roles for mammalian glycans and the pathways by which they are synthesized has been greatly facilitated by investigations of glycosylation mutants of cultured cell lines and model organisms. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) glycosylation mutants isolated on the basis of their lectin resistance have been particularly useful for glycosylation engineering of recombinant glycoproteins. To further enhance the application of these mutants, and to obtain insights into the effects of altering one specific glycosyltransferase or glycosylation activity on the overall expression of cellular glycans, an analysis of the N-glycans and major O-glycans of a panel of CHO mutants was performed using glycomic analyses anchored by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry. We report here the complement of the major N-glycans and O-glycans present in nine distinct CHO glycosylation mutants. Parent CHO cells grown in monolayer versus suspension culture had similar profiles of N- and O-GalNAc glycans, although the profiles of glycosylation mutants Lec1, Lec2, Lec184.108.40.206, Lec4, LEC10, LEC11, LEC12, Lec13, and LEC30 were consistent with available genetic and biochemical data. However, the complexity of the range of N-glycans observed was unexpected. Several of the complex N-glycan profiles contained structures of m/z approximately 13,000 representing complex N-glycans with a total of 26 N-acetyllactosamine (Gal beta1-4GlcNAc)(n) units. Importantly, the LEC11, LEC12, and LEC30 CHO mutants exhibited unique complements of fucosylated complex N-glycans terminating in Lewis(x) and sialyl-Lewis(x) determinants. This analysis reveals the larger-than-expected complexity of N-glycans in CHO cell mutants that may be used in a broad variety of functional glycomics studies and for making recombinant glycoproteins.