Quantitation of Aurora kinase A gene copy number in urine sediments and bladder cancer detection.
ABSTRACT: Chromosome missegregation and the resulting aneuploidy is a common change in neoplasia. The Aurora kinase A (AURKA) gene, which encodes a key regulator of mitosis, is frequently amplified and/or overexpressed in cancer cells, and the level of AURKA amplification is associated with the level of aneuploidy. We examined whether AURKA gene amplification is a biomarker for the detection of bladder cancer.The effect of ectopic expression of Aurora kinase A (AURKA) using an adenoviral vector in simian virus 40-immortalized urothelial cells (SV-HUC) on centrosome multiplication and chromosome copy number was measured in vitro by immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), respectively. The FISH test was also used to examine AURKA gene copy number in exfoliated cells in voided urine samples from 23 patients with bladder cancer and 7 healthy control subjects (training set), generating a model for bladder cancer detection that was subsequently validated in an independent set of voided urine samples from 100 bladder cancer patients and 148 control subjects (92 healthy individuals and 56 patients with benign urologic disorders). An AURKA gene score (the proportion of cells with three or more AURKA signals) was used to produce receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and to calculate the specificity and sensitivity of the AURKA FISH test. Differences between mean AURKA scores in different pathogenetic groups of bladder cancer stratified according to histological grade and stage were tested by unpaired Mann-Whitney t tests or one-way Wilcoxon tests. All statistical tests were two-sided.Forced overexpression of AURKA in urothelial cells induced amplification of centrosomes, chromosome missegregation, and aneuploidy, and natural overexpression was detectable in in situ lesions from patients with bladder cancer. The FISH test for the AURKA gene copy number performed on the validation set yielded a specificity of 96.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 92.3% to 98.5%) and sensitivity of 87% (95% CI = 79.0% to 92.2%) and an area under the ROC curve of 0.939 (95% CI = 0.906 to 0.971; P < .001).Overexpression of AURKA can cause aneuploidy in urothelial cells, and the AURKA gene copy number is a promising biomarker for detection of bladder cancer.
Project description:The effects of AURKA overexpression associated with poor clinical outcomes have been attributed to increased cell cycle progression and the development of genomic instability with aneuploidy. We used RNA interference to examine the effects of AURKA overexpression in human bladder cancer cells. Knockdown had minimal effects on cell proliferation but blocked tumor cell invasion. Whole genome mRNA expression profiling identified nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) as a downstream target that was repressed by AURKA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and NNMT promoter luciferase assays revealed that AURKA's effects on NNMT were caused by PAX3-mediated transcriptional repression and overexpression of NNMT blocked tumor cell invasion in vitro. Overexpression of AURKA and activation of its downstream pathway was enriched in the basal subtype in primary human tumors and was associated with poor clinical outcomes. We also show that the FISH test for the AURKA gene copy number in urine yielded a specificity of 79.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?74.2% to 84.1%), and a sensitivity of 79.6% (95% CI?=?74.2% to 84.1%) with an AUC of 0.901 (95% CI?=?0.872 to 0.928; P?<?0.001). These results implicate AURKA as an effective biomarker for bladder cancer detection as well as therapeutic target especially for its basal type.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bladder cancer is among the common human malignancies that show a heavy mutational load and copy number variations of numerous chromosomes, which makes them a target for diagnostic explorations. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to design a multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test referred to as the quartet test for the detection of bladder cancer in urine. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:We performed genome-wide copy number variation analysis on cohorts from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (n=40) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (n=129), and identified the most frequently amplified chromosomal regions. These data were used to select four of the amplified regions to design a multicolor FISH test, referred to as the quartet test. Assay validation was performed on urine samples from 98 patients with bladder cancer: 56 with low-grade papillary, 42 with high-grade invasive disease, and 48 benign controls. INTERVENTION:The quartet test can be used in clinical practice for noninvasive detection of bladder cancer. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:We initially analyzed samples using a fraction of abnormal cell scores and then by the quantitative score, which included not only the proportion of cells with abnormal copy numbers, but also the proportion of cells with numbers of altered copies and degree of amplification. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to identify cutoff values for the scores at which performances of sensitivity and specificity were maximized. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:The copy number status assessed by probes detected in voided urine reflected the amplification status of the primary tumor. An ROC curve summarizing the proportion of assayed cells with any abnormal copy numbers gave specificity of 93.8% and sensitivity of 78.6% using the proportion of cells with abnormal copy numbers. The quantitative score giving extra weight to cells with multiple simultaneous amplifications provided 95.8% specificity and 76.8% sensitivity. Both percentage of abnormal cells and quantitative scores were highly effective for assessing the grade of the tumor. The full spectrum of potential clinical applications was not explored in the current study, and further validation studies are needed. CONCLUSIONS:The quartet test shows promising specificity and sensitivity results, but it requires validation on a larger multi-institutional cohort of samples. PATIENT SUMMARY:The quartet test can be used for noninvasive detection of bladder cancer in voided urine. It can also be used to assess the grade of the tumor and tumor recurrence as well as post-treatment effects.
Project description:We used protein expression profiles to develop a classification rule for the detection and prognostic assessment of bladder cancer in voided urine samples. Using the Ciphergen PBS II ProteinChip Reader, we analyzed the protein profiles of 18 pairs of samples of bladder tumor and adjacent urothelium tissue, a training set of 85 voided urine samples (32 controls and 53 bladder cancer), and a blinded testing set of 68 voided urine samples (33 controls and 35 bladder cancer). Using t-tests, we identified 473 peaks showing significant differential expression across different categories of paired bladder tumor and adjacent urothelial samples compared to normal urothelium. Then the intensities of those 473 peaks were examined in a training set of voided urine samples. Using this approach, we identified 41 protein peaks that were differentially expressed in both sets of samples. The expression pattern of the 41 protein peaks was used to classify the voided urine samples as malignant or benign. This approach yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 59% and 90%, respectively, on the training set and 80% and 100%, respectively, on the testing set. The proteomic classification rule performed with similar accuracy in low- and high-grade bladder carcinomas. In addition, we used hierarchical clustering with all 473 protein peaks on 65 benign voided urine samples, 88 samples from patients with clinically evident bladder cancer, and 127 samples from patients with a history of bladder cancer to classify the samples into Cluster A or B. The tumors in Cluster B were characterized by clinically aggressive behavior with significantly shorter metastasis-free and disease-specific survival.
Project description:We performed a genome wide analysis of 164 urothelial carcinoma samples and 27 bladder cancer cell lines to identify copy number changes associated with disease characteristics, and examined the association of amplification events with stage and grade of disease. Multiplex inversion probe (MIP) analysis, a recently developed genomic technique, was used to study 80 urothelial carcinomas to identify mutations and copy number changes. Selected amplification events were then analyzed in a validation cohort of 84 bladder cancers by multiplex ligation-dependent probe assay (MLPA). In the MIP analysis, 44 regions of significant copy number change were identified using GISTIC. Nine gene-containing regions of amplification were selected for validation in the second cohort by MLPA. Amplification events at these 9 genomic regions were found to correlate strongly with stage, being seen in only 2 of 23 (9%) Ta grade 1 or 1-2 cancers, in contrast to 31 of 61 (51%) Ta grade 3 and T2 grade 2 cancers, p<0.001. These observations suggest that analysis of genomic amplification of these 9 regions might help distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinoma, although further study is required. Both MIP and MLPA methods perform well on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded DNA, enhancing their potential clinical use. Furthermore several of the amplified genes identified here (ERBB2, MDM2, CCND1) are potential therapeutic targets.
Project description:Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract, having one of the highest recurrence rates and progression from non-muscle to muscle invasive bladder cancer that commonly leads to metastasis. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the standard procedures for its detection but have limited clinical sensitivity and specificity. Herein, a microfluidic device, the UriChip, was developed for the enrichment of urothelial exfoliated cells from fresh and frozen urine, based on deformability and size, and the cancer-associated glycan Sialyl-Tn explored as a putative bladder cancer urinary biomarker. Spiking experiments with bladder cancer cell lines showed an isolation efficiency of 53%, while clinical sample analyses revealed retention of cells with various morphologies and sizes. in situ immunoassays demonstrated significantly higher number of Sialyl-Tn-positive cells in fresh and frozen voided urine from bladder cancer patients, compared to healthy individuals. Of note, urothelial exfoliated cells from cryopreserved urine sediments were also successfully isolated by the UriChip, and found to express significantly high levels of Sialyl-Tn. Remarkably, Sialyl-Tn expression is correlated with tumor stage and grade. Overall, our findings demonstrate the potential of UriChip and Sialyl-Tn to detect urothelial bladder cancer cells in follow-up and long-term retrospective studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite the abundant expression of the UDP-sensitive P2Y6 receptor in urothelial cells and sub-urothelial myofibroblasts its role in the control of bladder function is not well understood. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We compared the effects of UDP and of the selective P2Y6 receptor agonist, PSB0474, on bladder urodynamics in anaesthetized rats; the voided fluid was tested for ATP bioluminescence. The isolated urinary bladder was used for in vitro myographic recordings and [(3) H]-ACh overflow experiments. KEY RESULTS: Instillation of UDP or PSB0474 into the bladder increased the voiding frequency (VF) without affecting the amplitude (A) and the duration (?t) of bladder contractions; an effect blocked by the P2Y6 receptor antagonist, MRS2578. Effects mediated by urothelial P2Y6 receptors required extrinsic neuronal circuitry as they were not detected in the isolated bladder. UDP-induced bladder hyperactvity was also prevented by blocking P2X3 and P2Y1 receptors, respectively, with A317491 and MRS2179 applied i.v.. UDP decreased [(3) H]-ACh release from stimulated bladder strips with urothelium, but not in its absence. Inhibitory effects of UDP were converted into facilitation by the P2Y1 receptor antagonist, MRS2179. The P2Y6 receptor agonist increased threefold ATP levels in the voided fluid. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Activation of P2Y6 receptors increased the voiding frequency indirectly by releasing ATP from the urothelium and activation of P2X3 receptors on sub-urothelial nerve afferents. Bladder hyperactivity may be partly reversed following ATP hydrolysis to ADP by E-NTPDases, thereby decreasing ACh release from cholinergic nerves expressing P2Y1 receptors.
Project description:We report the impact of anti-urothelial autoantibody (AUAb) on urinary bladder phenotype in BALB/c mice deficient of the Fc?RIIb and PD-1. AUAb was present in serum samples from approximately half of the double-knockout (DKO) mice, as detected by immunofluorescence and immunoblots for urothelial proteins including uroplakin IIIa. The AUAb-positive DKO mice showed degeneration of urothelial plaque and umbrella cells, along with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the suburothelial layer. TNF? and IL-1? were upregulated in the bladder and the urine of AUAb-positive DKO mice. Voiding behavior of mice was analyzed by the Voided Stain on Paper method. 10-week-old and older AUAb-positive DKO mice voided significantly less urine per void than did wild type (WT) mice. Furthermore, administration of the AUAb-containing serum to WT mice significantly reduced their urine volume per void. In summary, this report presents a novel comprehensive mouse model of autoimmune cystitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preliminary data suggest that the urinary microbiome may play a role in bladder cancer. Information regarding the most suitable method of collecting urine specimens is needed for the large population studies needed to address this. To compare microbiome metrics resulting from 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing between midstream, voided specimens and those obtained at cystoscopy. METHODS:Adults, with a history of superficial urothelial cell carcinoma (non-muscle invasive bladder cancer) being followed with periodic surveillance cystoscopy had a urine sample collected by a mid-stream, voided technique and then from the bladder at cystoscopy. Urine samples underwent 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. RESULTS:22 subjects (8 female, 14 male) were included. There was no significant difference in beta diversity (diversity between samples) in all samples between collection methods. However, analysis by sex revealed a difference between voided and cystoscopy samples from the same individual in males (p =?0.006, Adonis test) but not in females (p =?0.317, Adonis test). No differences were seen by collection method in any alpha diversity (diversity within a sample) measurement or differential abundance of taxa. CONCLUSIONS:Beta diversity of the urine microbiome did differ by collection method for males only. This suggests that the urinary microbiomes of the two collection methods are not equivalent to each other, at least in males, which is the sex that bladder cancer occurs most frequently in. Therefore, the same collection method within a given study should be used.
Project description:Aneuploidy is among the most common hallmarks of cancer, yet the underlying genetic mechanisms are still poorly defined. We have recently identified STAG2 as a gene that is mutated in human cancer and whose inactivation leads directly to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy. However, no single tumor type has yet been identified in which inactivation of a cohesin subunit represents a predominant mutational event. Here we used immunohistochemistry to screen a panel of 2,214 tumors from each of the major human tumor types to identify additional tumor types harboring somatic loss of STAG2. Strikingly, STAG2 expression was completely absent in 18% of urothelial carcinomas, the most common type of bladder cancer and the fifth most common cancer in the United States. DNA sequencing revealed that somatic mutations of STAG2 were present in 21% of urothelial carcinomas, which were found to be a group of highly aneuploid tumors. The acquisition of STAG2 mutations was shown to be an early event in the pathogenesis of urothelial carcinoma. STAG2 loss was significantly associated with lymph node invasion, increased disease recurrence, and reduced cancer-specific survival. These results identify STAG2 as one of the most commonly mutated genes in bladder cancer discovered to date, and demonstrate that STAG2 inactivation defines an aggressive subtype of bladder cancer with particularly poor prognosis. Affymetrix CytoScan HD Arrays were performed according to the manufacturer's directions on genomic DNA extracted directly from snap-frozen human urothelial carcinoma primary tumors. Copy number analysis using Affymetrix CytoScan HD Arrays was performed for 12 human urothelial carcinomas of the bladder with truncating mutations of the STAG2 gene.
Project description:Subjectivity in oral dysplasia grading has prompted evaluation of molecular?based tests to predict malignant transformation. Aneuploidy detected by DNA image?based cytometry (ICM) is currently the best predictor but fails to detect certain high risk lesions. A novel multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel was used to explore possible explanations by detecting aneuploidy at the single cell level. FISH was compared to reference standard DNA ICM in 19 oral lesions with epithelial dysplasia and used to characterize the cellular architecture. Copy number variation at 3q28, 7p11.2, 8q24.3, 11q13.3 and 20q13.12 and matched chromosome specific loci were assessed by dual?color FISH to assess numerical and spatial patterns of copy number increase and gene amplification. FISH revealed wide variation in copy number at different loci. Only low level copy number gain was present and often in only a small proportion of cells, although usually with all or all but one locus (9/12). Four cases showed gene amplification, one at two loci. Some probes revealed an internal presumed clonal structure within lesions not apparent in routine histological examination. Both methods produced similar diagnostic results with concordance in detection of aneuploidy by both methods in 17 out of 19 samples (89%). We have shown that oral dysplastic lesions may contain very few aneuploid cells at a cellular level, high copy number gain is rare and changes appear to arise from large chromosomal fragment duplications. Single stem lines are relatively homogeneous for loci with copy number gain but there is a subclonal structure revealed by gene amplification in some lesions.