Distinct donor and acceptor specificities of Trypanosoma brucei oligosaccharyltransferases.
ABSTRACT: Asparagine-linked glycosylation is catalysed by oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase). In Trypanosoma brucei OTase activity is catalysed by single-subunit enzymes encoded by three paralogous genes of which TbSTT3B and TbSTT3C can complement a yeast Deltastt3 mutant. The two enzymes have overlapping but distinct peptide acceptor specificities, with TbSTT3C displaying an enhanced ability to glycosylate sites flanked by acidic residues. TbSTT3A and TbSTT3B, but not TbSTT3C, are transcribed in the bloodstream and procyclic life cycle stages of T. brucei. Selective knockdown and analysis of parasite protein N-glycosylation showed that TbSTT3A selectively transfers biantennary Man(5)GlcNAc(2) to specific glycosylation sites whereas TbSTT3B selectively transfers triantennary Man(9)GlcNAc(2) to others. Analysis of T. brucei glycosylation site occupancy showed that TbSTT3A and TbSTT3B glycosylate sites in acidic to neutral and neutral to basic regions of polypeptide, respectively. This embodiment of distinct specificities in single-subunit OTases may have implications for recombinant glycoprotein engineering. TbSTT3A and TbSTT3B could be knocked down individually, but not collectively, in tissue culture. However, both were independently essential for parasite growth in mice, suggesting that inhibiting protein N-glycosylation could have therapeutic potential against trypanosomiasis.
Project description:We recently presented a model for site-specific protein N-glycosylation in Trypanosoma brucei whereby the TbSTT3A oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) first selectively transfers biantennary Man(5)GlcNAc(2) from the lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) donor Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol to N-glycosylation sequons in acidic to neutral peptide sequences and TbSTT3B selectively transfers triantennary Man(9)GlcNAc(2) to any remaining sequons. In this paper, we investigate the specificities of the two OSTs for their preferred LLO donors by glycotyping the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) synthesized by bloodstream-form T. brucei TbALG12 null mutants. The TbALG12 gene encodes the ?1-6-mannosyltransferase that converts Man(7)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol to Man(8)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol. The VSG synthesized by the TbALG12 null mutant in the presence and the absence of ?-mannosidase inhibitors was characterized by electrospray mass spectrometry both intact and as pronase glycopetides. The results show that TbSTT3A is able to transfer Man(7)GlcNAc(2) as well as Man(5)GlcNAc(2) to its preferred acidic glycosylation site at Asn263 and that, in the absence of Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol, TbSTT3B transfers both Man(7)GlcNAc(2) and Man(5)GlcNAc(2) to the remaining site at Asn428, albeit with low efficiency. These data suggest that the preferences of TbSTT3A and TbSTT3B for their LLO donors are based on the c-branch of the Man(9)GlcNAc(2) oligosaccharide, such that the presence of the c-branch prevents recognition and/or transfer by TbSTT3A, whereas the presence of the c-branch enhances recognition and/or transfer by TbSTT3B.
Project description:Trypanosoma brucei causes African trypanosomiasis and contains three full-length oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) genes; two of which, TbSTT3A and TbSTT3B, are expressed in the bloodstream form of the parasite. These OSTs have different peptide acceptor and lipid-linked oligosaccharide donor specificities, and trypanosomes do not follow many of the canonical rules developed for other eukaryotic N-glycosylation pathways, raising questions as to the basic architecture and detailed function of trypanosome OSTs. Here, we show by blue-native gel electrophoresis and stable isotope labeling in cell culture proteomics that the TbSTT3A and TbSTT3B proteins associate with each other in large complexes that contain no other detectable protein subunits. We probed the peptide acceptor specificities of the OSTs in vivo using a transgenic glycoprotein reporter system and performed glycoproteomics on endogenous parasite glycoproteins using sequential endoglycosidase H and peptide:N-glycosidase-F digestions. This allowed us to assess the relative occupancies of numerous N-glycosylation sites by endoglycosidase H-resistant N-glycans originating from Man5GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol transferred by TbSTT3A, and endoglycosidase H-sensitive N-glycans originating from Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol transferred by TbSTT3B. Using machine learning, we assessed the features that best define TbSTT3A and TbSTT3B substrates in vivo and built an algorithm to predict the types of N-glycan most likely to predominate at all the putative N-glycosylation sites in the parasite proteome. Finally, molecular modeling was used to suggest why TbSTT3A has a distinct preference for sequons containing and/or flanked by acidic amino acid residues. Together, these studies provide insights into how a highly divergent eukaryote has re-wired protein N-glycosylation to provide protein sequence-specific N-glycan modifications. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD007236, PXD007267, and PXD007268.
Project description:N-Linked protein glycosylation is an essential and highly conserved post-translational modification in eukaryotes. The transfer of a glycan from a lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) donor to the asparagine residue of a nascent polypeptide chain is catalyzed by an oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Trypanosoma brucei encodes three paralogue single-protein OSTs called TbSTT3A, TbSTT3B, and TbSTT3C that can functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae OST, making it an ideal experimental system to study the fundamental properties of OST activity. We characterized the LLO and polypeptide specificity of all three TbOST isoforms and their chimeric forms in the heterologous expression host S. cerevisiae where we were able to apply yeast genetic tools and newly developed glycoproteomics methods. We demonstrated that TbSTT3A accepted LLO substrates ranging from Man5GlcNAc2 to Man7GlcNAc2 In contrast, TbSTT3B required more complex precursors ranging from Man6GlcNAc2 to Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 structures, and TbSTT3C did not display any LLO preference. Sequence differences between the isoforms cluster in three distinct regions. We have swapped the individual regions between different OST proteins and identified region 2 to influence the specificity toward the LLO and region 1 to influence polypeptide substrate specificity. These results provide a basis to further investigate the molecular mechanisms and contribution of single amino acids in OST interaction with its substrates.
Project description:Following a switch from variant surface glycoprotein MITat1.4 to variant surface glycoprotein MITat1.8 expression by Lister strain 427 Trypanosoma brucei brucei parasites, the latter uncharacterized variant surface glycoprotein was analysed. Variant surface glycoprotein MITat1.8 was found to be a disulphide-linked homodimer, containing a complex N-linked glycan at Asn58 and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchor attached to Asp419. Mass spectrometric analyses demonstrated that the N-glycan is exclusively Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-3(Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-6)Manbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc and that the conserved Man(3)GlcN-myo-inositol glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor glycan core is substituted with an average of 4 hexose, most likely galactose, residues. The presence of a complex N-glycan at Asn58 is consistent with the relatively acidic environment of the Asn58 N-glycosylation sequon, that predicts N-glycosylation by T. brucei oligosaccharyltransferase TbSTT3A with a Man(5)GlcNAc(2) structure destined for processing to a paucimannose and/or complex N-glycan (Izquierdo L, Schulz B, Rodrigues JA et al. EMBO J 2009;28:2650-61 ).
Project description:Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoproteins (VSG) are glycosylated by both paucimannose and oligomannose structures which are involved in the formation of a protective barrier against the immune system. Here, we report that the stinging nettle lectin (UDA), with predominant N-acetylglucosamine-binding specificity, interacts with glycosylated VSGs and kills parasites by provoking defects in endocytosis together with impaired cytokinesis. Prolonged exposure to UDA induced parasite resistance based on a diminished capacity to bind the lectin due to an enrichment of biantennary paucimannose and a reduction of triantennary oligomannose structures. Two molecular mechanisms involved in resistance were identified: VSG switching and modifications in N-glycan composition. Glycosylation defects were correlated with the down-regulation of the TbSTT3A and/or TbSTT3B genes (coding for oligosaccharyltransferases A and B, respectively) responsible for glycan specificity. Furthermore, UDA-resistant trypanosomes exhibited severely impaired infectivity indicating that the resistant phenotype entails a substantial fitness cost. The results obtained further support the modification of surface glycan composition resulting from down-regulation of the genes coding for oligosaccharyltransferases as a general resistance mechanism in response to prolonged exposure to carbohydrate-binding agents.
Project description:Bacterial N-linking oligosaccharyl transferases (OTase enzymes) transfer lipid-linked glycans to selected proteins in the periplasm and were first described in the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, a member of the ?-proteobacteria-subdivision of bacteria. More recently, orthologues from other ?-proteobacterial Campylobacter and Helicobacter species and a ?-proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, have been described, suggesting that these two subdivisions of bacteria may be a source of further N-linked protein glycosylation systems. Whole-genome sequencing of both ?- and ?-proteobacteria from deep-sea vent habitats, a rich source of species from these subdivisions, revealed putative ORFs encoding OTase enzymes and associated adjacent glycosyltransferases similar to the C. jejuni N-linked glycosylation locus. We expressed putative OTase ORFs from the deep-sea vent species Nitratiruptor tergarcus, Sulfurovum lithotrophicum and Deferribacter desulfuricans in Escherichia coli and showed that they were able to functionally complement the C. jejuni OTase, CjPglB. The enzymes were shown to possess relaxed glycan specificity, transferring diverse glycan structures and demonstrated different glycosylation sequon specificities. Additionally, a permissive D. desulfuricans acceptor protein was identified, and we provide evidence that the N-linked glycan synthesized by N. tergarcus and S. lithotrophicum contains an acetylated sugar at the reducing end. This work demonstrates that deep-sea vent bacteria encode functional N-glycosylation machineries and are a potential source of biotechnologically important OTase enzymes.
Project description:The initial transfer of a complex glycan in protein N-glycosylation is catalyzed by oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), which is generally a multisubunit membrane protein complex in the endoplasmic reticulum but a single-subunit enzyme (ssOST) in some protists. To investigate the reaction mechanism of ssOST, we recombinantly expressed, purified and characterized the STT3A protein from Trypanosoma brucei (TbSTT3A). We analyzed the in vitro activity of TbSTT3A by synthesizing fluorescently labeled acceptor peptides as well as lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) analogs containing a chitobiose moiety coupled to oligoprenyl carriers of distinct lengths (C10, C15, C20 and C25) and with different double bond stereochemistry. We found that in addition to proline, charged residues at the +1 position of the sequon inhibited glycan transfer. An acidic residue at the -2 position significantly increased catalytic turnover but was not essential, in contrast to the bacterial OST. While all synthetic LLO analogs were processed by TbSTT3A, the length of the polyprenyl tail, but not the stereochemistry of the double bonds, determined their apparent affinity. We also synthesized phosphonate analogs of the LLOs, which were found to be competitive inhibitors of the reaction, although with lower apparent affinity to TbSTT3A than the active pyrophosphate analogs.
Project description:N-linked protein glycosylation is an essential and highly conserved post-translational modification in eukaryotes. The transfer of a glycan from a lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) donor to asparagine residues of nascent polypeptide chains is catalyzed by the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Trypanosoma brucei encodes three paralogue single protein OSTs called TbSTT3A, TbSTT3B and TbSTT3C that can functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae OST. We characterized the LLO and polypeptide specificity of all three OST isoforms in the heterologous expression host S. cerevisiae. We demonstrated that TbSTT3A accepted LLO substrates ranging from Man5GlcNAc2 to Man7GlcNAc2. In contrast, TbSTT3B required Man6GlcNAc2 to Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 structures while TbSTT3C did not display any LLO preference. We identified regions within different OST proteins that influence the specificity towards the LLO and polypeptide substrate.
Project description:During infection, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) directly manipulate various aspects of host cell function through the translocation of type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins directly into the host cell. Many T3SS effector proteins are enzymes that mediate post-translational modifications of host proteins, such as the glycosyltransferase NleB1, which transfers a single N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to arginine residues, creating an Arg-GlcNAc linkage. NleB1 glycosylates death-domain containing proteins including FADD, TRADD and RIPK1 to block host cell death. The NleB1 paralogue, NleB2, is found in many EPEC and EHEC strains but to date its enzymatic activity has not been described. Using in vitro glycosylation assays combined with mass spectrometry, we found that NleB2 can utilize multiple sugar donors including UDP-glucose, UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-galactose during glycosylation of the death domain protein, RIPK1. Sugar donor competition assays demonstrated that UDP-glucose was the preferred substrate of NleB2 and peptide sequencing identified the glycosylation site within RIPK1 as Arg603, indicating that NleB2 catalyses arginine glucosylation. We also confirmed that NleB2 catalysed arginine-hexose modification of Flag-RIPK1 during infection of HEK293T cells with EPEC E2348/69. Using site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro glycosylation assays, we identified that residue Ser252 in NleB2 contributes to the specificity of this distinct catalytic activity. Substitution of Ser252 in NleB2 to Gly, or substitution of the corresponding Gly255 in NleB1 to Ser switches sugar donor preference between UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-glucose. However, this switch did not affect the ability of the NleB variants to inhibit inflammatory or cell death signalling during HeLa cell transfection or EPEC infection. NleB2 is thus the first identified bacterial Arg-glucose transferase that, similar to the NleB1 Arg-GlcNAc transferase, inhibits host protein function by arginine glycosylation.
Project description:Asparagine-linked glycosylation is a common and vital co- and post-translocational modification of diverse secretory and membrane proteins in eukaryotes that is catalyzed by the multiprotein complex oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase). Two isoforms of OTase are present in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, defined by the presence of either of the homologous proteins Ost3p or Ost6p, which possess different protein substrate specificities at the level of individual glycosylation sites. Here we present in vitro characterization of the polypeptide binding activity of these two subunits of the yeast enzyme, and show that the peptide-binding grooves in these proteins can transiently bind stretches of polypeptide with amino acid characteristics complementary to the characteristics of the grooves. We show that Ost6p, which has a peptide-binding groove with a strongly hydrophobic base lined by neutral and basic residues, binds peptides enriched in hydrophobic and acidic amino acids. Further, by introducing basic residues in place of the wild type neutral residues lining the peptide-binding groove of Ost3p, we engineer binding of a hydrophobic and acidic peptide. Our data supports a model of Ost3/6p function in which they transiently bind stretches of nascent polypeptide substrate to inhibit protein folding, thereby increasing glycosylation efficiency at nearby asparagine residues.