Impaired defense mechanism against inflammation, hyperalgesia, and airway hyperreactivity in somatostatin 4 receptor gene-deleted mice.
ABSTRACT: We have shown that somatostatin released from activated capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive nerve endings during inflammatory processes elicits systemic anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. With the help of somatostatin receptor subtype 4 gene-deleted mice (sst(4)(-/-)), we provide here several lines of evidence that this receptor has a protective role in a variety of inflammatory disease models; several symptoms are more severe in the sst(4) knockout animals than in their wild-type counterparts. Acute carrageenan-induced paw edema and mechanical hyperalgesia, inflammatory pain in the early phase of adjuvant-evoked chronic arthritis, and oxazolone-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in the skin are much greater in mice lacking the sst(4) receptor. Airway inflammation and consequent bronchial hyperreactivity elicited by intranasal lipopolysaccharide administration are also markedly enhanced in sst(4) knockouts, including increased perivascular/peribronchial edema, neutrophil/macrophage infiltration, mucus-producing goblet cell hyperplasia, myeloperoxidase activity, and IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma expression in the inflamed lung. It is concluded that during these inflammatory conditions the released somatostatin has pronounced counterregulatory effects through sst(4) receptor activation. Thus, this receptor is a promising novel target for developing anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-asthmatic drugs.
Project description:Pain relief is the principal action of opioids. Somatostatin (SST), a growth hormone inhibitory peptide is also known to alleviate pain even in cases when opioids fail. Recent studies have shown that mice are prone to sustained pain and devoid of analgesic effect in the absence of somatostatin receptor 4 (SSTR4). In the present study, using brain slices, cultured neurons and HEK-293 cells, we showed that SSTR4 and ?-Opioid receptor (?OR) exist in a heteromeric complex and function in synergistic manner. SSTR4 and ?OR co-expressed in cortical/striatal brain regions and spinal cord. Using cultured neuronal cells, we describe the heterogeneous complex formation of SSTR4 and ?OR at neuronal cell body and processes. Cotransfected cells display inhibition of cAMP/PKA and co-activation of SSTR4 and ?OR oppose receptor trafficking induced by individual receptor activation. Furthermore, downstream signaling pathways either associated with withdrawal or pain relief are modulated synergistically with a predominant role of SSTR4. Inhibition of cAMP/PKA and activation of ERK1/2 are the possible cellular adaptations to prevent withdrawal induced by chronic morphine use. Our results reveal direct intra-membrane interaction between SSTR4 and ?OR and provide insights for the molecular mechanism for the anti-nociceptive property of SST in combination with opioids as a potential therapeutic approach to avoid undesirable withdrawal symptoms.
Project description:Somatostatin released from the capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves mediates analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects via the somatostatin sst4 receptor without endocrine actions. Therefore, sst4 is considered to be a novel target for drug development in pain including chronic neuropathy, which is an emerging unmet medical need. Here, we examined the in silico binding, the sst4-linked G-protein activation on stable receptor expressing cells (1 nM to 10 ?M), and the effects of our novel pyrrolo-pyrimidine molecules in mouse inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. All four of the tested compounds (C1-C4) bind to the same binding site of the sst4 receptor with similar interaction energy to high-affinity reference sst4 agonists, and they all induce G-protein activation. C1 is the more efficacious (?-GTP-binding: 218.2% ± 36.5%) and most potent (EC50: 37 nM) ligand. In vivo testing of the actions of orally administered C1 and C2 (500 µg/kg) showed that only C1 decreased the resiniferatoxin-induced acute neurogenic inflammatory thermal allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia significantly. Meanwhile, both of them remarkably reduced partial sciatic nerve ligation-induced chronic neuropathic mechanical hyperalgesia after a single oral administration of the 500 µg/kg dose. These orally active novel sst4 agonists exert potent anti-hyperalgesic effect in a chronic neuropathy model, and therefore, they can open promising drug developmental perspectives.
Project description:Somatostatin (SST) is a neuroprotective peptide but little is known regarding the potential role of its anti-inflammatory effects on retinal neuroprotection. In a previous study, we provided the first evidence that topical (eye drops) administration of SST prevents retinal neurodegeneration in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. However, STZ by itself could cause neurotoxicity, thus acting as a confounding factor. The aims of the present study were: (1) to test the effect of topical administration of SST in the db/db mouse model, a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes, thus avoiding the confounding effect of STZ on neurodegeneration; (2) to further explore the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of SST in glial cells. This task was performed by using mouse retinal explants and cell cultures. In summary, we confirm that SST topically administered was able to prevent retinal neurodysfunction and neurodegeneration in db/db mice. Furthermore, we found that SST prevented the activation of the classical M1 response of Bv.2 microglial cells upon Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation as a potent pro-inflammatory trigger. The anti-inflammatory effect of SST in Bv.2 cells was also observed in response to hypoxia. In conclusion, we provide evidence that the neuroprotective effect of SST in diabetic retinas can be largely attributed to anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
Project description:The newly developed multireceptor somatostatin analogs pasireotide (SOM230), octreotide and somatoprim (DG3173) have primarily been characterized according to their binding profiles. However, their ability to activate individual somatostatin receptor subtypes (sst) has not been directly assessed so far. Here, we transplanted the carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation motif of the sst(2) receptor to other somatostatin receptors and assessed receptor activation using a set of three phosphosite-specific antibodies. Our comparative analysis revealed unexpected efficacy profiles for pasireotide, octreotide and somatoprim. Pasireotide was able to activate sst(3) and sst(5) receptors but was only a partial agonist at the sst(2) receptor. Octreotide exhibited potent agonistic properties at the sst(2) receptor but produced very little sst(5) receptor activation. Like octreotide, somatoprim was a full agonist at the sst(2) receptor. Unlike octreotide, somatoprim was also a potent agonist at the sst(5) receptor. Together, we propose the application of a phosphorylation probe for direct assessment of G protein-coupled receptor activation and demonstrate its utility in the pharmacological characterization of novel somatostatin analogs.
Project description:Modulation of nociception and inflammation by sulfide in rheumatoid arthritis and activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channels by sulfide compounds are well documented. The present study aims to investigate TRPA1-mediated effects of sulfide donor GYY4137 in K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis, a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis. TRPA1 and somatostatin sst4 receptor wild-type (WT) and knockout mice underwent K/BxN serum transfer and were treated daily with GYY4137. Functional and biochemical signs of inflammation were recorded, together with histological characterization. These included detection of hind paw mechanical hyperalgesia by dynamic plantar esthesiometry, hind paw volume by plethysmometry, and upside-down hanging time to failure. Hind paw erythema, edema, and passive movement range of tibiotarsal joints were scored. Somatostatin release from sensory nerve endings of TRPA1 wild-type and knockout mice in response to polysulfide was detected by radioimmunoassay. Polysulfide formation from GYY4137 was uncovered by cold cyanolysis. GYY4137 aggravated mechanical hyperalgesia in TRPA1 knockout mice but ameliorated it in wild-type ones. Arthritis score was lowered by GYY4137 in TRPA1 wild-type animals. Increased myeloperoxidase activity, plasma extravasation, and subcutaneous MIP-2 levels of hind paws were detected in TRPA1 knockout mice upon GYY4137 treatment. Genetic lack of sst4 receptors did not alter mechanical hyperalgesia, edema formation, hanging performance, arthritis score, plasma extravasation, or myeloperoxidase activity. TRPA1 WT animals exhibited smaller cartilage destruction upon GYY4137 administration. Sodium polysulfide caused TRPA1-dependent somatostatin release from murine nerve endings. Sulfide released from GYY4137 is readily converted into polysulfide by hypochlorite. Polysulfide potently activates human TRPA1 receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. According to our data, the protective effect of GYY4137 is mediated by TRPA1, while detrimental actions are independent of the ion channel in the K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis model in mice. At acidic pH in inflamed tissue sulfide is released from GYY4137 and reacts with neutrophil-derived hypochlorite. Resulting polysulfide might be responsible for TRPA1-mediated antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory as well as TRPA1-independent pro-inflammatory effects.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is expressed in colonic neoplasms, where it supports cell proliferation via prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production. This study investigated the effects of somatostatin-14 on COX-2 expression, PGE(2) production and proliferation in colon cancer cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines Caco-2, HT-29 and HCT116 were used. The following techniques were employed: colourimetric assay for cell growth; 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine assay for DNA synthesis; enzyme immunoassay for PGE(2); COX-2 mRNA silencing; RT-PCR or Western blot for somatostatin receptor subtypes, cyclooxygenase isoforms, phosphorylated-ERK-1/ERK-2 and phosphorylated-Akt. KEY RESULTS: HT-29 and Caco-2 cells expressed COX-2 and somatostatin receptors (sst(3/4/5) and sst(3/5), respectively). HCT116 cells did express somatostatin receptors (sst(2/3/5)), but not COX-2. Somatostatin-14 inhibited basal COX-2 expression, PGE(2) production, DNA synthesis and growth in Caco-2 cells and these effects were prevented by BN81658 (sst(3) receptor antagonist). Basal proliferation of HT-29, HCT116 and COX-2-silenced Caco-2 cells was not affected by somatostatin-14. Stimulation of HT-29 cells with gastrin-17 elicited increments of ERK-1/ERK-2 and Akt phosphorylation, COX-2 expression, PGE(2) production, DNA synthesis and cell growth, which were all counteracted by somatostatin-14. Somatostatin-14-induced inhibition of COX-2 expression, PGE(2) production and DNA synthesis were blocked by BIM23056 (sst(5) receptor antagonist). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Somatostatin decreases COX-2 expression and function in colon cancer cells via activation of sst(3) or sst(5) receptors, and these effects contribute to the inhibitory action of somatostatin on cell proliferation. These findings can be relevant to the development of therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of the COX-2 pathway.
Project description:Objectives:The novel 1,5-diaryl-1,4-pentadien-3-one derivatives were studied for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer potential to establish their role in pain, inflammatory disorders and cancer. Materials and Methods:Two 1,5- diaryl-1,4-pentadien-3-one derivatives: (1E,4E)- 5-(4-fluoro phenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)- 2-methylpenta-1,4-dien-3-one (A2K2A17) and (1E,4E)-5-(4-nitrophenyl)-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-ethylhexa-1,4-dien-3-one (A11K3A11) were synthesized and characterized via 1H NMR and 13C NMR techniques. Molecular docking, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticancer activities were performed using Auto Doc Vina, carrageenan mediated paw edema and formalin induced chronic inflammation, acetic acid induced writhings and hotplate assay and brine-shrimp lethality assay. Results:A2K2A17 and A11K3A11 showed high computational affinities (binding energy > -9.0 Kcal/mol) against COX-1, kappa receptor and braf kinase domain. A2K2A17 and A11K3A11 exhibited moderate docking affinities (binding energy > -8.0 Kcal/mol) against COX-2, human capsaicin receptor, tumor necrosis factor, lipoxygenase, colony stimulating factor, delta receptor, cyclin dependent protein kinase-2, mitogen activated kinase, mu receptor and kit kinase domain. A2K2A17 and A11K3A11 possess low docking affinities (binding energy > -7.0 Kcal/mol) against purinoceptor, platelets-derived growth Factor-1 and vascular-endothelial growth factor. In analgesic activity, A2K2A17 (1-30 mg/kg) and A11K3A11 (1-10 mg/kg) decreased acetic acid induced writhes and prolonged the latency time (P<0.01, P<0.001 vs saline group) respectively. A2K2A17 (10-30 mg/kg) and A11K3A11 (1-10 mg/kg) reduced carrageenan as well as formalin mediated edema (P<0.01, P<0.001). A2K2A17 found effective for cytotoxicity assay with LC50 value 1.5 µg/ml. Conclusion:The in silico, in vitro and in vivo studies on A2K2A17 and A11K3A11 reports their computational binding affinities against targets as well as the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and the anticancer effects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and sedative drugs are available with potential side effects such as peptic ulcer and addiction among other things. In this regard, research is underway to find safe, effective, and economical drugs free of these side effects. In this study, an isolated natural product from Diospyros lotus, was tested for the aforementioned bioactivities. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and sedative potential of D. lotus extracts in animal paradigms using BALB/c mice as experimental model. METHODS:Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and sedative activities of dinaphthodiospyrol G (1) isolated from the chloroform fraction of D. lotus were evaluated using different experimental procedures. Anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated using the carrageenan and histamine-induced paw edema, whereas the antinociceptive effect was quantified by means of the hot plate analgesiometer. On the other hand, the sedative effect was determined using animal assay for screening the locomotors effects of compound 1. Compound 1 was also subjected to molecular modeling studies against cyclooxygenase enzymes. RESULTS:Results from this investigation showed that the extract is devoid of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive potentials but has a significant sedative effect, whereas the tested compound exhibited 55.23 and 78.34% attenuation in paw edema by carrageenan and histamine assays, respectively. A significant (p?<?0.001) and dose-dependent antinociceptive and sedative effects were demonstrated by the isolated compound. Molecular docking and dynamics simulation studies of the isolated compound against cyclooxygenase enzyme indicated that compound 1 forms specific interactions with key residues in the active site of the target receptor, which validates the potential use of the isolated compound as cyclooxygenase inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS:Compound 1 exhibited remarkable analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and sedative activities. These findings strongly justify the traditional use of D. lotus in the treatment of inflammation, pain, and insomnia.
Project description:The spinal dorsal horn (SDH) is comprised of distinct neuronal populations that process different somatosensory modalities. Somatostatin (SST)-expressing interneurons in the SDH have been implicated specifically in mediating mechanical pain. Identifying the transcriptomic profile of SST neurons could elucidate the unique genetic features of this population and enable selective analgesic targeting. To that end, we combined the Isolation of Nuclei Tagged in Specific Cell Types (INTACT) method and Fluorescence Activated Nuclei Sorting (FANS) to capture tagged SST nuclei in the SDH of adult male mice. Using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), we uncovered more than 13,000 genes. Differential gene expression analysis revealed more than 900 genes with at least 2-fold enrichment. In addition to many known dorsal horn genes, we identified and validated several novel transcripts from pharmacologically tractable functional classes: Carbonic Anhydrase 12 (Car12), Phosphodiesterase 11 A (Pde11a), and Protease-Activated Receptor 3 (F2rl2). In situ hybridization of these novel genes showed differential expression patterns in the SDH, demonstrating the presence of transcriptionally distinct subpopulations within the SST population. Overall, our findings provide new insights into the gene repertoire of SST dorsal horn neurons and reveal several novel targets for pharmacological modulation of this pain-mediating population and treatment of pathological pain.
Project description:Somatostatin and octreotide injected into the brain have been reported to modulate food intake. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. The stable oligosomatostatin analog, des-AA(1,2,4,5,12,13)-[DTrp(8)]-somatostatin (ODT8-SST), like somatostatin, binds to all five somatostatin receptors (sst(1-5)). We characterized the effects of ODT8-SST injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) on food consumption and related mechanisms of action in freely fed rats. ODT8-SST (0.3 and 1 microg per rat, i.c.v.) injected during the light or dark phase induced an early onset (within 1 h) and long-lasting (4 h) increase in food intake in nonfasted rats. By contrast, i.p. injection (0.3-3 mg/kg) or i.c.v. injection of selective sst(1) or sst(4) agonists (1 microg per rat) had no effect. The 2 h food intake response during the light phase was blocked by i.c.v. injection of a sst(2) antagonist, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y(1) receptor antagonist, BIBP-3226, and ip injection of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, and not associated with changes in plasma ghrelin levels. ODT8-SST (1 microg per rat, i.c.v.) stimulated gastric emptying of a solid meal which was also blocked by naloxone. The increased food intake was accompanied by a sustained increase in respiratory quotient, energy expenditure, and drinking as well as mu-opioid receptor-independent grooming behavior and hyperthermia, while ambulatory movements were not altered after ODT8-SST (1 microg per rat, i.c.v.). These data show that ODT8-SST acts primarily through brain sst(2) receptors to induce a long-lasting orexigenic effect that involves the activation of Y(1) and opiate-receptors, accompanied by enhanced gastric transit and energy expenditure suggesting a modulation of NPYergic and opioidergic orexigenic systems by brain sst(2) receptors.