Differential expression of microRNAs in early-stage neoplastic transformation in the lungs of F344 rats chronically treated with the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone.
ABSTRACT: While numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to alter their expression levels in human lung cancer tissues compared with normal tissues, the function of these miRNAs and their contribution to the long process of lung cancer development remains largely unknown. We applied a tobacco-specific carcinogen-induced cancer model to investigate the involvement of miRNAs in early lung cancer development, which could also provide information on potential, early biomarkers of lung cancers. Male F344 rats were first chronically treated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a carcinogen present in tobacco products, for up to 20 weeks. The expression profiles of miRNAs in rat lungs were then determined. As measured by miRNA microarrays and confirmed by Northern blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses, NNK treatment reduced the expression of a number of miRNAs, such as miR-101, miR-126*, miR-199 and miR-34. Significantly, these miRNAs overlap with previously published reports on altered miRNA expression in human lung cancer samples. These miRNAs might, therefore, represent early-response miRNAs that signify the molecular changes associated with pulmonary tumorigenesis. Moreover, we identified cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A3, a critical enzyme in rat lungs that activates NNK to render it carcinogenic, as a potential target of miR-126*. NNK treatment in rats repressed miR-126* but induced CYP2A3 expression, a mechanism that may potentiate the oncogenic effects of NNK.
Project description:Increasing evidence shows that estrogens are involved in lung cancer proliferation and progression, and most human lung tumors express estrogen receptor ? (ER?) as well as aromatase. To determine if the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole prevents development of lung tumors induced by a tobacco carcinogen, alone or in combination with the ER antagonist fulvestrant, ovariectomized female mice received treatments with the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) along with daily supplements of androstenedione, the substrate for aromatase. Placebo, anastrozole and/or fulvestrant were administered in both an initiation and a promotion protocol of lung tumorigenesis. The combination of fulvestrant and anastrozole given during NNK exposure resulted in significantly fewer NNK-induced lung tumors (mean = 0.5) compared with placebo (mean = 4.6, P < 0.001), fulvestrant alone (mean = 3.4, P < 0.001) or anastrozole alone (mean = 2.8, P = 0.002). A significantly lower Ki67 cell proliferation index was also observed compared with single agent and control treatment groups. Beginning antiestrogen treatment after NNK exposure, when preneoplastic lesions had already formed, also yielded maximum antitumor effects with the combination. Aromatase expression was found mainly in macrophages infiltrating preneoplastic and tumorous areas of the lungs, whereas ER? was found in both macrophages and tumor cells. Antiestrogens, especially in combination, effectively inhibited tobacco carcinogen-induced murine lung tumorigenesis and may have application for lung cancer prevention. An important source of estrogen synthesis may be inflammatory cells that infiltrate the lungs in response to carcinogens, beginning early in the carcinogenesis process. ER? expressed by inflammatory and neoplastic epithelial cells in the lung may signal in response to local estrogen production.
Project description:Improved understanding of lung cancer development and progression, including insights from studies of animal models, are needed to combat this fatal disease. Previously, we found that mice with a knockout (KO) of G-protein coupled receptor 5A (Gprc5a) develop lung tumors after a long latent period (12 to 24 months).To determine whether a tobacco carcinogen will enhance tumorigenesis in this model, we administered 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) i.p. to 2-months old Gprc5a-KO mice and sacrificed groups (n=5) of mice at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months later. Compared to control Gprc5a-KO mice, NNK-treated mice developed lung tumors at least 6 months earlier, exhibited 2- to 4-fold increased tumor incidence and multiplicity, and showed a dramatic increase in lesion size. A gene expression signature, NNK-ADC, of differentially expressed genes derived by transcriptome analysis of epithelial cell lines from normal lungs of Gprc5a-KO mice and from NNK-induced adenocarcinoma was highly similar to differential expression patterns observed between normal and tumorigenic human lung cells. The NNK-ADC expression signature also separated both mouse and human adenocarcinomas from adjacent normal lung tissues based on publicly available microarray datasets. A key feature of the signature, up-regulation of Ube2c, Mcm2, and Fen1, was validated in mouse normal lung and adenocarcinoma tissues and cells by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, respectively.Our findings demonstrate that lung tumorigenesis in the Gprc5a-KO mouse model is augmented by NNK and that gene expression changes induced by tobacco carcinogen(s) may be conserved between mouse and human lung epithelial cells. Further experimentation to prove the reliability of the Gprc5a knockout mouse model for the study of tobacco-induced lung carcinogenesis is warranted.
Project description:Tobacco smoking is a common risk factor for lung cancer and head and neck cancer. Molecular changes such as deregulation of miRNA expression have been linked to tobacco smoking in both types of cancer. Dysfunction of the Mismatch DNA repair (MMR) mechanism has also been associated with a poor prognosis of these cancers, while a cross-talk between specific miRNAs and MMR genes has been previously proposed. We hypothesized that exposure of lung and head and neck squamous cancer cells (NCI and FaDu, respectively) to tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is capable of altering the expression of MSH2 and MLH1, key MMR components, by promoting specific miRNA deregulation. We found that either a low (1 ?M) or high (2 ?M) dose of NNK induced significant upregulation of "oncomirs" miR-21 and miR-155 and downregulation of "tumor suppressor" miR-422a, as well as the reduction of MMR protein and mRNA expression, in NCI and FaDu, compared to controls. Inhibition of miR-21 restored the NNK-induced reduced MSH2 phenotype in both NCI and FaDu, indicating that miR-21 might contribute to MSH2 regulation. Finally, NNK exposure increased NCI and FaDu survival, promoting cancer cell progression. We provide novel findings that deregulated miR-21, miR-155, and miR-422a and MMR gene expression patterns may be valuable biomarkers for lung and head and neck squamous cell cancer progression in smokers.
Project description:The nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), an important carcinogen found in tobacco products, causes lung cancer in genetically susceptible animals. In addition to mutations of the K-Ras gene, NNK has non-mutagenic effects that include alterations in gene expression and immunomodulation in the lung. Here we report the identification of two gene sets associated with NNK-induced pulmonary tumourigenesis. First, to identify genes involved in the susceptibility to NNK, we compared the lung transcriptomes of NNK-resistant C3H mice with that of the NNK-susceptible A/J mice, identifying differential expression of genes related to innate immunity and inflammation. Second, to identify gene expression induced by NNK, we compared the lung transcriptomes of C3H and A/J mice post-treatment. The Resistin-like alpha (Retnla) gene was highly upregulated in response to NNK only in susceptible mice. This gene product is known to recruit immune cells to the lung, and accumulation of CD45 positive cells in A/J lungs correlated with increased Retnla expression. Genetic susceptibility to NNK-induced lung tumourigenesis may relate in part to gene expression changes and alterations in the immune response to create a pro-tumourigenic environment, acting in concert with NNK's mutagenic effects.
Project description:The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a powerful lung carcinogen in animal models and is considered a causative factor for lung cancer in people who use tobacco products. NNK undergoes metabolic activation-a critical step in its mechanism of carcinogenesis-to an intermediate which reacts with DNA to form pyridyloxobutyl DNA base and phosphate adducts. Another important metabolic pathway of NNK is its conversion to 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), which similarly forms pyridylhydroxybutyl DNA base adducts that have been characterized previously. In this study, we investigated the potential formation of pyridylhydroxybutyl DNA phosphate adducts. We report the characterization and quantitation of 107 structurally unique pyridylhydroxybutyl DNA phosphate adducts in the lungs of rats treated chronically with a carcinogenic dose of 5 ppm of NNK in their drinking water for up to 70 weeks, by using a novel liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry method. Our findings demonstrate that pyridylhydroxybutyl phosphate adducts account for 38-55 and 34-40% of all the measured pyridine-containing DNA adducts in rat lung and liver, respectively, upon treatment with NNK. Some of the pyridylhydroxybutyl DNA phosphate adducts persisted in both tissues for over 70 weeks, suggesting that they could be potential biomarkers of chronic exposure to NNK and NNAL. This study provides comprehensive characterization and relative quantitation of a panel of NNK/NNAL-derived DNA phosphate adducts, thus identifying NNK as the source of the most structurally diverse set of DNA adducts identified to date from any carcinogen.
Project description:Chronic pulmonary inflammation has been consistently shown to increase the risk of lung cancer. Therefore, assessing the molecular links between the two diseases and identification of chemopreventive agents that inhibit inflammation-driven lung tumorigenesis is indispensable.Female A/J mice were treated with the tobacco smoke carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inflammatory agent and constituent of tobacco smoke, and maintained on control diet or diet supplemented with the chemopreventive agents indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and/or silibinin (Sil). At the end of the study, mice were sacrificed and tumors on the surface of the lung were counted and gene expression levels in lung tissues were determined by RNA sequencing.The mean number of lung tumors induced by NNK and NNK + LPS was 5 and 15 tumors/mouse, respectively. Dietary supplementation with the combination of I3C and Sil significantly reduced the size and multiplicity (by 50 %) of NNK + LPS-induced lung tumors. Also, we found that 330, 2957, and 1143 genes were differentially regulated in mice treated with NNK, LPS, and NNK + LPS, respectively. The inflammatory response of lung tumors to LPS, as determined by the number of proinflammatory genes with altered gene expression or the level of alteration, was markedly less than that of normal lungs. Among 1143 genes differentially regulated in the NNK + LPS group, the expression of 162 genes and associated signaling pathways was significantly modulated by I3C and/or Sil + I3C. These genes include cytokines, chemokines, putative oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and Ros1, AREG, EREG, Cyp1a1, Arntl, and Npas2.To our knowledge, this is the first report that provides insight into genes that are differentially expressed during inflammation-driven lung tumorigenesis and the modulation of these genes by chemopreventive agents.
Project description:DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) catalyzes DNA methylation and is overexpressed in many human diseases, including cancer. The tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK also induces DNA methylation. However, the role of DNMT1-mediated methylation in tobacco carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here we used human and mouse lung cancer samples and cell lines to determine a mechanism whereby NNK induced DNMT1 expression and activity. We determined that in a human lung cell line, glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) phosphorylated DNMT1 to recruit beta-transducin repeat-containing protein (betaTrCP), resulting in DNMT1 degradation, and that NNK activated AKT, inhibiting GSK3beta function and thereby attenuating DNMT1 degradation. NNK also induced betaTrCP translocation to the cytoplasm via the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP-U) shuttling protein, resulting in DNMT1 nuclear accumulation and hypermethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. Fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) of lung adenomas from NNK-treated mice and tumors from lung cancer patients that were smokers were characterized by disruption of the DNMT1/betaTrCP interaction and DNMT1 nuclear accumulation. Importantly, DNMT1 overexpression in lung cancer patients who smoked continuously correlated with poor prognosis. We believe that the NNK-induced DNMT1 accumulation and subsequent hypermethylation of the promoter of tumor suppressor genes may lead to tumorigenesis and poor prognosis and provide an important link between tobacco smoking and lung cancer. Furthermore, this mechanism may also be involved in other smoking-related human diseases.
Project description:Metformin is the most commonly prescribed drug for type II diabetes and is associated with decreased cancer risk. Previously, we showed that metformin prevented tobacco carcinogen (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in a non-diabetic mouse model, which was associated with decreased IGF-I/insulin receptor signaling but not activation of AMPK in lung tissues, as well as decreased circulating levels of IGF-I and insulin. Here, we used liver IGF-I-deficient (LID) mice to determine the importance of IGF-I in NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis and chemoprevention by metformin. LID mice had decreased lung tumor multiplicity and burden compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Metformin further decreased lung tumorigenesis in LID mice without affecting IGF-I levels, suggesting that metformin can act through IGF-I-independent mechanisms. In lung tissues, metformin decreased phosphorylation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) as well as levels of GTP-bound Ras independently of AMPK. Metformin also diminished plasma levels of several cognate ligands for these RTKs. Tissue distribution studies using [(14)C]-metformin showed that uptake of metformin was high in liver but four-fold lower in lungs, suggesting that the suppression of RTK activation by metformin occurs predominantly via systemic, indirect effects. Systemic inhibition of circulating growth factors and local RTK signaling are new AMPK-independent mechanisms of action of metformin that could underlie its ability to prevent tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) catalyzes the metabolism of nicotine and the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Genetic variation in CYP2A6 may affect smoking behavior and contribute to lung cancer risk. A nested case-control study of 197 lung cancer cases and 197 matched controls was conducted within a prospective cohort of 63 257 Chinese men and women in Singapore. Quantified were five genetic variants of CYP2A6 (*1A, *4, *7, *9 and *12) and urinary metabolites of nicotine [total nicotine, total cotinine, total trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC)] and NNK (total NNAL, free NNAL, NNAL-glucuronide, NNAL-N-glucuronide, and NNAL-O-glucuronide). Higher urinary metabolites of nicotine and NNK were significantly associated with a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking intensity and duration. Lower CYP2A6-determined nicotine metabolizer status was significantly associated with a lower ratio of total 3HC over total cotinine, lower total nicotine equivalent and reduced risk of developing lung cancer (all Ptrend < 0.001). Compared with normal metabolizers, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of developing lung cancer for intermediate, slow and poor metabolizers determined by CYP2A6 genotypes were 0.85 (0.41-1.77), 0.55 (0.28-1.08) and 0.32 (0.15-0.70), respectively, after adjustment for smoking intensity and duration and urinary total nicotine equivalents. Thus the reduced risk of lung cancer in smokers with lower CYP2A6 activity may be explained by lower consumption of cigarettes, less intense smoking and reduced CYP2A6-catalyzed activation of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen NNK.
Project description:The tobacco smoke N-nitrosamine, NNK, is an important carcinogen. It has been shown to induce lung, liver, and pancreatic cancer in animals. Its metabolites are associated with lung cancer in tobacco smokers. Our work focuses upon the physical interaction of NNK diazonium ion with DNA. This species is implicated in the formation of pyridyloxobutyl adducts, reacting with DNA bases and phosphate groups. Past research has investigated the metabolic activation of NNK by various enzymes, subsequent adduct formation with DNA, and the role of these adducts in mutagenesis. We present the first study of the physical interaction of NNK diazonium ion with TP53 (exon 5), a frequently mutated human tumor suppressor gene. We identify physical binding sites found via free energy minimization in computational docking simulations. These structures represent local potential energy minima in this system and suggest plausible sites for adduct formation.