Polycystin-1 C-terminal tail associates with beta-catenin and inhibits canonical Wnt signaling.
ABSTRACT: Polycystin-1 (PC1), the product of the PKD1 gene mutated in the majority of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) cases, undergoes a cleavage resulting in the intracellular release of its C-terminal tail (CTT). Here, we demonstrate that the PC1 CTT co-localizes with and binds to beta-catenin in the nucleus. This interaction requires a nuclear localization motif present in the PC1 CTT as well as the N-terminal portion of beta-catenin. The PC1 CTT inhibits the ability of both beta-catenin and Wnt ligands to activate T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent gene transcription, a major effector of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. The PC1 CTT may produce this effect by reducing the apparent affinity of the interaction between beta-catenin and the TCF protein. DNA microarray analysis reveals that the canonical Wnt signaling pathway is activated in ADPKD patient cysts. Our results suggest a novel mechanism through which PC1 cleavage may impact upon Wnt-dependent signaling and thereby modulate both developmental processes and cystogenesis.
Project description:Mutations in Pkd1, encoding polycystin-1 (PC1), cause autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We show that the carboxy-terminal tail (CTT) of PC1 is released by ?-secretase-mediated cleavage and regulates the Wnt and CHOP pathways by binding the transcription factors TCF and CHOP, disrupting their interaction with the common transcriptional coactivator p300. Loss of PC1 causes increased proliferation and apoptosis, while reintroducing PC1-CTT into cultured Pkd1 null cells reestablishes normal growth rate, suppresses apoptosis, and prevents cyst formation. Inhibition of ?-secretase activity impairs the ability of PC1 to suppress growth and apoptosis and leads to cyst formation in cultured renal epithelial cells. Expression of the PC1-CTT is sufficient to rescue the dorsal body curvature phenotype in zebrafish embryos resulting from either ?-secretase inhibition or suppression of Pkd1 expression. Thus, ?-secretase-dependent release of the PC1-CTT creates a protein fragment whose expression is sufficient to suppress ADPKD-related phenotypes in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:In canonical Wnt signaling, Dishevelled (Dvl) is a critical cytoplasmic regulator that releases beta-catenin from degradation. Here, we find that Dvl and c-Jun form a complex with beta-catenin-T-cell factor 4 (TCF-4) on the promoter of Wnt target genes and regulate gene transcription. The complex forms via two interactions of nuclear Dvl with c-Jun and beta-catenin, respectively, both of which bind to TCF. Disrupting the interaction of Dvl with either c-Jun or beta-catenin suppresses canonical Wnt signaling-stimulated transcription, and the reduction of Dvl diminished beta-catenin-TCF-4 association on Wnt target gene promoters in vivo. Expression of a TCF-Dvl fusion protein largely rescued the c-Jun knockdown Wnt signaling deficiency in mammalian cells and zebrafish. Thus, we confirm that c-Jun functions in canonical Wnt signaling and show that c-Jun functions as a scaffold in the beta-catenin-TCFs transcription complex bridging Dvl to TCF. Our results reveal a mechanism by which nuclear Dvl cooperates with c-Jun to regulate gene transcription stimulated by the canonical Wnt signaling pathway.
Project description:Wnt3a activates the ;canonical' signaling pathway, stimulating the nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin and activation of Lef/Tcf-sensitive transcription of developmentally important genes. Using totipotent mouse F9 teratocarcinoma cells expressing frizzled-1 (Fz1), we investigated roles of tyrosine kinase activity in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Treatment with either genistein or Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 attenuates Wnt3a-stimulated Lef/Tcf transcription activation and primitive endoderm formation. siRNA-induced knockdown of Src likewise attenuates Lef/Tcf transcription and primitive endoderm formation in response to Wnt3a, implicating Src as a positive regulator of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. We discovered that Src binds dishevelled-2 (Dvl2), a key phosphoprotein in Wnt signaling, at two positions: an SH3-binding domain and a C-terminal domain. The Y18F mutant of Dvl2 attenuates the Wnt3a-stimulated Lef/Tcf-sensitive transcriptional response. Wnt3a stimulates Src docking to Dvl2 and activation of this tyrosine kinase. Activated Src, in turn, enhances Wnt activation of the canonical pathway. We show that Dvl2 and beta-catenin are crucially important substrates for tyrosine phosphorylation in the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway.
Project description:Beta-catenin is a key mediator in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, which plays important roles in multiple developmental processes. Inappropriate activation of this pathway leads to developmental defects and development of certain cancers. Upon Wnt signaling, beta-catenin binds TCF/LEF transcription factors. The TCF/LEF-beta-catenin complex then recruits a variety of transcriptional coactivators to the promoter/enhancer region of Wnt-responsive genes and activates target gene transcription. In this article, we demonstrate that GRIP1-associated coactivator 63 (GAC63), a recently identified nuclear receptor (NR) coactivator, interacts with beta-catenin. The N-terminus of GAC63 is the binding site for beta-catenin, whereas a C-terminal fragment of beta-catenin including armadillo repeats 10-12 binds to GAC63. Over-expression of GAC63 enhanced the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin, and also greatly enhanced TCF/LEF-regulated reporter gene activity in a beta-catenin-dependent manner. Endogenous GAC63 was recruited to TCF/LEF-responsive enhancer elements when beta-catenin levels were induced by LiCl. In addition, reduction of endogenous GAC63 level by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited TCF/LEF-mediated gene transcription. Our findings reveal a new function of GAC63 in transcriptional activation of Wnt-responsive genes.
Project description:The hallmark of canonical Wnt signaling is the transcriptional induction of Wnt target genes by the beta-catenin/TCF complex. Several studies have proposed alternative interaction partners for beta-catenin or TCF, but the relevance of potential bifurcations in the distal Wnt pathway remains unclear. Here we study on a genome-wide scale the requirement for Armadillo (Arm, Drosophila beta-catenin) and Pangolin (Pan, Drosophila TCF) in the Wnt/Wingless(Wg)-induced transcriptional response of Drosophila Kc cells. Using somatic genetics, we demonstrate that both Arm and Pan are absolutely required for mediating activation and repression of target genes. Furthermore, by means of STARR-sequencing we identified Wnt/Wg-responsive enhancer elements and found that all responsive enhancers depend on Pan. Together, our results confirm the dogma of canonical Wnt/Wg signaling and argue against the existence of distal pathway branches in this system.
Project description:Wnt signals control decisive steps in development and can induce the formation of tumors. Canonical Wnt signals control the formation of the embryonic axis, and are mediated by stabilization and interaction of beta-catenin with Lef/Tcf transcription factors. An alternative branch of the Wnt pathway uses JNK to establish planar cell polarity in Drosophila and gastrulation movements in vertebrates. We describe here the vertebrate protein Diversin that interacts with two components of the canonical Wnt pathway, Casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon) and Axin/Conductin. Diversin recruits CKIepsilon to the beta-catenin degradation complex that consists of Axin/Conductin and GSK3beta and allows efficient phosphorylation of beta-catenin, thereby inhibiting beta-catenin/Tcf signals. Morpholino-based gene ablation in zebrafish shows that Diversin is crucial for axis formation, which depends on beta-catenin signaling. Diversin is also involved in JNK activation and gastrulation movements in zebrafish. Diversin is distantly related to Diego of Drosophila, which functions only in the pathway that controls planar cell polarity. Our data show that Diversin is an essential component of the Wnt-signaling pathway and acts as a molecular switch, which suppresses Wnt signals mediated by the canonical beta-catenin pathway and stimulates signaling via JNK.
Project description:BACKGROUND: beta-catenin is a key mediator of the canonical Wnt pathway as it associates with members of the T-cell factor (TCF) family at Wnt-responsive promoters to drive the transcription of Wnt target genes. Recently, we showed that Rac1 GTPase synergizes with beta-catenin to increase the activity of a TCF-responsive reporter. This synergy was dependent on the nuclear presence of Rac1, since inhibition of its nuclear localization effectively abolished the stimulatory effect of Rac1 on TCF-responsive reporter activity. We hypothesised that Rac1 plays a direct role in enhancing the transcription of endogenous Wnt target genes by modulating the beta-catenin/TCF transcription factor complex. RESULTS: We employed chromatin immunoprecipitation studies to demonstrate that Rac1 associates with the beta-catenin/TCF complex at Wnt-responsive promoters of target genes. This association served to facilitate transcription, since overexpression of active Rac1 augmented Wnt target gene activation, whereas depletion of endogenous Rac1 by RNA interference abrogated this effect. In addition, the Rac1-specific exchange factor, Tiam1, potentiated the stimulatory effects of Rac1 on the canonical Wnt pathway. Tiam1 promoted the formation of a complex containing Rac1 and beta-catenin. Furthermore, endogenous Tiam1 associated with endogenous beta-catenin, and this interaction was enhanced in response to Wnt3a stimulation. Intriguingly, Tiam1 was recruited to Wnt-responsive promoters upon Wnt3a stimulation, whereas Rac1 was tethered to TCF binding elements in a Wnt-independent manner. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results suggest that Rac1 and the Rac1-specific activator Tiam1 are components of transcriptionally active beta-catenin/TCF complexes at Wnt-responsive promoters, and the presence of Rac1 and Tiam1 within these complexes serves to enhance target gene transcription. Our results demonstrate a novel functional mechanism underlying the cross-talk between Rac1 and the canonical Wnt signalling pathway.
Project description:Cdx2 is an intestine-specific transcription factor known to regulate proliferation and differentiation. We have reported previously that Cdx2 limits the proliferation of human colon cancer cells by inhibiting the transcriptional activity of the beta-catenin-T-cell factor (TCF) bipartite complex. Herein we further elucidate this mechanism. Studies with a classic Cdx2 target gene and a canonical Wnt/beta-catenin/TCF reporter suggest that Cdx2 regulates these promoters by distinctly different processes. Specifically, inhibition of beta-catenin/TCF activity by Cdx2 does not require Cdx2 transcriptional activity. Instead, Cdx2 binds beta-catenin and disrupts its interaction with the DNA-binding TCF factors, thereby silencing beta-catenin/TCF target gene expression. Using Cdx2 mutants, we map the Cdx2 domains required for the inhibition of beta-catenin/TCF activity. We identify a subdomain in the N-terminus that is highly conserved and when mutated significantly reduces Cdx2 inhibition of beta-catenin/TCF transcriptional activity. Mutation of this subdomain also abrogates Cdx2's anti-proliferative effects in colon cancer cells. In summary, we conclude that Cdx2 binds beta-catenin and disrupts the beta-catenin-TCF complex. Considering the pivotal role of beta-catenin/TCF activity in driving proliferation of normal intestinal epithelial and colon cancer cells, our findings suggest a novel mechanism for Cdx2-mediated regulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and cell proliferation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Aberrant activation of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway occurs in almost all colorectal cancers and contributes to their growth, invasion and survival. Phopholipase D (PLD) has been implicated in progression of colorectal carcinoma However, an understanding of the targets and regulation of this important pathway remains incomplete and besides, relationship between Wnt signaling and PLD is not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we demonstrate that PLD isozymes, PLD1 and PLD2 are direct targets and positive feedback regulators of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Wnt3a and Wnt mimetics significantly enhanced the expression of PLDs at a transcriptional level in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells, whereas silencing of beta-catenin gene expression or utilization of a dominant negative form of T cell factor-4 (TCF-4) inhibited expression of PLDs. Moreover, both PLD1 and PLD2 were highly induced in colon, liver and stomach tissues of mice after injection of LiCl, a Wnt mimetic. Wnt3a stimulated formation of the beta-catenin/TCF complexes to two functional TCF-4-binding elements within the PLD2 promoter as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Suppressing PLD using gene silencing or selective inhibitor blocked the ability of beta-catenin to transcriptionally activate PLD and other Wnt target genes by preventing formation of the beta-catenin/TCF-4 complex, whereas tactics to elevate intracellular levels of phosphatidic acid, the product of PLD activity, enhanced these effects. Here we show that PLD is necessary for Wnt3a-driven invasion and anchorage-independent growth of colon cancer cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: PLD isozyme acts as a novel transcriptional target and positive feedback regulator of Wnt signaling, and then promotes Wnt-driven anchorage-independent growth of colorectal cancer cells. We propose that therapeutic interventions targeting PLD may confer a clinical benefit in Wnt/beta-catenin-driven malignancies.
Project description:beta-catenin is the major effector of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Mutations in components of the pathway that stabilize beta-catenin result in augmented gene transcription and play a major role in many human cancers. We employed microarrays to identify transcriptional targets of deregulated beta-catenin in a human epithelial cell line (293) engineered to produce mutant beta-catenin and in ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas characterized with respect to mutations affecting the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Two genes strongly induced in both systems-FGF20 and DKK1-were studied in detail. Elevated levels of FGF20 RNA were also observed in adenomas from mice carrying the Apc(Min)allele. Both XFGF20 and Xdkk-1 are expressed early in Xenopus embryogenesis under the control of the Wnt signaling pathway. Furthermore, FGF20 and DKK1 appear to be direct targets for beta-catenin/TCF transcriptional regulation via LEF/TCF-binding sites. Finally, by using small inhibitory RNAs specific for FGF20, we show that continued expression of FGF20 is necessary for maintenance of the anchorage-independent growth state in RK3E cells transformed by beta-catenin, implying that FGF-20 may be a critical element in oncogenesis induced by the Wnt signaling pathway.