Protein-protein interactions of tandem affinity purified protein kinases from rice.
ABSTRACT: Eighty-eight rice (Oryza sativa) cDNAs encoding rice leaf expressed protein kinases (PKs) were fused to a Tandem Affinity Purification tag (TAP-tag) and expressed in transgenic rice plants. The TAP-tagged PKs and interacting proteins were purified from the T1 progeny of the transgenic rice plants and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Forty-five TAP-tagged PKs were recovered in this study and thirteen of these were found to interact with other rice proteins with a high probability score. In vivo phosphorylated sites were found for three of the PKs. A comparison of the TAP-tagged data from a combined analysis of 129 TAP-tagged rice protein kinases with a concurrent screen using yeast two hybrid methods identified an evolutionarily new rice protein that interacts with the well conserved cell division cycle 2 (CDC2) protein complex.
Project description:The Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane proton ATPase genes, AHA1 and AHA2, are the two most highly expressed isoforms of an 11 gene family and are collectively essential for embryo development. We report the translational fusion of a tandem affinity-purification tag to the 5' end of the AHA1 open reading frame in a genomic clone. Stable expression of TAP-tagged AHA1 in Arabidopsis rescues the embryonic lethal phenotype of endogenous double aha1/aha2 knockdowns. Western blots of SDS-PAGE and Blue Native gels show enrichment of AHA1 in plasma membrane fractions and indicate a hexameric quaternary structure. TAP-tagged AHA1 rescue lines exhibited reduced vertical root growth. Analysis of the plasma membrane and soluble proteomes identified several plasma membrane-localized proteins with alterred abundance in TAP-tagged AHA1 rescue lines compared to wild type. Using affinity-purification mass spectrometry, we uniquely identified two additional AHA isoforms, AHA9 and AHA11, which copurified with TAP-tagged AHA1. In conclusion, we have generated transgenic Arabidopsis lines in which a TAP-tagged AHA1 transgene has complemented all essential endogenous AHA1 and AHA2 functions and have shown that these plants can be used to purify AHA1 protein and to identify in planta interacting proteins by mass spectrometry.
Project description:Tandem affinity purification (TAP) is a method that allows rapid purification of native protein complexes. We developed an improved technique to fuse the fission yeast genes with a TAP tag. Our technique is based on tagging constructs that contain regions homologous to the target gene cloned into vectors carrying a TAP tag. We used this technique to design strategies for TAP-tagging of predicted Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes (http://mendel.imp.ac.at/Pombe_tagging/). To validate the approach, we purified the proteins, which associated with two evolutionarily conserved proteins Swi5 and Sfr1 as well as three protein kinases Ksg1, Orb6 and Sid1.
Project description:Tandem affinity purification (TAP) allows for rapid and efficient purification of epitope-tagged protein complexes from crude extracts under native conditions. The method was established in yeast and has been successfully applied to other organisms, including mammals and trypanosomes. However, we found that the original method, which is based on the TAP tag, consisting of a duplicate protein A epitope, a tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site, and the calmodulin-binding peptide (CBP), did not yield enough recovery of transcription factor SNAPc (for small nuclear RNA-activating protein complex) from crude trypanosome extracts for protein identification. Specifically, the calmodulin affinity chromatography step proved to be inefficient. To overcome this problem, we replaced CBP by the protein C epitope (ProtC) and termed this new epitope combination PTP tag. ProtC binds with high affinity to the monoclonal antibody HPC4, which has the unique property of requiring calcium for antigen recognition. Thus, analogous to the calcium-dependent CBP-calmodulin interaction, ProtC-tagged proteins can be released from immobilized HPC4 by a chelator of divalent cations. While this property was retained, epitope substitution improved purification in our experiments by eliminating the inefficiency of calmodulin affinity chromatography and by providing an alternative way of elution using the ProtC peptide in cases where EGTA inactivated protein function. Furthermore, HPC4 allowed highly sensitive and specific detection of ProtC-tagged proteins after protease cleavage. Thus far, we have successfully purified and characterized the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle, the transcription factor complex TATA-binding protein related factor 4 (TRF4)/SNAPc/transcription factor IIA (TFIIA), and RNA polymerase I of Trypanosoma brucei.
Project description:Here we report proteins identified after conducting Tandem Affinity Purification (TAP) of the TOPLESS (TPL) corepressor from Arabidopsis. We generated transgenic plants harboring TPL fused to the GS-TAG, "Boosting tandem affinity purification of plant protein complexes" (Van Leene et al., 2008) . Four independent biological replicates of a selected TPL-GS-TAG line were grown simultaneously, crosslinked with formaldehyde, and proteins were isolated from whole plant tissue via TAP. Purified proteins were treated with trypsin, and the peptides were analyzed via mass spectrometry. Datasets are hosted in the MassIVE public repository (reference number: MSV000082477, https://massive.ucsd.edu/ProteoSAFe/dataset.jsp?task=f16255fb7080426a9fe1926b4d3d5862). The data in this article has not been published elsewhere and is original to this work.
Project description:The herpes simplex virus (HSV) UL17 and UL25 minor capsid proteins are essential for DNA packaging. They are thought to comprise a molecule arrayed in five copies around each of the capsid vertices. This molecule was initially termed the "C-capsid-specific component" (CCSC) (B. L. Trus et al., Mol. Cell 26:479-489, 2007), but as we have subsequently observed this feature on reconstructions of A, B, and C capsids, we now refer to it more generally as the "capsid vertex-specific component" (CVSC) (S. K. Cockrell et al., J. Virol. 85:4875-4887, 2011). We previously confirmed that UL25 occupies the vertex-distal region of the CVSC density by visualizing a large UL25-specific tag in reconstructions calculated from cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) images. We have pursued the same strategy to determine the capsid location of the UL17 protein. Recombinant viruses were generated that contained either a small tandem affinity purification (TAP) tag or the green fluorescent protein (GFP) attached to the C terminus of UL17. Purification of the TAP-tagged UL17 or a similarly TAP-tagged UL25 protein clearly demonstrated that the two proteins interact. A cryo-EM reconstruction of capsids containing the UL17-GFP protein reveals that UL17 is the second component of the CVSC and suggests that UL17 interfaces with the other CVSC component, UL25, through its C terminus. The portion of UL17 nearest the vertex appears to be poorly constrained, which may provide flexibility in interacting with tegument proteins or the DNA-packaging machinery at the portal vertex. The exposed locations of the UL17 and UL25 proteins on the HSV-1 capsid exterior suggest that they may be attractive targets for highly specific antivirals.
Project description:Systematic tandem-affinity-purification (TAP) of protein complexes was tremendously successful in yeast and has changed the general concept of how we understand protein function in eukaryotic cells. The transfer of this method to other model organisms has been difficult and may require specific adaptations. We were especially interested to establish a cell-type-specific TAP system for Caenorhabditis elegans, a model animal well suited to high-throughput analysis, proteomics and systems biology. By combining the high-affinity interaction between in vivo biotinylated target-proteins and streptavidin with the usage of a newly identified epitope of the publicly shared SB1 monoclonal antibody we created a novel in vivo fluorescent tag, the SnAvi-Tag. We show the versatile application of the SnAvi-Tag in Escherichia coli, vertebrate cells and in C. elegans for tandem affinity purification of protein complexes, western blotting and also for the in vivo sub-cellular localization of labelled proteins.
Project description:We constructed a series of expression vectors for purification of native proteins and protein complexes in Dictyostelium. Protein purification is achieved by either a C-terminal or N-terminal fusion of the protein of choice to the tandem affinity purification (TAP) tag. The TAP tag consists of a protein A tag and a calmodulin binding peptide (CBP) and has been successfully used for purification of native protein complexes from yeast and animal cells. Protein expression is driven by the constitutive actin 15 promoter and the vectors optionally carry additional green- or yellow fluorescent protein (GFP or YFP) tags for fusion at either a C- or N-terminal location. Tandem affinity purification of native Dictyostelium protein complexes was tested by using pArc-34, one of the members of the well characterized Dictyostelium Arp2/3 complex, as bait. After denaturation and SDS-PAGE separation of the pArc-34 associated proteins all members of the Arp2/3 complex could be identified.
Project description:Tandem affinity purification (TAP) is a generic approach for the purification of protein complexes. The key advantage of TAP is the engineering of dual affinity tags that, when attached to the protein of interest, allow purification of the target protein along with its binding partners through two consecutive purification steps. The tandem tag used in the original method consists of two IgG-binding units of protein A from Staphylococcus aureus (ProtA) and the calmodulin-binding peptide (CBP), and it allows for recovery of 20-30% of the bait protein in yeast. When applied to higher eukaryotes, however, this classical TAP tag suffers from low yields. To improve protein recovery in systems other than yeast, we describe herein the development of a three-tag system comprised of CBP, streptavidin-binding peptide (SBP) and hexa-histidine. We illustrate the application of this approach for the purification of human Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), which results in highly efficient binding and elution of bait protein in both purification steps (>50% recovery). Combined with mass spectrometry for protein identification, this TAP strategy facilitated the first nonbiased analysis of Btk interacting proteins. The high efficiency of the SBP-His? purification allows for efficient recovery of protein complexes formed with a target protein of interest from a small amount of starting material, enhancing the ability to detect low abundance and transient interactions in eukaryotic cell systems.
Project description:Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is caused by pathogenic variants in the NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin. Definition of NF1 protein-protein interactions (PPIs) has been difficult and lacks replication, making it challenging to define binding partners that modulate its function. We created a novel tandem affinity purification (TAP) tag cloned in frame to the 3' end of the full-length murine Nf1 cDNA (mNf1). We show that this cDNA is functional and expresses neurofibromin, His-Tag, and can correct p-ERK/ERK ratios in NF1 null HEK293 cells. We used this affinity tag to purify binding partners with Strep-Tactin®XT beads and subsequently, identified them via mass spectrometry (MS). We found the tagged mNf1 can affinity purify human neurofibromin and vice versa, indicating that neurofibromin oligomerizes. We identify 21 additional proteins with high confidence of interaction with neurofibromin. After Metacore network analysis of these 21 proteins, eight appear within the same network, primarily keratins regulated by estrogen receptors. Previously, we have shown that neurofibromin levels negatively regulate keratin expression. Here, we show through pharmacological inhibition that this is independent of Ras signaling, as the inhibitors, selumetinib and rapamycin, do not alter keratin expression. Further characterization of neurofibromin oligomerization and binding partners could aid in discovering new neurofibromin functions outside of Ras regulation, leading to novel drug targets.
Project description:Tandem affinity purification (TAP) is a generic two-step affinity purification protocol for isolation of TAP-tagged proteins together with associated proteins. We used bacterial artificial chromosome to heterologously express TAP-tagged murine Sgo1 protein in human HeLa cells. This allowed us to test the functionality of the Sgo1-TAP protein by RNA interference-mediated depletion of the endogenous human Sgo1. Here, we present an optimized protocol for purification of TAP-tagged Sgo1 protein as well as KIAA1387 from HeLa cells with detailed instructions. The purification protocol can be completed in 1 day and it should be applicable to other proteins.