Microwave-assisted sample preparation for rapid and sensitive analysis of H. pylori lipid A applicable to a single colony.
ABSTRACT: The lipid A of Gram-negative bacteria plays a major role in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. Lipid A diversity is observed both in the number and length of fatty-acid side chains and in the presence of terminal phosphate residues and associated modifications. In this report, we describe a new sample preparation method based on microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion and detergent-free mild hydrolysis, in conjunction with a MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF)/TOF analysis, to determine the structures of lipid A from Helicobacter pylori. The total time for sample preparation and mass spectrometric analysis is within 2 h and applicable to profiling the lipid A structures from dried bacterial cells on as little as 1 microg. The reliability of the technique was further demonstrated through the analysis of the lipid A from bacterial cells of different H. pylori strains. The phosphorylation and acylation patterns of lipid A could be elucidated using material from a single colony. Furthermore, we found unusual heptaacyl lipid A species present in H. pylori mutant that have not been previously reported, although the abundance was relatively low. The present study provides the first characterization of the lipid A component from a single bacterial colony sample by mass spectrometry.
Project description:Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has revolutionized the microbial identification, especially in the clinical microbiology laboratories. However, although numerous studies on the identification of microorganisms by MALDI-TOF MS have been reported previously, few studies focused on the effect of pretreatment on identification. Due to the sensitivity of MALDI-TOF MS, different preparation methods will lead to changes in microbial protein fingerprints. In this study, for evaluating a more appropriate preparation method for the clinical microbiology identification, we analyzed the performance of three sample preparation methods on two different MALDI-TOF MS systems. A total of 321 clinical isolates, 127 species, were employed in the comparative study of three different sample preparation methods including the direct colony transfer method (DCTM), the on-target extraction method (OTEM), and the in-tube extraction method (ITEM) compatible with MALDI-TOF MS. All isolates were tested on the Microflex LT and Autof ms1000 devices. The spectra were analyzed using the Bruker biotyper and the Autof ms1000 systems. The results were confirmed by 16/18S rRNA sequencing. Results reveal that the accuracies of isolates identification by Bruker biotyper successfully identified 83.8%, 96.0%, and 95.3% after performing the DCTM, OTEM, and ITEM, respectively, while the Autof ms1000 identified 97.5%, 100%, and 99.7%. These data suggested that the identification rates are comparable among the three preparation methods using the Autof ms1000 and Bruker microflex LT systems but the OTEM is more suitable and necessary for clinical application, owing to its key advantages of simplicity and accuracy.
Project description:The smooth-to-rough colony morphology shift in Mycobacterium abscessus has been implicated in loss of glycopeptidolipid (GPL), increased pathogenicity, and clinical decline in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, the evolutionary phenotypic and genetic changes remain obscure. Serial isolates from nine non-CF patients with persistent M. abscessus infection were characterized by colony morphology, lipid profile via thin-layer chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), sequencing of eight genes in the GPL locus, and expression level of fadD23, a key gene involved in the biosynthesis of complex lipids. All 50 isolates were typed as M. abscessus subspecies abscessus and were clonally related within each patient. Rough isolates, all lacking GPL, predominated at later disease stages, some showing variation within rough morphology. While most (77%) rough isolates harbored detrimental mutations in mps1 and mps2, 13% displayed previously unreported mutations in mmpL4a and mmpS4, the latter yielding a putative GPL precursor. Two isolates showed no deleterious mutations in any of the eight genes sequenced. Mixed populations harboring different GPL locus mutations were detected in 5 patients, demonstrating clonal diversification, which was likely overlooked by conventional acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture methods. Our work highlights applications of MALDI-TOF MS beyond identification, focusing on mycobacterial lipids relevant in virulence and adaptation. Later isolates displayed accumulation of triacylglycerol and reduced expression of fadD23, sometimes preceding rough colony onset. Our results indicate that clonal diversification and a shift in lipid metabolism, including the loss of GPL, occur during chronic lung infection with M. abscessus. GPL loss alone may not account for all traits associated with rough morphology.
Project description:The rapid identification of existing and emerging respiratory viruses is crucial in combating outbreaks and epidemics. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid and reliable identification method in bacterial diagnostics, but has not been used in virological diagnostics. Mass spectrometry systems have been investigated for the identification of respiratory viruses. However, sample preparation methods were laborious and time-consuming. In this study, a reliable and rapid sample preparation method was developed allowing identification of cultured respiratory viruses. Tenfold serial dilutions of ten cultures influenza A strains, mixed samples of influenza A virus with human metapneumovirus or respiratory syncytial virus, and reconstituted clinical samples were treated with the developed sample preparation method. Subsequently, peptides were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The influenza A strains were identified to the subtype level within 3h with MALDI-TOF MS and 6h with LC-MS/MS, excluding the culturing time. The sensitivity of LC-MS/MS was higher compared to MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, LC-MS/MS was able to discriminate between two viruses in mixed samples and was able to identify virus from reconstituted clinical samples. The development of an improved and rapid sample preparation method allowed generic and rapid identification of cultured respiratory viruses by mass spectrometry.
Project description:Lactobacilli represent a wide range of bacterial species with several implications for the human host. They play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological equilibrium of different biological niches and are essential for fermented food production and probiotic formulation. Despite the consensus about the 'health-promoting' significance of Lactobacillus genus, its genotypic and phenotypic characterization still poses several difficulties. The aim of this study was to assess the integration of different approaches, genotypic (16S rRNA gene sequencing), proteomic (MALDI-TOF MS) and metabolomic (1H-NMR), for the taxonomic and metabolic characterization of Lactobacillus species. For this purpose we analyzed 40 strains of various origin (intestinal, vaginal, food, probiotics), belonging to different species. The high discriminatory power of MALDI-TOF for species identification was underlined by the excellent agreement with the genotypic analysis. Indeed, MALDI-TOF allowed to correctly identify 39 out of 40 Lactobacillus strains at the species level, with an overall concordance of 97.5%. In the perspective to simplify the MALDI TOF sample preparation, especially for routine practice, we demonstrated the perfect agreement of the colony-picking from agar plates with the protein extraction protocol. 1H-NMR analysis, applied to both culture supernatants and bacterial lysates, identified a panel of metabolites whose variations in concentration were associated with the taxonomy, but also revealed a high intra-species variability that did not allow a species-level identification. Therefore, despite not suitable for mere taxonomic purposes, metabolomics can be useful to correlate particular biological activities with taxonomy and to understand the mechanisms related to the antimicrobial effect shown by some Lactobacillus species.
Project description:A single instrument that includes multiple optical channels was developed to simultaneously measure various optical and associated biophysical characteristics of a bacterial colony. The multi-channel device can provide five distinct optical features without the need to transfer the sample to multiple locations or instruments. The available measurement channels are bright-field light microscopy, 3-D colony-morphology map, 2-D spatial optical-density distribution, spectral forward-scattering pattern, and spectral optical density. The series of multiple morphological interrogations is beneficial in understanding the bio-optical features of a bacterial colony and the correlations among them, resulting in an enhanced power of phenotypic bacterial discrimination. To enable a one-shot interrogation, a confocal laser scanning module was built as an add-on to an upright microscope. Three different-wavelength diode lasers were used for the spectral analysis, and high-speed pin photodiodes and CMOS sensors were utilized as detectors to measure the spectral OD and light-scatter pattern. The proposed instrument and algorithms were evaluated with four bacterial genera, Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus; their resulting data provided a more complete picture of the optical characterization of bacterial colonies.
Project description:Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry (MS) imaging has been used for rapid phenotyping of enzymatic activities, but is mainly limited to single-step conversions. Herein we report a label-free method for high-throughput engineering of multistep biochemical reactions based on optically guided MALDI-ToF MS analysis of bacterial colonies. The bacterial cells provide containment of multiple enzymes and access to substrates and cofactors via metabolism. Automated MALDI-ToF MS acquisition from randomly distributed colonies simplifies procedures to prepare strain libraries without liquid handling. MALDI-ToF MS profiling was utilized to screen both substrate and enzyme libraries for natural product biosynthesis. Computational algorithms were developed to process and visualize the resulting mass spectral data sets. For analogues of the peptidic antibiotic plantazolicin, multivariate analyses by t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding were used to group similar spectra for rapid identification of nonisobaric variants. After MALDI-ToF MS screening, follow-up analyses using high-resolution MS and tandem MS were readily performed on the same sample target. Separately, relative ion intensities of rhamnolipid congeners with various lipid moieties were evaluated to engineer enzymatic specificity. The glycolipid profiles of each colony were overlaid with optical images to facilitate the recovery of desirable mutants. For both the antibiotic and rhamnolipid cases, large populations of colonies were rapidly surveyed at the molecular level, providing information-rich insights not easily obtained with traditional screening assays. Utilizing standard microbiological techniques with routine microscopy and MALDI-ToF MS instruments, this simple yet effective workflow is applicable for a wide range of screening campaigns targeting multistep enzymatic reactions.
Project description:Bacteria use a variety of secretion systems to transport proteins beyond their cell membrane to interact with their environment. For bacterial pathogens, these systems are key virulence determinants that transport bacterial proteins into host cells. Genetic screens to identify bacterial genes required for export have relied on enzymatic or fluorescent reporters fused to known substrates to monitor secretion. However, they cannot be used in analysis of all secretion systems, limiting the implementation across bacteria. Here, we introduce the first application of a modified form of whole colony MALDI-TOF MS to directly detect protein secretion from intact bacterial colonies. We show that this method is able to specifically monitor the ESX-1 system protein secretion system, a major virulence determinant in both mycobacterial and Gram-positive pathogens that is refractory to reporter analysis. We validate the use of this technology as a high throughput screening tool by identifying an ESAT-6 system 1-deficient mutant from a Mycobacterium marinum transposon insertion library. Furthermore, we also demonstrate detection of secreted proteins of the prevalent type III secretion system from the Gram-negative pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This method will be broadly applicable to study other bacterial protein export systems and for the identification of compounds that inhibit bacterial protein secretion.
Project description:Due to deposition of birds' guano, eggshells or feathers, the vicinity of a large seabirds' breeding colony is expected to have a substantial impact on the soil's physicochemical features as well as on diversity of vegetation and the soil invertebrates. Consequently, due to changing physicochemical features the structure of bacterial communities might fluctuate in different soil environments. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial assemblages in the Arctic soil within the area of a birds' colony and in a control sample from a topographically similar location but situated away from the colony's impact area. A high number of OTUs found in both areas indicates a highly complex microbial populations structure. The most abundant phyla in both of the tested samples were: Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi, with different proportions in the total share. Despite differences in the physicochemical soil characteristics, the soil microbial community structures at the phylum level were similar to some extent in the two samples. The only share that was significantly higher in the control area when compared to the sample obtained within the birds' colony, belonged to the Actinobacteria phylum. Moreover, when analyzing the class level for each phylum, several differences between the samples were observed. Furthermore, lower proportions of Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were observed in the soil sample under the influence of the bird's colony, which most probably could be linked to higher nitrogen concentrations in that sample.
Project description:Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has entered clinical laboratories, facilitating identification of bacteria. Here, we evaluated the MALDI Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics) for the identification of fastidious Gram-negative rods (GNR). Three sample preparation methods, direct colony transfer, direct transfer plus on-target formic acid preparation, and ethanol-formic acid extraction, were analyzed for 151 clinical isolates. Direct colony transfer applied with the manufacturer's interpretation criteria resulted in overall species and genus identification rates of 43.0% and 32.5%, respectively; 23.2% of the isolates were not identified, and two misidentifications (1.3%) were observed. The species identification rates increased to 46.4% and 53.7% for direct transfer plus formic acid preparation and ethanol-formic acid extraction, respectively. In addition, we evaluated score value cutoff alterations. The identification rates hardly increased by reducing the genus cutoff, while reducing the 2.0 species cutoff to 1.9 and to 1.8 increased the identification rates to up to 66.2% without increasing the rate of misidentifications. This study shows that fastidious GNR can reliably be identified using the MALDI Biotyper. However, the identification rates do not reach those of nonfastidious GNR such as the Enterobacteriaceae. In addition, two approaches optimizing the identification of fastidious GNR by the MALDI Biotyper were demonstrated: formic acid-based on-target sample treatment and reductions in cutoff scores to increase the species identification rates.
Project description:Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been widely used for structural characterization of bacterial endotoxins (lipid A). However, the mass spectrometric behavior of the lipid A molecule is highly dependent on the matrix. Furthermore, this dependence is strongly linked to phosphorylation patterns. Using lipid A from Escherichia coli O116 as a model system, we have investigated the effects of different matrices and comatrix compounds on the analysis of lipid A. In this paper, we report a highly sensitive matrix system for lipid A analysis, which consists of 5-chloro-2-mercaptobenzothiazole matrix and EDTA ammonium salt comatrix. This matrix system enhances the sensitivity of the analysis of diphosphorylated lipid A species by more than 100-fold and in addition provides tolerance to high concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and tolerance to sodium chloride and calcium chloride at 10 muM, 100 muM, and 10 muM concentrations. The method was further evaluated for analysis of lipid A species with different phosphorylation patterns and from different bacteria, including Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella enterica serovar Riogrande, and Francisella novicida.