Gemfibrozil inhibits Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl coenzyme A reductases and blocks intracellular growth of these bacteria in macrophages.
ABSTRACT: We report here that gemfibrozil (GFZ) inhibits axenic and intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila and of 27 strains of wild-type and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bacteriological medium and in human and mouse macrophages, respectively. At a concentration of 0.4 mM, GFZ completely inhibited L. pneumophila fatty acid synthesis, while at 0.12 mM it promoted cytoplasmic accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate. To assess the mechanism(s) of these effects, we cloned an L. pneumophila FabI enoyl reductase homolog that complemented for growth an Escherichia coli strain carrying a temperature-sensitive enoyl reductase and rendered the complemented E. coli strain sensitive to GFZ at the nonpermissive temperature. GFZ noncompetitively inhibited this L. pneumophila FabI homolog, as well as M. tuberculosis InhA and E. coli FabI.
Project description:We report here on the identification and characterization of novel 2-enoyl thioester reductases of fatty acid metabolism, Etr1p from Candida tropicalis and its homolog Ybr026p (Mrf1'p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Overexpression of these proteins in S. cerevisiae led to the development of significantly enlarged mitochondria, whereas deletion of the S. cerevisiae YBR026c gene resulted in rudimentary mitochondria with decreased contents of cytochromes and a respiration-deficient phenotype. Immunolocalization and in vivo targeting experiments showed these proteins to be predominantly mitochondrial. Mitochondrial targeting was essential for complementation of the mutant phenotype, since targeting of the reductases to other subcellular locations failed to reestablish respiratory growth. The mutant phenotype was also complemented by a mitochondrially targeted FabI protein from Escherichia coli. FabI represents a nonhomologous 2-enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase that participates in the last step of the type II fatty acid synthesis. This indicated that 2-enoyl thioester reductase activity was critical for the mitochondrial function. We conclude that Etr1p and Ybr026p are novel 2-enoyl thioester reductases required for respiration and the maintenance of the mitochondrial compartment, putatively acting in mitochondrial synthesis of fatty acids.
Project description:We recently used a synthetic/bottom-up approach to establish the identity of the four enzymes composing an engineered functional reversal of the -oxidation cycle for fuel and chemical production in Escherichia coli (J. M. Clomburg, J. E. Vick, M. D. Blankschien, M. Rodriguez-Moya, and R. Gonzalez, ACS Synth Biol 1:541–554, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/sb3000782).While native enzymes that catalyze the first three steps of the pathway were identified, the identity of the native enzyme(s) acting as the trans-enoyl coenzyme A (CoA) reductase(s) remained unknown, limiting the amount of product that could be synthesized (e.g., 0.34 g/liter butyrate) and requiring the overexpression of a foreign enzyme (the Euglena gracilis trans-enoyl-CoA reductase [EgTER]) to achieve high titers (e.g., 3.4 g/liter butyrate). Here, we examine several native E. coli enzymes hypothesized to catalyze the reduction of enoyl-CoAs to acyl-CoAs. Our results indicate that FabI, the native enoyl-acyl carrier protein (enoyl-ACP) reductase (ENR) from type II fatty acid biosynthesis, possesses sufficient NADH-dependent TER activity to support the efficient operation of a -oxidation reversal. Overexpression of FabI proved as effective as EgTER for the production of butyrate and longer-chain carboxylic acids. Given the essential nature of fabI, we investigated whether bacterial ENRs from other families were able to complement a fabI deletion without promiscuous reduction of crotonyl-CoA. These characteristics from Bacillus subtilis FabL enabled deltaffabI complementation experiments that conclusively established that FabI encodes a native enoyl-CoA reductase activity that supports the ?-oxidation reversal in E. coli.
Project description:Enoyl-acyl carrier protein (enoyl-ACP) reductase catalyzes the last step of the elongation cycle in the synthesis of bacterial fatty acids. The Enterococcus faecalis genome contains two genes annotated as enoyl-ACP reductases, a FabI-type enoyl-ACP reductase and a FabK-type enoyl-ACP reductase. We report that expression of either of the two proteins restores growth of an Escherichia coli fabI temperature-sensitive mutant strain under nonpermissive conditions. In vitro assays demonstrated that both proteins support fatty acid synthesis and are active with substrates of all fatty acid chain lengths. Although expression of E. faecalis fabK confers to E. coli high levels of resistance to the antimicrobial triclosan, deletion of fabK from the E. faecalis genome showed that FabK does not play a detectable role in the inherent triclosan resistance of E. faecalis. Indeed, FabK seems to play only a minor role in modulating fatty acid composition. Strains carrying a deletion of fabK grow normally without fatty acid supplementation, whereas fabI deletion mutants make only traces of fatty acids and are unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophs.The finding that exogenous fatty acids support growth of E. faecalis strains defective in fatty acid synthesis indicates that inhibitors of fatty acid synthesis are ineffective in countering E. faecalis infections because host serum fatty acids support growth of the bacterium.
Project description:Three Mycobacterium smegmatis mutants selected for resistance to triclosan each had a different mutation in InhA, an enoyl reductase involved in fatty acid synthesis. Two expressed some isoniazid resistance. A mutation originally selected on isoniazid also mediated triclosan resistance, as did the wild-type inhA gene on a multicopy plasmid. Replacement of the mutant chromosomal inhA genes with wild-type inhA eliminated resistance. These results suggest that M. smegmatis InhA, like its Escherichia coli homolog FabI, is a target for triclosan.
Project description:The Pseudomonas aeruginosa fabI structural gene, encoding enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase, was cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that fabI is probably the last gene in a transcriptional unit that includes a gene encoding an ATP-binding protein of an ABC transporter of unknown function. The FabI protein was similar in size and primary sequence to other bacterial enoyl-ACP reductases, and it contained signature motifs for the FAD-dependent pyridine nucleotide reductase and glucose/ribitol dehydrogenase families, respectively. The chromosomal fabI gene was disrupted, and the resulting mutant was viable but possessed only 62% of the total enoyl-ACP reductase activity found in wild-type cell extracts. The fabI-encoded enoyl-ACP reductase activity was NADH dependent and inhibited by triclosan; the residual activity in the fabI mutant was also NADH dependent but not inhibited by triclosan. An polyhistidine-tagged FabI protein was purified and characterized. Purified FabI (i) could use NADH but not NADPH as a cofactor; (ii) used both crotonyl-coenzyme A and crotonyl-ACP as substrates, although it was sixfold more active with crotonyl-ACP; and (iii) was efficiently inhibited by low concentrations of triclosan. A FabI Gly95-to-Val active-site amino acid substitution was generated by site-directed mutagenesis, and the mutant protein was purified. The mutant FabI protein retained normal enoyl-ACP reductase activity but was highly triclosan resistant. When coupled to FabI, purified P. aeruginosa N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) synthase, RhlI, could synthesize C4-HSL from crotonyl-ACP and S-adenosylmethionine. This reaction was NADH dependent and inhibited by triclosan. The levels of C4-HSL and N-(3-oxo)-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactones were reduced 50% in a fabI mutant, corroborating the role of FabI in acylated homoserine lactone synthesis in vivo.
Project description:During fatty-acid biosynthesis, enoyl-acyl carrier protein (enoyl-ACP) reductase catalyzes the reduction of trans-2-enoyl-ACP to fully saturated acyl-ACP via the ubiquitous fatty-acid synthase system. NADH-dependent enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been purified and crystallized as an apoenzyme and in a complex form with NADH and triclosan. Triclosan is an inhibitor of FabI and forms a stable ternary complex in the presence of NADH. The crystals of native and complexed FabI diffracted to resolutions of 2.6 and 1.8?Å, respectively. The crystals both belonged to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 117.32, b = 155.844, c = 129.448?Å, ? = 111.061° for the native enzyme and a = 64.784, b = 107.573, c = 73.517?Å, ? = 116.162° for the complex. Preliminary molecular replacement further confirmed the presence of four tetramers of native FabI and one tetramer of the complex in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to Matthews coefficients (V(M)) of 2.46 and 2.05?Å(3)?Da(-1) and solvent contents of 50.1 and 40.1%, respectively.
Project description:The major phospholipid classes of the obligate intracellular bacterial parasite Chlamydia trachomatis are the same as its eukaryotic host except that they also contain chlamydia-made branched-chain fatty acids in the 2-position. Genomic analysis predicts that C. trachomatis is capable of type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII). AFN-1252 was deployed as a chemical tool to specifically inhibit the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) of C. trachomatis to determine whether chlamydial FASII is essential for replication within the host. The C. trachomatis FabI (CtFabI) is a homotetramer and exhibited typical FabI kinetics, and its expression complemented an Escherichia coli fabI(Ts) strain. AFN-1252 inhibited CtFabI by binding to the FabI·NADH complex with an IC50 of 0.9 ?M at saturating substrate concentration. The x-ray crystal structure of the CtFabI·NADH·AFN-1252 ternary complex revealed the specific interactions between the drug, protein, and cofactor within the substrate binding site. AFN-1252 treatment of C. trachomatis-infected HeLa cells at any point in the infectious cycle caused a decrease in infectious titers that correlated with a decrease in branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. AFN-1252 treatment at the time of infection prevented the first cell division of C. trachomatis, although the cell morphology suggested differentiation into a metabolically active reticulate body. These results demonstrate that FASII activity is essential for C. trachomatis proliferation within its eukaryotic host and validate CtFabI as a therapeutic target against C. trachomatis.
Project description:The enoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) (ACP) reductase catalyses the last step in each cycle of fatty acid elongation in the type II fatty acid synthase systems. An extensively characterized NADH-dependent reductase, FabI, is widely distributed in bacteria and plants, whereas the enoyl-ACP reductase, FabK, is a distinctly different member of this enzyme group discovered in Streptococcus pneumoniae. We were unable to delete the fabK gene from Strep. pneumoniae, suggesting that this is the only enoyl-ACP reductase in this organism. The FabK enzyme was purified and the biochemical properties of the reductase were examined. The visible absorption spectrum of the purified protein indicated the presence of a flavin cofactor that was identified as FMN by MS, and was present in a 1:1 molar ratio with protein. FabK specifically required NADH and the protein activity was stimulated by ammonium ions. FabK also exhibited NADH oxidase activity in the absence of substrate. Strep. pneumoniae belongs to the Bacillus / Lactobacillus / Streptococcus group that includes Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. These two organisms also contain FabK-related genes, suggesting that they may also express a FabK-like enoyl-ACP reductase. However, the genes did not complement a fabI (Ts) mutant and the purified flavoproteins were unable to reduce enoyl-ACP in vitro and did not exhibit NAD(P)H oxidase activity, indicating they were not enoyl-ACP reductases. The restricted occurrence of the FabK enoyl-ACP reductase may be related to the role of substrate-independent NADH oxidation in oxygen-dependent anaerobic energy metabolism.
Project description:Bacterial enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) is a promising novel antibacterial target. We isolated a new class of FabI inhibitor from Penicillium chrysogenum, which produces various antibiotics, the mechanisms of some of them are unknown. The isolated FabI inhibitor was determined to be meleagrin by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses, and its more active and inactive derivatives were chemically prepared. Consistent with their selective inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus FabI, meleagrin and its more active derivatives directly bound to S. aureus FabI in a fluorescence quenching assay, inhibited intracellular fatty acid biosynthesis and growth of S. aureus, and increased the minimum inhibitory concentration for fabI-overexpressing S. aureus. The compounds that were not effective against the FabK isoform, however, inhibited the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae that contained only the FabK isoform. Additionally no resistant mutant to the compounds was obtained. Importantly, fabK-overexpressing Escherichia coli was not resistant to these compounds, but was resistant to triclosan. These results demonstrate that the compounds inhibited another target in addition to FabI. Thus, meleagrin is a new class of FabI inhibitor with at least one additional mode of action that could have potential for treating multidrug-resistant bacteria.
Project description:Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) is the limiting step to complete the elongation cycle in type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) systems and is a relevant target for antibacterial drugs. E. coli FabI has been employed as a model to develop new inhibitors against FAS, especially triclosan and diphenyl ether derivatives. Chemical similarity models (CSM) were used to understand which features were relevant for FabI inhibition. Exhaustive screening of different CSM parameter combinations featured chemical groups, such as the hydroxy group, as relevant to distinguish between active/decoy compounds. Those chemical features can interact with the catalytic Tyr156. Further molecular dynamics simulation of FabI revealed the ionization state as a relevant for ligand stability. Also, our models point the balance between potency and the occupancy of the hydrophobic pocket. This work discusses the strengths and weak points of each technique, highlighting the importance of complementarity among approaches to elucidate EcFabI inhibitor's binding mode and offers insights for future drug discovery.