Genome sequence of the emerging pathogen Helicobacter canadensis.
ABSTRACT: We determined the genome sequence of the type strain of Helicobacter canadensis, an emerging human pathogen with diverse animal reservoirs. Potential virulence determinants carried by the genome include systems for N-linked glycosylation and capsular export. A protein-based phylogenetic analysis places H. canadensis close to Wolinella succinogenes.
Project description:Forty-two Helicobacter isolates were isolated from swine feces in The Netherlands and Denmark. All 12 isolates sequenced (16S rRNA gene) formed a robust clade with Helicobacter canadensis ( approximately 99% similarity). Species-specific PCR indicated that all of the isolates were H. canadensis isolates. Although the appearance of the porcine isolates was similar to the appearance of H. canadensis, only one of these isolates was able to hydrolyze indoxyl acetate, a cardinal characteristic of this taxon. Examination of the 23S rRNA and hsp60 genes revealed high levels of similarity between the porcine isolates and H. canadensis. However, amplified fragment length polymorphism genomic typing showed that isolates recovered from swine feces were genetically distinct from H. canadensis strains obtained from humans and geese.
Project description:We recently analyzed 11 helicobacter isolates cultured from diarrhea patients in Canada. These isolates had been characterized biochemically by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP; AluI, HhaI) analysis and by fatty-acid analysis as Helicobacter pullorum. However, four of the isolates differed biochemically from H. pullorum by their inability to hydrolyze indoxyl acetate and their resistance to nalidixic acid. Using complete 16S rRNA analysis, we determined that these four strains clustered near H. pullorum but had a sequence difference of 2% and therefore represent a novel helicobacter, Helicobacter canadensis. This novel helicobacter could also be distinguished from H. pullorum by RFLP analysis using ApaLI. The number of novel Helicobacter spp. associated with gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals is rapidly increasing. There are now six Helicobacter spp. isolated from diarrheic humans, the other five being H. pullorum, H. canis, "H. rappini," H. fennelliae, and H. cinaedi. This finding highlights the importance of careful molecular analysis in addition to standard biochemical tests in identifying the increasing number of Helicobacter spp. isolated from humans and animals.
Project description:The epsilon-proteobacteria Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni are both human pathogens. They colonize mucosal surfaces causing severe diseases. The membrane protein complex QFR (quinol:fumarate reductase) from H. pylori has previously been established as a potential drug target, and the same is likely for the QFR from C. jejuni. In the present paper, we describe the cloning of the QFR operons from the two pathogenic bacteria H. pylori and C. jejuni and their expression in Wolinella succinogenes, a non-pathogenic -proteobacterium. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of heterologous membrane protein production in W. succinogenes. We demonstrate that the replacement of the homologous enzyme from W. succinogenes with the heterologous enzymes yields mutants where fumarate respiration is fully functional. We have isolated and characterized the heterologous QFR enzymes. The high quality of the enzyme preparation enabled us to determine unequivocally by analytical ultracentrifugation the homodimeric state of the three detergent-solubilized heterotrimeric QFR enzymes, to accurately determine the different oxidation-reduction ('redox') midpoint potentials of the six prosthetic groups, the Michaelis constants for the quinol substrate, maximal enzymatic activities and the characterization of three different anti-helminths previously suggested to be inhibitors of the QFR enzymes from H. pylori and C. jejuni. This characterization allows, for the first time, a detailed comparison of the QFR enzymes from C. jejuni and H. pylori with that of W. succinogenes.
Project description:We describe the first case of gastritis in a male Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) in which members of the family Helicobacteraceae, particularly the genus Wolinella, were detected. The sea lion exhibited clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease, including abdominal pain, lack of appetite, and lethargy. Examination of one ileal and five gastric biopsy specimens collected over a 10-year period revealed persistent fibrosis and/or superficial focal erosion and ulceration of the lamina propria. Spiral-shaped organisms 5 to 12 microm long were observed in two of the gut biopsy specimens. While Helicobacter species were detected by PCR in one of the gastric biopsy specimens, Wolinella species were detected in four of the five gastric specimens, including those in which spiral-shaped organisms were observed. Comparisons of biopsy specimen ribosomal DNA sequences with those obtained from the feces of this animal, the gastric tissue of a clinically healthy individual, and the feces of several other cohoused sea lions and fur seals revealed a separate and possibly novel gastric Helicobacter species. A possibly novel Wolinella species, along with Wolinella succinogenes, was also identified. These findings highlight the pathogenic potential of other members of this family in the etiopathogenesis of gastric disease in these animals.
Project description:A protein of Mr 26,000 which was present in large quantities in extracts of cells of Helicobacter pylori was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by gel filtration and reversed-phase chromatography or anion-exchange chromatography. The protein appeared to be associated with the soluble fraction of the cell, and antibodies raised against the protein were reactive with whole-cell lysates of a variety of H. pylori strains in a simple immunodot blot assay. This reaction was species specific. Protein sequence determination of the amino terminus and internal cyanogen bromide fragments and amino acid composition analysis were performed. An oligonucleotide derived from these data was used to clone a fragment encoding most of the coding sequence. Expression in Escherichia coli was dependent on vector promoters. The DNA sequence of the fragment was determined. DNA probes derived from the cloned fragment hybridized to genomic DNA of all H. pylori strains tested, but not to DNAs of Helicobacter mustelae, Wolinella succinogenes, various Campylobacter species, and a panel of gram-negative enteric bacteria. The apparent uniqueness of this protein may be exploited for the development of species-specific diagnostics for this gastric pathogen.
Project description:To understand the origin and emergence of pathogenic bacteria, knowledge of the genetic inventory from their nonpathogenic relatives is a prerequisite. Therefore, the 2.11-megabase genome sequence of Wolinella succinogenes, which is closely related to the pathogenic bacteria Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni, was determined. Despite being considered nonpathogenic to its bovine host, W. succinogenes holds an extensive repertoire of genes homologous to known bacterial virulence factors. Many of these genes have been acquired by lateral gene transfer, because part of the virulence plasmid pVir and an N-linked glycosylation gene cluster were found to be syntenic between C. jejuni and genomic islands of W. succinogenes. In contrast to other host-adapted bacteria, W. succinogenes does harbor the highest density of bacterial sensor kinases found in any bacterial genome to date, together with an elaborate signaling circuitry of the GGDEF family of proteins. Because the analysis of the W. succinogenes genome also revealed genes related to soil- and plant-associated bacteria such as the nif genes, W. succinogenes may represent a member of the epsilon proteobacteria with a life cycle outside its host.
Project description:Helicobacter canadensis is an emerging human pathogen and zoonotic agent. The genome of H. canadensis was sequenced previously and determined to contain 29 annotated coding regions associated with homopolymeric tracts.Twenty-one of the repeat-associated coding regions were determined to be potentially transcriptionally or translationally phase variable. In each case the homopolymeric tract was within the predicted promoter region or at the 5' end of the coding region, respectively. However, eight coding sequences were identified with simple sequence repeats toward the 3' end of the open reading frame. In these cases, the repeat tract would be too far into the coding region to be mediating translational phase variation. All of the 29 coding region-associated homopolymeric tracts display variability in tract length in the sequencing read data.Twenty-nine coding regions have been identified in the genome sequence of Helicobacter canadensis strain NCTC13241 that show variations in homopolymeric tract length in the bacterial population, indicative of phase variation. Five of these are potentially associated with promoter regions, which would lead to transcriptional phase variation. Translational phase variation usually switches expression of a gene ON and OFF due to the repeat region being located sufficiently close to the initiation codon for the resulting frame-shift to lead to a premature termination codon and stop the translation of the protein. Sixteen of the 29 coding regions have homopolymeric tracts characteristic of translational phase variation. For eight coding sequences with repeats located later in the reading frame, changes in the repeat tract length would alter the protein sequence at the C-terminus but not stop the expression of the protein. This mechanism of C-terminal phase variation has implications for stochastic switching of protein sequence in bacterial species that already undergo transcriptional and translational phase variation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The epsilon proteobacteria, which include many important human pathogens, are presently recognized solely on the basis of their branching in rRNA trees. No unique molecular or biochemical characteristics specific for this group are known. RESULTS: Comparative analyses of proteins in the genomes of Wolinella succinogenes DSM 1740 and Campylobacter jejuni RM1221 against all available sequences have identified a large number of proteins that are unique to various epsilon proteobacteria (Campylobacterales), but whose homologs are not detected in other organisms. Of these proteins, 49 are uniquely found in nearly all sequenced epsilon-proteobacteria (viz. Helicobacter pylori (26695 and J99), H. hepaticus, C. jejuni (NCTC 11168, RM1221, HB93-13, 84-25, CF93-6, 260.94, 11168 and 81-176), C. lari, C. coli, C. upsaliensis, C. fetus, W. succinogenes DSM 1740 and Thiomicrospira denitrificans ATCC 33889), 11 are unique for the Wolinella and Helicobacter species (i.e. Helicobacteraceae family) and many others are specific for either some or all of the species within the Campylobacter genus. The primary sequences of many of these proteins are highly conserved and provide novel resources for diagnostics and therapeutics. We also report four conserved indels (i.e. inserts or deletions) in widely distributed proteins (viz. B subunit of exinuclease ABC, phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, RNA polymerase beta '-subunit and FtsH protein) that are specific for either all epsilon proteobacteria or different subgroups. In addition, a rare genetic event that caused fusion of the genes for the largest subunits of RNA polymerase (rpoB and rpoC) in Wolinella and Helicobacter is also described. The inter-relationships amongst Campylobacterales as deduced from these molecular signatures are in accordance with the phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA and concatenated sequences for nine conserved proteins. CONCLUSION: These molecular signatures provide novel tools for identifying and circumscribing species from the Campylobacterales order and its subgroups in molecular terms. Although sequence information for these signatures is presently limited to Campylobacterales species, it is likely that many of them will also be found in other epsilon proteobacteria. Functional studies on these proteins and conserved indels should reveal novel biochemical or physiological characteristics that are unique to these groups of epsilon proteobacteria.
Project description:Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences has become the primary method for determining prokaryotic phylogeny. Phylogeny is currently the basis for prokaryotic systematics. Therefore, the validity of 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analyses is of fundamental importance for prokaryotic systematics. Discrepancies between 16S rRNA gene analyses and DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic analyses have been noted in the genus Helicobacter. To clarify these discrepancies, we sequenced the 23S rRNA genes for 55 helicobacter strains representing 41 taxa (>2,700 bases per sequence). Phylogenetic-tree construction using neighbor-joining, parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods for 23S rRNA gene sequence data yielded stable trees which were consistent with other phenotypic and genotypic methods. The 16S rRNA gene sequence-derived trees were discordant with the 23S rRNA gene trees and other data. Discrepant 16S rRNA gene sequence data for the helicobacters are consistent with the horizontal transfer of 16S rRNA gene fragments and the creation of mosaic molecules with loss of phylogenetic information. These results suggest that taxonomic decisions must be supported by other phylogenetically informative macromolecules, such as the 23S rRNA gene, when 16S rRNA gene-derived phylogeny is discordant with other credible phenotypic and genotypic methods. This study found Wolinella succinogenes to branch with the unsheathed-flagellum cluster of helicobacters by 23S rRNA gene analyses and whole-genome comparisons. This study also found intervening sequences (IVSs) in the 23S rRNA genes of strains of 12 Helicobacter species. IVSs were found in helices 10, 25, and 45, as well as between helices 31' and 27'. Simultaneous insertion of IVSs at three sites was found in H. mesocricetorum.
Project description:Helicobacter species are important pathogens and previous studies in mice suggested a link between colonization by Helicobacter hepaticus (H. hepaticus) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed at corroborating this potential link in human patients. We used a sensitive and specific Helicobacter ssp PCR assay to screen stool samples from a collective of patients with viral-induced HCC (hepatitis B or hepatitis C) and a control group for presence of Helicobacter ssp DNA. Although retrieving DNA of H. pylori and H. canadensis from stool samples of non-HCC patients, we found no evidence indicating the presence of H. hepaticus in HCC-patients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Interestingly we found H. canadensis in a stool sample of a patient presenting with diarrhea. Taken together, our data argue against a pathogenic role of H. hepaticus in viral-induced HCC. Yet, our results do not exclude a role of H. hepaticus in those HCC cases caused by other carcinogens, such as aflatoxin. Moreover, we speculate that H. canadensis might be a novel gastrointestinal pathogen.