Mechanisms of regulation of RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription by TORC1.
ABSTRACT: We have found earlier that Tor1 binds to 5S rDNA chromatin but the functional significance has not been established. Here, we show that association with 5S rDNA chromatin is necessary for TOR complex 1 (TORC1) to regulate the synthesis of 5S ribosomal RNA and transfer RNAs (tRNAs) by RNA polymerase (Pol) III, as well as the phosphorylation and binding to Pol III-transcribed genes of the Pol III repressor Maf1. Interestingly, TORC1 does not bind to tRNA genes, suggesting that TORC1 modulates tRNA synthesis indirectly through Maf1 phosphorylation at the rDNA loci. We also find that Maf1 cytoplasmic localization is dependent on the SSD1-v allele. In W303 cells that carry the SSD1-d allele, Maf1 is constitutively nuclear but its nucleolar localization is inhibited by TORC1, indicating that TORC1 regulates nucleoplasm-to-nucleolus transport of Maf1. Finally, we show that TORC1 interacts with Maf1 in vivo and phosphorylates Maf1 in vitro, and regulates Maf1 nucleoplasm-to-nucleolus translocation. Together, these observations provide new insights into the chromatin-dependent mechanism by which TORC1 controls transcription by Pol III.
Project description:PWP1 is a chromatin binding protein with an important role in animal growth control downstream of mTOR-mediated nutrient sensing. PWP1 has been shown to control tissue growth by promoting the transcription of 5.8S, 18S and 28S ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). Concomitantly with Pol I, RNA Polymerase III (Pol III) contributes to ribosome biogenesis by transcribing 5S rRNA in the nucleoplasm. Pol III activity is also closely controlled by nutrient-dependent signaling, however, how the activities of Pol I and Pol III are coordinated in response to nutrient-derived signals remains insufficiently understood. Experiments in Drosophila larvae and human cells reported here show that PWP1 associates with the chromatin at the 5S rDNA loci and is needed for nutrient-induced expression of 5S rRNA. Similar to the Pol I target rDNAs, PWP1 epigenetically maintains 5S rDNA in a transcription competent state. Thus, as a common regulator of Pol I and Pol III, PWP1 might contribute to coordinated control of ribosomal gene expression in response to nutrition.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
Project description:Synthesis of tRNA and 5S rRNA by RNA polymerase (pol) III is regulated by the mTOR pathway in mammalian cells. The mTOR kinase localizes to tRNA and 5S rRNA genes, providing an opportunity for direct control. Its presence at these sites can be explained by interaction with TFIIIC, a DNA-binding factor that recognizes the promoters of these genes. TFIIIC contains a TOR signaling motif that facilitates its association with mTOR. Maf1, a repressor that binds and inhibits pol III, is phosphorylated in a mTOR-dependent manner both in vitro and in vivo at serine 75, a site that contributes to its function as a transcriptional inhibitor. Proximity ligation assays confirm the interaction of mTOR with Maf1 and TFIIIC in nuclei. In contrast to Maf1 regulation in yeast, no evidence is found for nuclear export of Maf1 in response to mTOR signaling in HeLa cells. We conclude that mTOR associates with TFIIIC, is recruited to pol III-transcribed genes, and relieves their repression by Maf1.
Project description:MAF1 represses Pol III-mediated transcription by interfering with TFIIIB and Pol III. Herein, we found that MAF1 knockdown induced CDKN1A transcription and chromatin looping concurrently with Pol III recruitment. Simultaneous knockdown of MAF1 with Pol III or BRF1 (subunit of TFIIIB) diminished the activation and looping effect, which indicates that recruiting Pol III was required for activation of Pol II-mediated transcription and chromatin looping. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analysis after MAF1 knockdown indicated enhanced binding of Pol III and BRF1, as well as of CFP1, p300, and PCAF, which are factors that mediate active histone marks, along with the binding of TATA binding protein (TBP) and POLR2E to the CDKN1A promoter. Simultaneous knockdown with Pol III abolished these regulatory events. Similar results were obtained for GDF15. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which MAF1 and Pol III regulate the activity of a protein-coding gene transcribed by Pol II.
Project description:MAF1 represses Pol III-mediated transcription by interfering with TFIIIB and Pol III. Herein, we found that MAF1 knockdown induced CDKN1A transcription and chromatin looping concurrently with Pol III recruitment. Simultaneous knockdown of MAF1 with Pol III or BRF1 (subunit of TFIIIB) diminished the activation and looping effect, which indicates that recruiting Pol III was required for activation of Pol II-mediated transcription and chromatin looping. ChIP analysis after MAF1 knockdown indicated enhanced binding of Pol III and BRF1, as well as of CFP1, p300, and PCAF, which are factors that mediate active histone marks, along with the binding of TBP and POLR2E to the CDKN1A promoter. Simultaneous knockdown with Pol III abolished these regulatory events. Similar results were obtained for GDF15. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which MAF1 and Pol III regulate the activity of a protein-coding gene transcribed by Pol II. Knockdown assay was performed using siRNA obtained from MISSION®RNA (Sigma). Inhibition of expression of Pol III (SASI_Hs01_00046568) and MAF1 (SASI_Hs01_00135954) was achieved by transfection with LipofectamineTM RNAiMax (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. MISSION® siRNA Universal Negative Control (Sigma) was used as knockdown control. Cells were transfected in serum-free medium. After 8 h, the siRNA containing medium was replaced with complete medium.
Project description:RNA polymerase III (Pol III) synthesizes short noncoding RNAs, many of which are essential for translation. Accordingly, Pol III activity is tightly regulated with cell growth and proliferation by factors such as MYC, RB1, TRP53, and MAF1. MAF1 is a repressor of Pol III transcription whose activity is controlled by phosphorylation; in particular, it is inactivated through phosphorylation by the TORC1 kinase complex, a sensor of nutrient availability. Pol III regulation is thus sensitive to environmental cues, yet a diurnal profile of Pol III transcription activity is so far lacking. Here, we first use gene expression arrays to measure mRNA accumulation during the diurnal cycle in the livers of (1) wild-type mice, (2) arrhythmic Arntl knockout mice, (3) mice fed at regular intervals during both night and day, and (4) mice lacking the Maf1 gene, and so provide a comprehensive view of the changes in cyclic mRNA accumulation occurring in these different systems. We then show that Pol III occupancy of its target genes rises before the onset of the night, stays high during the night, when mice normally ingest food and when translation is known to be increased, and decreases in daytime. Whereas higher Pol III occupancy during the night reflects a MAF1-dependent response to feeding, the rise of Pol III occupancy before the onset of the night reflects a circadian clock-dependent response. Thus, Pol III transcription during the diurnal cycle is regulated both in response to nutrients and by the circadian clock, which allows anticipatory Pol III transcription.
Project description:Nutrient deprivation and various stress conditions repress RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription in S. cerevisiae. The signaling pathways that relay stress and nutrient conditions converge on the conserved protein Maf1, but how Maf1 integrates environmental conditions and couples them to transcriptional repression is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Maf1 is phosphorylated in favorable conditions, whereas diverse unfavorable conditions lead to rapid Maf1 dephosphorylation, nuclear localization, physical association of dephosphorylated Maf1 with Pol III, and Maf1 targeting to Pol III-transcribed genes genome wide. Furthermore, Maf1 mutants defective in full dephosphorylation display maf1Delta phenotypes and are compromised for both nuclear localization and Pol III association. Repression conditions also promote TFIIIB-TFIIIC interactions in crosslinked chromatin. Taken together, Maf1 appears to integrate environmental conditions and signaling pathways through its phosphorylation state, with stress leading to dephosphorylation, association with Pol III at target loci, alterations in basal factor interactions, and transcriptional repression.
Project description:As a master negative regulator of RNA polymerase (Pol) III, Maf1 modulates transcription in response to nutrients and stress to balance the production of highly abundant tRNAs, 5S rRNA, and other small noncoding RNAs with cell growth and maintenance. This regulation of Pol III transcription is important for energetic economy as mice lacking Maf1 are lean and resist weight gain on normal and high fat diets. The lean phenotype of Maf1 knockout (KO) mice is attributed in part to metabolic inefficiencies which increase the demand for cellular energy and elevate catabolic processes, including autophagy/lipophagy and lipolysis. A futile RNA cycle involving increased synthesis and turnover of Pol III transcripts has been proposed as an important driver of these changes. Here, using targeted metabolomics, we find changes in the liver of fed and fasted Maf1 KO mice consistent with the function of mammalian Maf1 as a chronic Pol III repressor. Differences in long-chain acylcarnitine levels suggest that energy demand is higher in the fed state of Maf1 KO mice versus the fasted state. Quantitative metabolite profiling supports increased activity in the TCA cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the urea cycle and reveals changes in nucleotide levels and the creatine system. Metabolite profiling also confirms key predictions of the futile RNA cycle hypothesis by identifying changes in many metabolites involved in nucleotide synthesis and turnover. Thus, constitutively high levels of Pol III transcription in Maf1 KO mice reprogram central metabolic pathways and waste metabolic energy through a futile RNA cycle.
Project description:The production of ribosomes and tRNAs for protein synthesis has a high energetic cost and is under tight transcriptional control to ensure that the level of RNA synthesis is balanced with nutrient availability and the prevailing environmental conditions. In the RNA polymerase (pol) III system in yeast, nutrients and stress affect transcription through a bifurcated signaling pathway in which protein kinase A (PKA) and TORC1 activity directly or indirectly, through downstream kinases, alter the phosphorylation state and function of the Maf1 repressor and Rpc53, a TFIIF-like subunit of the polymerase. However, numerous lines of evidence suggest greater complexity in the regulatory network including the phosphoregulation of other pol III components. To address this issue, we systematically examined all 17 subunits of pol III along with the three subunits of the initiation factor TFIIIB for evidence of differential phosphorylation in response to inhibition of TORC1. A relatively high stoichiometry of phosphorylation was observed for several of these proteins and the Rpc82 subunit of the polymerase and the Bdp1 subunit of TFIIIB were found to be differentially phosphorylated. Bdp1 is phosphorylated on four major sites during exponential growth and the protein is variably dephosphorylated under conditions that inhibit tRNA gene transcription. PKA, the TORC1-regulated kinase Sch9 and protein kinase CK2 are all implicated in the phosphorylation of Bdp1. Alanine substitutions at the four phosphosites cause hyper-repression of transcription indicating that phosphorylation of Bdp1 opposes Maf1-mediated repression. The new findings suggest an integrated regulatory model for signaling events controlling pol III transcription.
Project description:Three distinct RNA polymerases transcribe different classes of genes in the eukaryotic nucleus. RNA polymerase (Pol) III is the essential, evolutionarily conserved enzyme that generates short, non-coding RNAs, including tRNAs and 5S rRNA. The historical focus on transcription of protein-coding genes has left the roles of Pol III in organismal physiology relatively unexplored. Target of rapamycin kinase complex 1 (TORC1) regulates Pol III activity, and is also an important determinant of longevity. This raises the possibility that Pol III is involved in ageing. Here we show that Pol III limits lifespan downstream of TORC1. We find that a reduction in Pol III extends chronological lifespan in yeast and organismal lifespan in worms and flies. Inhibiting the activity of Pol III in the gut of adult worms or flies is sufficient to extend lifespan; in flies, longevity can be achieved by Pol III inhibition specifically in intestinal stem cells. The longevity phenotype is associated with amelioration of age-related gut pathology and functional decline, dampened protein synthesis and increased tolerance of proteostatic stress. Pol III acts on lifespan downstream of TORC1, and limiting Pol III activity in the adult gut achieves the full longevity benefit of systemic TORC1 inhibition. Hence, Pol III is a pivotal mediator of this key nutrient-signalling network for longevity; the growth-promoting anabolic activity of Pol III mediates the acceleration of ageing by TORC1. The evolutionary conservation of Pol III affirms its potential as a therapeutic target.
Project description:Polymerase (Pol) III?dependent transcription controls the abundance of transfer RNAs, 5S ribosomal RNA and small non?coding RNAs within cells, and is known to serve an essential role in the maintenance of intracellular homeostasis. However, its contribution to cancer progression has not been extensively explored. The present study demonstrated that the evolutionarily conserved MAF1 homolog, negative regulator of RNA Pol III (MAF1) may be closely associated with malignant potential and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Notably, immunohistochemical analysis of 146 CRC surgical specimens revealed that high expression levels of MAF1 were associated with advanced tumor depth, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and poor prognosis. In vitro loss?of?function assays revealed that MAF1 knockdown suppressed chemoresistance and migration of CRC cancer cells. Furthermore, detailed analysis of an independent CRC dataset (n=615) demonstrated that the prognostic impact of MAF1 gene expression was particularly marked in microsatellite instability (MSI)?positive patients, who benefit from immune checkpoint blockade. High expression levels of MAF1 were revealed to be an independent prognostic indicator in MSI?positive CRC. These findings suggested that MAF1 may have an essential role in CRC progression, particularly in MSI?positive cases.