Gender and ethnic differences in cancer pain experience: a multiethnic survey in the United States.
ABSTRACT: Inconsistent findings on ethnic differences in cancer pain experience suggest the need for further studies on this topic for adequate cancer pain management.To determine ethnic differences in cancer pain experience of four ethnic groups in the United States.A feminist perspective was used as the theoretical basis. This was a survey of a multiethnic sample of 480 cancer patients asking questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health or illness status, 3 unidimensional cancer pain scales, 2 multidimensional cancer pain scales, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scale. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics including ANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression analyses.The results indicated certain ethnic differences in types of pain and symptoms that patients experienced. Also, the results demonstrated significant ethnic differences in cancer pain and functional status.The findings suggest further in-depth qualitative exploration on cultural values and beliefs related to cancer pain in each ethnic group and national studies with a larger number of ethnic minorities on this topic.
Project description:Using a feminist perspective, the relationship between acculturation and cancer pain experience was explored.This was a cross-sectional, correlational Internet study among 104 Hispanic and 114 Asian cancer patients. The instruments included both unidimensional and multidimensional cancer pain measures.There were significant differences in cancer pain scores by country of birth. Yet there was no significant association of acculturation to cancer pain scores.This study indicated inconsistent findings.To provide directions for adequate cancer pain management, further studies with a larger number of diverse groups of immigrant cancer patients are needed.
Project description:Although very little is known about African American cancer patients' pain experience, a few studies have indicated that their cancer pain experience is unique and somewhat different from that of other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore African American cancer patients' pain experience using an online forum. This study was a qualitative online forum designed from a feminist perspective and conducted among 11 African American cancer patients who were recruited through both Internet and real settings. Nine online forum topics were used to administer the 6-month online forum, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged through the data analysis process. First, participants viewed cancer as a challenge in life that they should fight against. Second, cancer pain was differentiated from ordinary pain because cancer was stigmatized in their culture. Third, participants viewed that African Americans, especially women, were culturally raised to be strong, and this African American cultural heritage inhibited cancer patients from expressing pain and seeking help for pain management. Finally, the findings indicated certain changes in perspectives among African American cancer patients during the disease process, which might make them tolerate pain through praying to God and reading the Bible. Based on the findings, we suggest further studies among diverse groups of African American cancer patients, with a focus on cultural attitudes toward cancer pain and influences of family on cancer pain experience.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to explore demographic characteristics of a specific online population, midlife women recruited through Internet communities or groups, and to provide future direction for Internet research among midlife women. Using a feminist perspective, the study focused on ethnic variations in the characteristics of the midlife women. A total of 192 midlife women were recruited through Internet communities. The Internet survey included questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health/illness status. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated that midlife women recruited through Internet communities tended to be white, young, married, and affluent. The findings also indicated significant ethnic differences in sociodemographic characteristics. The findings suggest that researchers need to consider that midlife women recruited from Internet communities tend to be a specific group of midlife women.
Project description:To explore Hispanic patients' cancer pain experience from a feminist perspective to find explanations for inadequate pain management.A qualitative online forum study.Internet and community settings.15 Hispanic patients with cancer recruited using a convenience sampling method.A six-month online forum was conducted using nine discussion topics, and the data were processed using a thematic analysis.Cancer pain experience.Four major themes emerged related to the following findings. The first was a lack of communication with healthcare providers regarding undermedication. The second was that women and men were enduring pain because of traditional gender roles guiding their behaviors. Third, participants placed the highest priority on family during the diagnosis and treatment process, thus setting aside their needs for pain management. The fourth theme was that participants were enduring inconvenience and unfair treatment in the U.S. healthcare system while simultaneously appreciating the treatment they had received.Because of cultural factors and marginalized status in the United States as Hispanics and as immigrants, most of the participants could not adequately describe and manage their pain.Findings suggest a need for further investigation of the influences of multiple factors, including financial issues, cultural norms, and gender stereotypes, on cancer pain experience among diverse subgroups of Hispanic patients with cancer.
Project description:Negative cognitions are central to the perpetuation of chronic pain and sleep disturbances. Patients with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD), a chronic pain condition characterized by pain and limitation in the jaw area, have a high comorbidity of sleep disturbances that possibly exacerbate their condition. Ethnic group differences are documented in pain, sleep, and coping, yet the mechanisms driving these differences are still unclear, especially in clinical pain populations. We recruited 156 women (79% white, 21% African American) diagnosed with TMJD as part of a randomized, controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting sleep and pain catastrophizing on pain in TMJD. Analysis of baseline data demonstrated that, relative to white participants, African Americans exhibited higher levels of clinical pain, insomnia severity, and pain catastrophizing, yet there was no ethnic group difference in negative sleep-related cognitions. Mediation models revealed pain catastrophizing, but not sleep-related cognitions or insomnia severity, to be a significant single mediator of the relationship between ethnicity and clinical pain. Only the helplessness component of catastrophizing together with insomnia severity sequentially mediated the ethnicity-pain relationship. These findings identify pain catastrophizing as a potentially important link between ethnicity and clinical pain and suggest that interventions targeting pain-related helplessness could improve both sleep and pain, especially for African American patients. Perspective:Pain-related helplessness and insomnia severity contribute to ethnic differences found in clinical pain among woman with TMJD. Findings can potentially inform interventions that target insomnia and catastrophizing to assist in reducing ethnic disparities in clinical pain.
Project description:Robust interindividual variation in pain sensitivity has been observed, and recent evidence suggests that some of the variability may be genetically mediated. Our previous data revealed significantly higher pressure pain thresholds among individuals possessing the minor G allele of the A118G SNP of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) compared with those with 2 consensus alleles. Moreover, ethnic differences in pain sensitivity have been widely reported. Yet, little is known about the potential interactive associations of ethnicity and genotype with pain perception. This study aimed to identify ethnic differences in OPRM1 allelic associations with experimental pain responses. A total of 247 healthy young adults from three ethnic groups (81 African Americans; 79 non-white Hispanics; and 87 non-Hispanic whites) underwent multiple experimental pain modalities (thermal, pressure, ischemic, cold pressor). Few African Americans (7.4%) expressed the rare allele of OPRM1 compared to non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics (28.7% vs. 27.8%, respectively). Across the entire sample, OPRM1 genotype did not significantly affect pain sensitivity. However, analysis in each ethnic group separately revealed significant genotype effects for most pain modalities among non-Hispanic-whites (P<.05) but not Hispanics or African Americans. The G allele was associated with decreased pain sensitivity among whites only; a trend in the opposite direction emerged in Hispanics. The reasons for this dichotomy are unclear; they may involve ethnic differences in haplotypic structure, or A118G may be a tag-SNP linked to other functional polymorphisms. These findings demonstrate an ethnicity-dependent association of OPRM1 genotype with pain sensitivity. Additional research is warranted to uncover the mechanisms influencing these relationships.
Project description:To inform the development of a tailored behavioral stroke risk reduction intervention for ethnic minority seniors, we sought to explore gender differences in perceptions of stroke prevention and physical activity (walking).In collaboration with community-based organizations, we conducted 12 mixed-gender focus groups of African American, Latino, Chinese, and Korean seniors aged 60 years and older with a history of hypertension (89 women and 42 men). Transcripts were coded and recurring topics compared by gender.Women expressed beliefs that differed from men in 4 topic areas: 1) stroke-related interest, 2) barriers to walking, 3) facilitators to walking, and 4) health behavior change attitudes. Compared with men, women were more interested in their role in response to a stroke and post-stroke care. Women described walking as an acceptable form of exercise, but cited neighborhood safety and pain as walking barriers. Fear of nursing home placement and weight loss were identified as walking facilitators. Women were more prone than men to express active/control attitudes toward health behavior change.Older ethnic minority women, a high-risk population for stroke, may be more receptive to behavioral interventions that address the gender-specific themes identified by this study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a pervasive musculoskeletal condition, often exacerbated by movement-evoked pain (MEP). Despite established research demonstrating significant racial differences in OA pain, few studies have investigated ethnic/racial group differences in MEP and lower extremity function and their association with psychosocial factors, such as perceived stress. Therefore, the primary aims were: (1) to identify ethnic/racial group differences in persons with or at risk for knee OA pain based on MEP, physical performance, and perceived stress measures, and (2) to determine if perceived stress explains the relationship between MEP and function in non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). METHODS:A total of 162 NHB and NHW community-dwelling older adults (50-78?years of age) were included in this analysis from the Understanding Pain and Limitations in Osteoarthritic Disease (UPLOAD) cross-sectional cohort study. Demographic, anthropometric, pain and functional parameters were assessed using a battery of validated instruments. Descriptive statistics, parametric, and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine ethnic/racial differences in perceived stress, MEP, and function. RESULTS:Our results support the hypothesis that among persons with knee OA pain, NHBs have significantly greater MEP and lower functional level, despite similar levels of perceived stress. However, perceived stress was more strongly related to MEP in NHB compared to NHWs. Differences in function were limited to walking speed, where NHWs demonstrated faster gait speed. CONCLUSIONS:Our cross-sectional study demonstrated important ethnic/racial differences in MEP and function. Also, perceived stress had a stronger effect on MEP in NHBs, suggesting that perceived stress may more strongly influence pain with physical movement among NHB adults. MEP may be a clinically important pain outcome to measure in persons with OA, and these data warrant future research on the impact of stress on pain and functional outcomes in older adults, particularly in NHBs.
Project description:This study evaluated the contributions of psychological status and cardiovascular responsiveness to racial/ethnic differences in experimental pain sensitivity. The baseline measures of 3,159 healthy individuals-non-Hispanic white (NHW): 1,637, African-American (AA): 1,012, Asian: 299, and Hispanic: 211-from the OPPERA prospective cohort study were used. Cardiovascular responsiveness measures and psychological status were included in structural equation modeling based mediation analyses. Pain catastrophizing was a significant mediator for the associations between race/ethnicity and heat pain tolerance, heat pain ratings, heat pain aftersensations, mechanical cutaneous pain ratings and aftersensations, and mechanical cutaneous pain temporal summation for both Asians and AAs compared to NHWs. HR/MAP index showed a significant inconsistent (mitigating) mediating effect on the association between race/ethnicity (AAs vs. NHWs) and heat pain tolerance. Similarly, coping inconsistently mediated the association between race/ethnicity and mechanical cutaneous pain temporal summation in both AAs and Asians, compared to NHWs. The factor encompassing depression, anxiety, and stress was a significant mediator for the associations between race/ethnicity (Asians vs. NHWs) and heat pain aftersensations. Thus, while pain catastrophizing mediated racial/ethnic differences in many of the QST measures, the psychological and cardiovascular mediators were distinctly restrictive, signifying multiple independent mechanisms in racial/ethnic differences in pain.
Project description:Nociception is protective and prevents tissue damage but can also facilitate chronic pain. If a general principle governs these two types of pain is unknown. Here, we show that both basal mechanical and neuropathic pain are controlled by microRNA-183 cluster in mice. This single cluster controls more than 80% of neuropathic pain-regulated genes and scales basal mechanical sensitivity and mechanical allodynia by regulating auxiliary voltage-gated calcium channel subunits a2d. Basal sensitivity is controlled in nociceptors and allodynia involves TrkB+ light-touch mechanoreceptors. These light-touch sensitive neurons that normally do not elicit pain produce pain during neuropathy that is reversed by gabapentin. Thus, a single miRNA cluster continuously scales acute noxious mechanical sensitivity in nociceptive neurons and suppresses neuropathic pain transduction in a specific, light-touch sensitive neuronal type recruited during mechanical allodynia. Overall design: Bulk DRG RNA sequencing of control and tissue-specific knock-out animals, naive and after nerve injury