Systematic haplotype analysis resolves a complex plasma plant sterol locus on the Micronesian Island of Kosrae.
ABSTRACT: Pinpointing culprit causal variants along signal peaks of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is challenging. To overcome confounding effects of multiple independent variants at such a locus and narrow the interval for causal allele capture, we developed an approach that maps local shared haplotypes harboring a putative causal variant. We demonstrate our method in an extreme isolate founder population, the pacific Island of Kosrae. We analyzed plasma plant sterol (PPS) levels, a surrogate measure of cholesterol absorption from the intestine, where previous studies have implicated 2p21 mutations in the ATP binding cassette subfamily G members 5 or 8 (ABCG5 or ABCG8) genes. We have previously reported that 11.1% of the islanders are carriers of a frameshift ABCG8 mutation increasing PPS levels in carriers by 50%. GWAS adjusted for this mutation revealed genomewide significant signals along 11 Mb around it. To fine-map this signal, we detected pairwise identity-by-descent haplotypes using our tool GERMLINE and implemented a clustering algorithm to identify haplotypes shared across multiple samples with their unique shared boundaries. A single 526-kb haplotype mapped strongly to PPS levels, dramatically refining the mapped interval. This haplotype spans the ABCG5/ABCG8 genes, is carried by 1.8% of the islanders, and results in a striking 100% increase of PPS in carriers. Resequencing of ABCG5 in these carriers found a D450H missense mutation along the associated haplotype. These findings exemplify the power of haplotype analysis for mapping mutations in isolated populations and specifically for dissecting effects of multiple variants of the same locus.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Familial sitosterolemia is a rare Mendelian disorder characterized by hyperabsorption and decreased biliary excretion of dietary sterols. Affected individuals typically have complete genetic deficiency-homozygous loss-of-function (LoF) variants-in the <i>ABCG5</i> or <i>ABCG8</i> genes and have substantially elevated plasma sitosterol and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The impact of partial genetic deficiency of <i>ABCG5</i> or <i>ABCG8</i>-as occurs in heterozygous carriers of LoF variants-on LDL-C and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) has remained uncertain.<h4>Methods</h4>We first recruited 9 sitosterolemia families, identified causative LoF variants in <i>ABCG5</i> or <i>ABCG8</i>, and evaluated the associations of these <i>ABCG5</i> or <i>ABCG8</i> LoF variants with plasma phytosterols and lipid levels. We next assessed for LoF variants in <i>ABCG5</i> or <i>ABCG8</i> in CAD cases (n=29 321) versus controls (n=357 326). We tested the association of rare LoF variants in <i>ABCG5</i> or <i>ABCG8</i> with blood lipids and risk for CAD. Rare LoF variants were defined as protein-truncating variants with minor allele frequency <0.1% in <i>ABCG5</i> or <i>ABCG8</i>.<h4>Results</h4>In sitosterolemia families, 7 pedigrees harbored causative LoF variants in <i>ABCG5</i> and 2 pedigrees in <i>ABCG8</i>. Homozygous LoF variants in either <i>ABCG5</i> or <i>ABCG8</i> led to marked elevations in sitosterol and LDL-C. Of those sitosterolemia families, heterozygous carriers of <i>ABCG5</i> LoF variants exhibited increased sitosterol and LDL-C levels compared with noncarriers. Within large-scale CAD case-control cohorts, prevalence of rare LoF variants in <i>ABCG5</i> and in <i>ABCG8</i> was ≈0.1% each. <i>ABCG5</i> heterozygous LoF variant carriers had significantly elevated LDL-C levels (25 mg/dL [95% CI, 14-35]; <i>P</i>=1.1×10<sup>-6</sup>) and were at 2-fold increased risk of CAD (odds ratio, 2.06 [95% CI, 1.27-3.35]; <i>P</i>=0.004). By contrast, <i>ABCG8</i> heterozygous LoF carrier status was not associated with increased LDL-C or risk of CAD.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although familial sitosterolemia is traditionally considered as a recessive disorder, we observed that heterozygous carriers of an LoF variant in <i>ABCG5</i> had significantly increased sitosterol and LDL-C levels and a 2-fold increase in risk of CAD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sitosterolemia is an autosomal recessive disorder that maps to the sitosterolemia locus, STSL, on human chromosome 2p21. Two genes, ABCG5 and ABCG8, comprise the STSL and mutations in either cause sitosterolemia. ABCG5 and ABCG8 are thought to have evolved by gene duplication event and are arranged in a head-to-head configuration. We report here a detailed characterization of the STSL in Caucasian and African-American cohorts. METHODS:Caucasian and African-American DNA samples were genotypes for polymorphisms at the STSL locus and haplotype structures determined for this locus RESULTS:In the Caucasian population, 13 variant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and resulting in 24 different haplotypes, compared to 11 SNPs in African-Americans resulting in 40 haplotypes. Three polymorphisms in ABCG8 were unique to the Caucasian population (E238L, INT10-50 and G575R), whereas one variant (A259V) was unique to the African-American population. Allele frequencies of SNPs varied also between these populations. CONCLUSION:We confirmed that despite their close proximity to each other, significantly more variations are present in ABCG8 compared to ABCG5. Pairwise D' values showed wide ranges of variation, indicating some of the SNPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) and some were not. LD was more prevalent in Caucasians than in African-Americans, as would be expected. These data will be useful in analyzing the proposed role of STSL in processes ranging from responsiveness to cholesterol-lowering drugs to selective sterol absorption.
Project description:Sitosterolemia is a lipid disorder characterized by the accumulation of dietary xenosterols in plasma and tissues caused by mutations in either <i>ABCG5</i> or <i>ABCG8</i>. <i>ABCG5 ABCG8</i> encodes a pair of ABC half transporters that form a heterodimer (G5G8), which then traffics to the surface of hepatocytes and enterocytes and promotes the secretion of cholesterol and xenosterols into the bile and the intestinal lumen. We review the literature from the initial description of the disease, the discovery of its genetic basis, current therapy, and what has been learned from animal, cellular, and molecular investigations of the transporter in the twenty years since its discovery. The genomic era has revealed that there are far more carriers of loss of function mutations and likely pathogenic variants of <i>ABCG5 ABCG8</i> than previously thought. The impact of these variants on G5G8 structure and activity are largely unknown. We propose a classification system for <i>ABCG5 ABCG8</i> mutants based on previously published systems for diseases caused by defects in ABC transporters. This system establishes a framework for the comprehensive analysis of disease-associated variants and their impact on G5G8 structure-function.
Project description:Sitosterolaemia is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by increased intestinal absorption of plant sterols, decreased hepatic excretion into bile and elevated concentrations in plasma phytosterols. Homozygous or compound heterozygous loss of function mutations in either of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins ABCG5 and ABCG8 explain the increased absorption of plant sterols. Here we report a Swiss index patient with sitosterolaemia, who presented with the classical symptoms of xanthomas, but also had mitral and aortic valvular heart disease. Her management over the last 20 years included a novel therapeutic approach of high-dose cholesterol feeding that was semi-effective. Mutational and extended haplotype analyses showed that our patient shared this haplotype with that of the Amish-Mennonite sitosterolaemia patients, indicating they are related ancestrally.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms that regulate the entry of dietary sterols into the body and their removal via hepatobiliary secretion are now beginning to be defined. These processes are specifically disrupted in the rare autosomal recessive disease, Sitosterolemia (MIM 210250). Mutations in either, but not both, of two genes ABCG5 or ABCG8, comprising the STSL locus, are now known to cause this disease and their protein products are proposed to function as heterodimers. Under normal circumstances cholesterol, but not non-cholesterol sterols, is preferentially absorbed from the diet. Additionally, any small amounts of non-cholesterol sterols that are absorbed are rapidly taken up by the liver and preferentially excreted into bile. Based upon the defects in sitosterolemia, ABCG5 and ABCG8 serve specifically to exclude non-cholesterol sterol entry at the intestinal level and are involved in sterol excretion at the hepatobiliary level.Here we report the biochemical and immuno-localization of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in human liver, gallbladder and intestine using cell fractionation and immunohistochemical analyses.We raised peptide antibodies against ABCG5 and ABCG8 proteins. Using human liver samples, cell fractionation studies showed both proteins are found in membrane fractions, but they did not co-localize with caveolin-rafts, ER, Golgi or mitochondrial markers. Although their distribution in the sub-fractions was similar, they were not completely contiguous. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that while both proteins were readily detectable in the liver, ABCG5 was found predominately lining canalicular membranes, whereas ABCG8 was found in association with bile duct epithelia. At the cellular level, ABCG5 appeared to be apically expressed, whereas ABCG8 had a more diffuse expression pattern. Both ABCG5 and ABCG8 appeared to localize apically as shown by co-localization with MRP2. The distribution patterns of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in the gallbladder were very similar to each other. In the small intestine both ABCG5 and ABCG8 appear to line the brush border. However, at the level of the enterocyte, the cellular distribution patterns of ABCG5 and ABCG8 differed, such that ABCG5 was more diffuse, but ABCG8 was principally apical. Using standard deglycosylation methods, ABCG5 and ABCG8 do not appear to be glycosylated, suggesting a difference between human and mouse proteins.We report the distribution patterns of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in human tissues. Cell fractionation studies showed that both proteins co-fractionated in general, but could also be found independent of each other. As predicted, they are expressed apically in both intestine and liver, although their intracellular expression patterns are not completely congruent. These studies support the concept of heterodimerization of ABCG5 and ABCG8, but also support the notion that these proteins may have an independent function.
Project description:N-glycosylation of proteins in endoplasmic reticulum is critical for protein quality control. We showed here a post-translational N-glycosylation affected by the HRD1 E3 ubiquitin ligase. Both WT- and E3-defective C329S-HRD1 decreased the level of high mannose form of ABCG8, a protein that heterodimerizes with ABCG5 to control sterol balance. Meanwhile, HRD1 increased the non-glycosylated ABCG8 regardless of its E3 activity, thereby suppressing full maturation of ABCG5/8 transporter. Pulse chase and mutational analysis indicated that HRD1 inhibits STT3B-dependent post-translational N-glycosylation of ABCG8. Whereas, HRD1 had only slight effect on the N-glycosylation status of ABCG5; rather it accelerated ABCG5 degradation in an E3 activity-dependent manner. Finally, RMA1, another E3 ubiquitin ligase, accelerated the degradation of both ABCG5 and ABCG8 via E3 activity-dependent manner. HRD1 and RMA1 may therefore be negative regulators of disease-associated transporter ABCG5/ABCG8. The findings also highlight the unexpected E3 activity-independent role of HRD1 in the regulation of N-glycosylation.
Project description:ATP-binding cassette transporters G5/G8 (ABCG5/G8) are associated with HDL-C concentrations. To assess whether the effect of ABCG5/G8 genetic variants on HDL-C concentrations is dependent on ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 (ABCA1), we studied potential interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at ABCG5/G8 (i7892T > C, 5U145A > C, T54CA > G, T400KC > A) and ABCA1 (i27943G > A, i48168G > A, K219RG > A, i125970G > C, 3U8995A > G) genes with HDL-C concentrations.ABCG5/G8 and ABCA1 SNPs were genotyped in 788 subjects (228 men and 560 women) who participated in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Biochemical measurements were determined by standard procedures. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan assays according to routine laboratory protocols. Significant gene-gene interactions for HDL-C were found between ABCG8 (5U145A > C, T54CA > G, T400KC > A) SNPs and ABCA1_i48168G > A genetic variant (P = 0.009, P = 0.042 and P = 0.036, respectively), in which carriers of the 5U145C and 54C alleles, and homozygotes for the T400 allele at ABCG8 genetic variants displayed lower HDL-C concentrations than homozygotes for the 5U145A and T54 alleles, and heterozygotes for the 400K allele at ABCG8 SNPs, only if they were also homozygous for the minor allele (A) at the aforementioned ABCA1 SNP.The gene-gene interactions reported in the present study support the hypothesis that the effect of ABCG5/G8 genetic variants on HDL-C concentrations is dependent on ABCA1 expression. Replication of these analyses to further populations, particularly with low HDL-C, is clearly warranted.
Project description:The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) sterol transporter, Abcg5/g8, is Lith9 in mice, and two gallstone-associated variants in ABCG5/G8 have been identified in humans. Although ABCG5/G8 plays a critical role in determining hepatic sterol secretion, cholesterol is still secreted to bile in sitosterolemic patients with a defect in either ABCG5 or ABCG8 and in either Abcg5/g8 double- or single-knockout mice. We hypothesize that in the defect of ABCG5/G8, an ABCG5/G8-independent pathway is essential for regulating hepatic secretion of biliary sterols, which is independent of the lithogenic mechanism of the ABCG5/G8 pathway. To elucidate the effect of the ABCG5/G8-independent pathway on cholelithogenesis, we investigated the biliary and gallstone characteristics in male wild-type (WT), ABCG5(-/-)/G8(-/-), and ABCG8 (-/-) mice fed a lithogenic diet or varying amounts of cholesterol, treated with a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist, or injected intravenously with [(3) H]sitostanol- and [(14) C]cholesterol-labeled high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We found that ABCG5(-/-)/G8(-/-) and ABCG8 (-/-) mice displayed the same biliary and gallstone phenotypes. Although both groups of knockout mice showed a significant reduction in hepatic cholesterol output compared to WT mice, they still formed gallstones. The LXR agonist significantly increased biliary cholesterol secretion and gallstones in WT, but not ABCG5(-/-)/G8(-/-) or ABCG8 (-/-), mice. The 6-hour recovery of [(14) C]cholesterol in hepatic bile was significantly lower in both groups of knockout mice than in WT mice and [(3) H]sitostanol was detected in WT, but not ABCG5(-/-)/G8(-/-) or ABCG8 (-/-), mice.The ABCG5/G8-independent pathway plays an important role in regulating biliary cholesterol secretion, the transport of HDL-derived cholesterol from plasma to bile, and gallstone formation, which works independently of the ABCG5/G8 pathway. Further studies are needed to observe whether this pathway is also operational in humans. (Hepatology 2016;64:853-864).
Project description:Elevated plant sterol accumulation has been reported in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) and the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. Additionally, a blood pressure quantitative trait locus (QTL) has been mapped to rat chromosome 6 in a New Zealand genetically hypertensive rat strain (GH rat). ABCG5 and ABCG8 (encoding sterolin-1 and sterolin-2 respectively) have been shown to be responsible for causing sitosterolemia in humans. These genes are organized in a head-to-head configuration at the STSL locus on human chromosome 2p21.To investigate whether mutations in Abcg5 or Abcg8 exist in SHR, SHRSP, WKY and GH rats, we initiated a systematic search for the genetic variation in coding and non-coding region of Abcg5 and Abcg8 genes in these strains. We isolated the rat cDNAs for these genes and characterized the genomic structure and tissue expression patterns, using standard molecular biology techniques and FISH for chromosomal assignments.Both rat Abcg5 and Abcg8 genes map to chromosome band 6q12. These genes span ~40 kb and contain 13 exons and 12 introns each, in a pattern identical to that of the STSL loci in mouse and man. Both Abcg5 and Abcg8 were expressed only in liver and intestine. Analyses of DNA from SHR, SHRSP, GH, WKY, Wistar, Wistar King A (WKA) and Brown Norway (BN) rat strains revealed a homozygous G to T substitution at nucleotide 1754, resulting in the coding change Gly583Cys in sterolin-1 only in rats that are both sitosterolemic and hypertensive (SHR, SHRSP and WKY).The rat STSL locus maps to chromosome 6q12. A non-synonymous mutation in Abcg5, Gly583Cys, results in sitosterolemia in rat strains that are also hypertensive (WKY, SHR and SHRSP). Those rat strains that are hypertensive, but not sitosterolemic (e.g. GH rat) do not have mutations in Abcg5 or Abcg8. This mutation allows for expression and apparent apical targeting of Abcg5 protein in the intestine. These rat strains may therefore allow us to study the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the human disease of sitosterolemia.
Project description:Mutations in either of two genes comprising the STSL locus, ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters ABCG5 (encoding sterolin-1) and ABCG8 (encoding sterolin-2), result in sitosterolemia, a rare autosomal recessive disorder of sterol trafficking characterized by increased plasma plant sterol levels. Based upon the genetics of sitosterolemia, ABCG5/sterolin-1 and ABCG8/sterolin-2 are hypothesized to function as obligate heterodimers. No phenotypic difference has yet been described in humans with complete defects in either ABCG5 or ABCG8. These proteins, based upon the defects in humans, are responsible for regulating dietary sterol entry and biliary sterol secretion.In order to mimic the human disease, we created, by a targeted disruption, a mouse model of sitosterolemia resulting in Abcg8/sterolin-2 deficiency alone. Homozygous knockout mice are viable and exhibit sitosterolemia.Mice deficient in Abcg8 have significantly increased plasma and tissue plant sterol levels (sitosterol and campesterol) consistent with sitosterolemia. Interestingly, Abcg5/sterolin-1 was expressed in both liver and intestine in Abcg8/sterolin-2 deficient mice and continued to show an apical expression. Remarkably, Abcg8 deficient mice had an impaired ability to secrete cholesterol into bile, but still maintained the ability to secrete sitosterol. We also report an intermediate phenotype in the heterozygous Abcg8+/- mice that are not sitosterolemic, but have a decreased level of biliary sterol secretion relative to wild-type mice.These data indicate that Abcg8/sterolin-2 is necessary for biliary sterol secretion and that loss of Abcg8/sterolin-2 has a more profound effect upon biliary cholesterol secretion than sitosterol. Since biliary sitosterol secretion is preserved, although not elevated in the sitosterolemic mice, this observation suggests that mechanisms other than by Abcg8/sterolin-2 may be responsible for its secretion into bile.