Temporal coupling of cyclic AMP and Ca/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase to the circadian clock in chick retinal photoreceptor cells.
ABSTRACT: cAMP signaling pathways play crucial roles in photoreceptor cells and other retinal cell types. Previous studies demonstrated a circadian rhythm of cAMP level in chick photoreceptor cell cultures that drives the rhythm of activity of the melatonin synthesizing enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and the rhythm of affinity of the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel for cGMP. Here, we report that the photoreceptor circadian clock generates a rhythm in Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity, which accounts for the temporal changes in the cAMP levels in the photoreceptors. The circadian rhythm of cAMP in photoreceptor cell cultures is abolished by treatment with the l-type Ca(2+) channel antagonist nitrendipine, while the Ca(2+) channel agonist, Bay K 8644, increased cAMP levels with continued circadian rhythmicity in constant darkness. These results indicate that the circadian rhythm of cAMP is dependent, in part, on Ca(2+) influx. Photoreceptor cell cultures exhibit a circadian rhythm in Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase enzyme activity with high levels at night and low levels during the day, correlating with the temporal changes of cAMP in these cells. Transcripts encoding two of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, type 1 and type 8 (Adcy1 and Adcy8), displayed significant daily rhythms of mRNA expression under a light-dark cycle, but only the Adcy1 transcript rhythm persisted in constant darkness. Similar rhythms of Adcy1 mRNA level and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity were observed in retinas of 2-week-old chickens. These results indicate that a circadian clock controls the expression of Adcy1 mRNA and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity; and calcium influx into these cells gates the circadian rhythm of cAMP, a key component in the regulation of photoreceptor function.
Project description:Light and dopamine regulate many physiological functions in the vertebrate retina. Light exposure decreases cyclic AMP formation in photoreceptor cells. Dopamine D(4) receptor (D(4)R) activation promotes light adaptation and suppresses the light-sensitive pool of cyclic AMP in photoreceptor cells. The key signaling pathways involved in regulating cyclic AMP in photoreceptor cells have not been identified. In the present study, we show that the light- and D(4)R-signaling pathways converge on the type 1 Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase (AC1) to regulate cyclic AMP synthesis in photoreceptor cells. In addition, we present evidence that D(4)R activation tonically regulates the expression of AC1 in photoreceptors. In retinas of mice with targeted deletion of the gene (Adcy1) encoding AC1, cyclic AMP levels and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity are markedly reduced, and cyclic AMP accumulation is unaffected by either light or D(4)R activation. Similarly, in mice with disruption of the gene (Drd4) encoding D(4)R, cyclic AMP levels in the dark-adapted retina are significantly lower compared to wild-type retina and are unresponsive to light. These changes in Drd4-/- mice were accompanied by significantly lower Adcy1 mRNA levels in photoreceptor cells and lower Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in retinal membranes compared with wild-type controls. Reduced levels of Adcy1 mRNA were also observed in retinas of wild-type mice treated chronically with a D(4)R antagonist, L-745870. Thus, activation of D(4)R is required for normal expression of AC1 and for the regulation of its catalytic activity by light. These observations illustrate a novel mechanism for cross-talk between dopamine and photic signaling pathways regulating cyclic AMP in photoreceptor cells.
Project description:Chloride secretion by airway epithelial cells is defective in cystic fibrosis (CF). The conventional paradigm is that CFTR is activated through cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA), whereas the Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel (CaCC) is activated by Ca(2+) agonists like UTP. We found that most chloride current elicited by Ca(2+) agonists in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells is mediated by CFTR by a mechanism involving Ca(2+) activation of adenylyl cyclase I (AC1) and cAMP/PKA signaling. Use of selective inhibitors showed that Ca(2+) agonists produced more chloride secretion from CFTR than from CaCC. CFTR-dependent chloride secretion was reduced by PKA inhibition and was absent in CF cell cultures. Ca(2+) agonists produced cAMP elevation, which was blocked by adenylyl cyclase inhibition. AC1, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase, colocalized with CFTR in the cell apical membrane. RNAi knockdown of AC1 selectively reduced UTP-induced cAMP elevation and chloride secretion. These results, together with correlations between cAMP and chloride current, suggest that compartmentalized AC1-CFTR association is responsible for Ca(2+)/cAMP cross-talk. We further conclude that CFTR is the principal chloride secretory pathway in non-CF airways for both cAMP and Ca(2+) agonists, providing a novel mechanism to link CFTR dysfunction to CF lung disease.
Project description:Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is generated by adenylyl cyclases (ACs), a group of enzymes with different tissue specificity and regulation. We hypothesized that AC isoforms are heterogeneously expressed along the biliary tree, are associated with specific secretory stimuli, and are differentially modulated in cholestasis. Small duct and large duct cholangiocytes were isolated from controls and from lipopolysaccharide-treated or alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-treated rats. AC isoform expression was assessed via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Secretion and cAMP levels were measured in intrahepatic bile duct units after stimulation with secretin, forskolin, HCO(3)(-)/CO(2), cholinergic agonists, and beta-adrenergic agonists, with or without selected inhibitors or after silencing of AC8 or soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) with small interfering RNA. Gene expression of the Ca(2+)-insensitive isoforms (AC4, AC7) was higher in small duct cholangiocytes, whereas that of the Ca(2+)-inhibitable (AC5, AC6, AC9), the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated AC8, and the soluble sAC was higher in large duct cholangiocytes. Ca(2+)/calmodulin inhibitors and AC8 gene silencing inhibited choleresis and cAMP production stimulated by secretin and acetylcholine, but not by forskolin. Secretion stimulated by isoproterenol and calcineurin inibitors was cAMP-dependent and gamma-aminobutyric acid-inhibitable, consistent with activation of AC9. Cholangiocyte secretion stimulated by isohydric changes in [HCO(3)(-)](i) was cAMP-dependent and inhibited by sAC inhibitor and sAC gene silencing. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide or alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate increased expression of AC7 and sAC but decreased expression of the other ACs.These studies demonstrate a previously unrecognized role of ACs in biliary pathophysiology. In fact: (1) AC isoforms are differentially expressed in cholangiocyte subpopulations; (2) AC8, AC9, and sAC mediate cholangiocyte secretion in response to secretin, beta-adrenergic agonists, or changes in [HCO(3)(-)](i), respectively; and (3) AC gene expression is modulated in experimental cholestasis.
Project description:Biochemical, immunological, and molecular cloning studies have suggested the existence of multiple forms of adenylyl cyclase (EC 22.214.171.124). An adenylyl cyclase cDNA clone (type II) was isolated from a rat brain library and found to encode a protein of 1090 amino acids that was homologous to but distinct from the previously described Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase from bovine brain. Expression of the type II cDNA in an insect cell line resulted in an increased level of adenylyl cyclase activity that was insensitive to Ca2+/calmodulin. Addition of activated Gs alpha protein to type II-containing membranes increased enzyme activity. The mRNA encoding the type II protein was expressed at high levels in brain tissue and at low levels in olfactory epithelium and lung. The existence of multiple adenylyl cyclase enzymes may provide for complex and distinct modes of biochemical regulation of cAMP levels in the brain.
Project description:Calmodulin (CaM)-sensitive adenylyl cyclase (AC) in sensory neurons (SNs) in Aplysia has been proposed as a molecular coincidence detector during conditioning. We identified four putative ACs in Aplysia CNS. CaM binds to a sequence in the C1b region of AC-AplA that resembles the CaM-binding sequence in the C1b region of AC1 in mammals. Recombinant AC-AplA was stimulated by Ca(2+)/CaM. AC-AplC is most similar to the Ca(2+)-inhibited AC5 and AC6 in mammals. Recombinant AC-AplC was directly inhibited by Ca(2+), independent of CaM. AC-AplA and AC-AplC are expressed in SNs, whereas AC-AplB and AC-AplD are not. Knockdown of AC-AplA demonstrated that serotonin stimulation of cAMP-dependent plasticity in SNs is predominantly mediated by this CaM-sensitive AC. We propose that the coexpression of a Ca(2+)-inhibited AC in SNs, together with a Ca(2+)/CaM-stimulated AC, would enhance the associative requirement for coincident Ca(2+) influx and serotonin for effective stimulation of cAMP levels and initiation of plasticity mediated by AC-AplA.
Project description:Capacitative Ca(2+) entry (CCE), which occurs through the plasma membrane as a result of Ca(2+) store depletion, is mediated by stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1), a sensor of intracellular Ca(2+) store content, and the pore-forming component Orai1. However, additional factors, such as C-type transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels, may also participate in the CCE apparatus. To explore whether the store-dependent Ca(2+) entry reconstituted by coexpression of Orai1 and STIM1 has the functional properties of CCE, we used the Ca(2+)-calmodulin stimulated adenylyl cyclase type 8 (AC8), which responds selectively to CCE, whereas other modes of Ca(2+) entry, including those activated by arachidonate and the ionophore ionomycin, are ineffective. In addition, the Ca(2+) entry mediated by previous CCE candidates, diacylglycerol-activated TRPC channels, does not activate AC8. Here, we expressed Orai1 and STIM1 in HEK293 cells and saw a robust increment in CCE, and a proportional increase in CCE-stimulated AC8 activity. Inhibitors of the CCE assembly process ablated the effects on cyclase activity in both AC8-overexpressing HEK293 cells and insulin-secreting MIN6 cells endogenously expressing Ca(2+)-sensitive AC isoforms. AC8 is believed to be closely associated with the source of CCE; indeed, not only were AC8, Orai1, and STIM1 colocalized at the plasma membrane but also all three proteins occurred in lipid rafts. Together, our data indicate that Orai1 and STIM1 can be integral components of the cAMP and CCE microdomain associated with adenylyl cyclase type 8.
Project description:The central circadian pacemaker is located in the hypothalamus of mammals, but essentially the same oscillating system operates in peripheral tissues and even in immortalized cell lines. Using luciferase reporters that allow automated monitoring of circadian gene expression in mammalian fibroblasts, we report the collection and analysis of precise rhythmic data from these cells. We use these methods to analyze signaling pathways of peripheral tissues by studying the responses of Rat-1 fibroblasts to ten different compounds. To quantify these rhythms, which show significant variation and large non-stationarities (damping and baseline drifting), we developed a new fast Fourier transform-nonlinear least squares analysis procedure that specifically optimizes the quantification of amplitude for circadian rhythm data. This enhanced analysis method successfully distinguishes among the ten signaling compounds for their rhythm-inducing properties. We pursued detailed analyses of the responses to two of these compounds that induced the highest amplitude rhythms in fibroblasts, forskolin (an activator of adenylyl cyclase), and dexamethasone (an agonist of glucocorticoid receptors). Our quantitative analyses clearly indicate that the synchronization mechanisms by the cAMP and glucocorticoid pathways are different, implying that actions of different genes stimulated by these pathways lead to distinctive programs of circadian synchronization.
Project description:Microdomains have been proposed to explain specificity in the myriad of possible cellular targets of cAMP. Local differences in cAMP levels can be generated by phosphodiesterases, which control the diffusion of cAMP. Here, we address the possibility that adenylyl cyclases, the source of cAMP, can be primary architects of such microdomains. Distinctly regulated adenylyl cyclases often contribute to total cAMP levels in endogenous cellular settings, making it virtually impossible to determine the contribution of a specific isoform. To investigate cAMP dynamics with high precision at the single-isoform level, we developed a targeted version of Epac2-camps, a cAMP sensor, in which the sensor was tagged to a catalytically inactive version of the Ca(2+)-stimulable adenylyl cyclase 8 (AC8). This sensor, and less stringently targeted versions of Epac2-camps, revealed opposite regulation of cAMP synthesis in response to Ca(2+) in GH(3)B(6) pituitary cells. Ca(2+) release triggered by thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulated the minor endogenous AC8 species. cAMP levels were decreased by inhibition of AC5 and AC6, and simultaneous activation of phosphodiesterases, in different compartments of the same cell. These findings demonstrate the existence of distinct adenylyl-cyclase-centered cAMP microdomains in live cells and open the door to their molecular micro-dissection.
Project description:Cocaine sensitization is produced by repeated exposure to the drug and is thought to reflect neuroadaptations that contribute to addiction. Here, we identify the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, type 1 (AC1) and type 8 (AC8), as novel regulators of this behavioral plasticity. We show that, whereas AC1 and AC8 single knock-out mice (AC1(-/-) and AC8(-/-)) exhibit Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in striatal membrane fractions, AC1/8 double-knock-out (DKO) mice do not. Furthermore, DKO mice are acutely supersensitive to low doses of cocaine and fail to display locomotor sensitization after chronic cocaine treatment. Because of the known role for the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity and its coupling to calcium-stimulated cAMP signaling in the hippocampus, we measured phosphorylated ERK (pERK) levels in the striatum. Under basal conditions, pERK is upregulated in choline acetyltransferase-positive interneurons in DKO mice relative to wild-type (WT) controls. After acute cocaine treatment, pERK signaling is significantly suppressed in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of DKO mice relative to WT mice. In addition to the lack of striatal ERK activation by acute cocaine, signaling machinery downstream of ERK is uncoupled in DKO mice. We demonstrate that AC1 and AC8 are necessary for the phosphorylation of mitogen and stress-activated kinase-1 (pMSK1) at Ser376 and Thr581 and cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) at Ser133 after acute cocaine treatment. Our results demonstrate that the Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclases regulate long-lasting cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity via activation of the ERK/MSK1/CREB signaling pathway in striatonigral MSNs.
Project description:Melatonin is synthesized in retinal photoreceptor cells and acts as a neuromodulator imparting photoperiodic information to the retina. The synthesis of melatonin is controlled by an ocular circadian clock and by light in a finely tuned mechanism that ensures that melatonin is synthesized and acts only at night in darkness. Here we report that the circadian clock gates melatonin synthesis in part by regulating the expression of the type 1 adenylyl cyclase (AC1) and the synthesis of cAMP in photoreceptor cells. This gating is effected through E-box-mediated transcriptional activation of the AC1 gene, which undergoes robust daily fluctuations that persist in constant illumination. The circadian control of the cAMP signaling cascade indicates that the clock has a more general and profound impact on retinal functions than previously thought. In addition, rhythmic control of AC1 expression was observed in other parts of the central circadian axis, the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland, but not in other brain areas examined. Thus, clock control of the cAMP signaling cascade may play a central role in the integration of circadian signals that control physiology and behavior.