Rapid real-time PCR assays for detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae with the rmpA or magA genes associated with the hypermucoviscosity phenotype: screening of nonhuman primates.
ABSTRACT: The relationship of mucoviscosity-associated (magA) and/or regulator of mucoid phenotype (rmpA) genes to the Klebsiella pneumoniae hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotype has been reported. We previously demonstrated that rmpA+ K. pneumoniae can cause serious disease in African green monkeys and isolated rmpA+ and magA+ HMV K. pneumoniae from other species of non-human primates. To rapidly screen African green monkeys/non-human primates for these infections, we developed three real-time PCR assays. The first was K. pneumoniae-specific, targeting the khe gene, while the others targeted rmpA and magA. Primer Express 2 was used with the three K. pneumoniae genes to generate sequence-specific TaqMan/TaqMan-Minor Groove Binder assays. Oral/rectal swabs and necropsy samples were collected; swabs were used for routine culture and DNA extraction. K. pneumoniae colonies were identified on the Vitek 2 with DNA tested using the K. pneumoniae-specific assays. Testing of 45 African green monkeys resulted in 19 khe+ samples from 14 animals with none positive for either rmpA or magA. Of these 19 khe+ samples, five were culture-positive, but none were HMV "string test"-positive. Subsequent testing of 307 non-human primates resulted in 64 HMV K. pneumoniae isolates of which 42 were rmpA+ and 15 were magA+. Non-human primate testing at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases demonstrated the ability to screen both live and necropsied animals for K. pneumoniae by culture and real-time PCR to determine HMV genotype.
Project description:The polysaccharide capsule is an essential virulence factor for Klebsiella pneumoniae in both community-acquired hypervirulent strains as well as health care-associated classical strains that are posing significant challenges due to multidrug resistance. Capsule production is known to be transcriptionally regulated by a number of proteins, but very little is known about how these proteins collectively control capsule production. RmpA and RcsB are two known regulators of capsule gene expression, and RmpA is required for the hypermucoviscous (HMV) phenotype in hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains. In this report, we confirmed that these regulators performed their anticipated functions in the ATCC 43816 derivative, KPPR1S: rcsB and rmpA mutants are HMV negative and have reduced capsule gene expression. We also identified a novel transcriptional regulator, RmpC, encoded by a gene near rmpA The ?rmpC strain has reduced capsule gene expression but retains the HMV phenotype. We further showed that a regulatory cascade exists in which KvrA and KvrB, the recently characterized MarR-like regulators, and RcsB contribute to capsule regulation through regulation of the rmpA promoter and through additional mechanisms. In a murine pneumonia model, the regulator mutants have a range of colonization defects, suggesting that they regulate virulence factors in addition to capsule. Further testing of the rmpC and rmpA mutants revealed that they have distinct and overlapping functions and provide evidence that HMV is not dependent on overproduction of capsule. This distinction will facilitate a better understanding of HMV and how it contributes to enhanced virulence of hypervirulent strains.IMPORTANCE Klebsiella pneumoniae continues to be a substantial public health threat due to its ability to cause health care-associated and community-acquired infections combined with its ability to acquire antibiotic resistance. Novel therapeutics are needed to combat this pathogen, and a greater understanding of its virulence factors is required for the development of new drugs. A key virulence factor for K. pneumoniae is the capsule, and community-acquired hypervirulent strains produce a capsule that causes hypermucoidy. We report here a novel capsule regulator, RmpC, and provide evidence that capsule production and the hypermucoviscosity phenotype are distinct processes. Infection studies showing that this and other capsule regulator mutants have a range of phenotypes indicate that additional virulence factors are in their regulons. These results shed new light on the mechanisms controlling capsule production and introduce targets that may prove useful for the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of this increasingly problematic pathogen.
Project description:The prevalence of a new hypervirulent and hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae phenotype (Hmv) is increasing worldwide, mainly linked to serotypes K1 and K2. Since capsular thickness can directly affect the capability to form biofilms, we aimed to evaluate the association between the Hmv phenotype with adhesion and biofilm formation in a collection of clinical K. pneumoniae isolates. We selected 38 Hmv clinical isolates [15 serotype K1; 9 serotype K2; 3 non-K1/K2 (rmpA+); 11 non-K1/K2 (rmpA-)] and 7 non-Hmv clinical isolates. The Hmv phenotype was assessed through the mucoviscosity test. Serum resistance was determined by bacterial viability tests in pooled human serum. Adhesion was evaluated with the Biofilm Ring Test®, and biofilm formation was identified by crystal violet staining (Solid-Liquid, SLI-biofilm) or visual examination (Air-Liquid, ALI-biofilm). This study linked for the first time the formation of robust ALI-biofilm plugs by K. pneumoniae to the capsular serotype K1, a group of hypervirulent strains which are generally highly susceptible to the antimicrobial agents. Among all the studied isolates, the capsular serotype K1 presented lower initial adhesion despite having the adhesins mrkD and fimH but higher ALI-biofilm formation than isolates with other capsular serotypes (K2 or non-K1/K2). This structure might confer increased resistance to a group of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae serotype K1.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (MDR-hvKP) has been increasingly reported and is now recognized as a significant threat to public health; however, characterization of MDR-hvKP has not been systematically investigated. In the present study, 124 of 428 (28.92%) K. pneumoniae clinical isolates collected from January 2010 to December 2016 were identified with aerobactin and defined as hvKP; these included 94 non-MDR-KP, 20 extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae (ESBL-KP), and 10 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CR-KP) isolates. The remaining 304 isolates without presence of virulence factor aerobactin were defined as classic K. pneumoniae (cKP). The antimicrobial resistance rate of cKP was significantly higher than that of the hvKP isolates in the non-MDR-KP group, but showed no significant differences in the ESBL-KP and CR-KP groups. The detection frequencies of capsular serotype K1 (magA), hypermucoviscosity, sequence type 23 (ST23), and the virulence gene rmpA were significantly higher in the hvKP than cKP isolates in all three groups (P < 0.05). Most of the hypervirulent ESBL-KP and CR-KP isolates were K non-typeable (16/30) and harbored at least one gene for virulence (26/30). The hypervirulent ESBL-KP isolates primarily carried bla CTX-M (12/20, 60%) genes, and the hypervirulent CR-KP isolates mainly carried bla NDM- 1 (8/10, 80%) genes. Moreover, three hypervirulent ESBL-KP and two hypervirulent CR-KP isolates showed resistance to tigecycline but were sensitive to colistin. The transcriptional levels of rmpA in cKP were much lower than that in hvKP isolates in all three groups. Furthermore, overexpression of rmpA in the rmpA-low-expression cKP isolates could enhance bacterial virulence in the mouse infection experiment. In conclusion, our data suggest that the capsular serotype K1 (magA), rmpA, hypermucoviscosity, and ST23 were strongly associated with hvKP in non-MDR-KP, ESBL-KP, and CR-KP groups, and low rmpA expression levels contributed to the absence of hypervirulent phenotype.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Klebsiella pneumoniae causes both nosocomial and community-associated infections. Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKP), new variant of K. pneumoniae, can cause invasive infections in young healthy individuals as well as in the immunocompromised population. Hypervirulent strains frequently belong to capsular serotypes K1 or K2. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in hvKP is a cause for concern. AIM AND OBJECTIVE:The present study was done to detect the K1 and K2 serotypes among clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae, spectrum of infections caused by them and presence of common beta-lactamases encoding genes in them. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 370 isolates of K. pneumoniae, isolated from various clinical samples over a period of 1 year was included in this study. Antibiotic susceptibility testing to various classes of antimicrobials was done as per Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. The presence of K2A (specific to serotype K2), magA (specific to serotype K1), and rmpA genes was detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (TEM, SHV, and CTX-M), plasmid-mediated AmpCs (MOX, CIT, DHA, ACC, EBC, and FOX), and carbapenemase genes (IMP, VIM, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48) were also determined by PCR. RESULTS:Among the 370 isolates, 8 harbored K2A gene and one harbored magA. rmpA gene was detected in three isolates along with K1 or K2 serotypes. Seven K2A-positive isolates were resistant to one or more classes of antimicrobials. The studied ESBL genes were present in four isolates. Two isolates harbored carbapenemase genes (NDM-1, OXA-48) along with ESBLs. CONCLUSION:K2 serotype is more prevalent among hvKP isolates. They can harbor ESBLs and Carbapenemase genes. K1 serotype is rather uncommon in K. pneumoniae. Acquisition of multidrug-resistant genes by these strains adds to their virulence and limits the treatment options.
Project description:PCR amplification of baboon endogenous virus (BaEV) long terminal repeat, reverse transcriptase gene, and env fragments from 24 different species of African monkeys indicates that BaEV is less widespread than was formerly thought. Instead of being present in every species of African primates, BaEV can be found only in baboons, geladas, and mangabeys (all belonging to the Papionini tribe) and in African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops)subspecies. BaEV, which can be activated from baboon and gelada tissues, was most likely introduced in the germ line only recently (less than a few million years ago) and has not been inherited from a common ancestor of all extant African monkeys. Neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood analyses of the sequences obtained showed that two distinct virus clusters can be distinguished: the first containing baboon, gelada, and African green monkey BaEV sequences and the second consisting of mandrill and mangabey BaEV sequences. This viral evolutionary tree does not follow host phylogeny, indicating the cross-species transmissions and multiple germ line fixations of the virus must have occurred in the past. BaEV sequences are found in monkeys inhabiting savannas (baboons, geladas, and African green monkeys) as well as forests (managabeys and mandrills) and cluster according to the habitats of their hosts, providing evidence for cross-species transmission in shared habitats.
Project description:Background:The emergence of the NDM-1-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) strains has led to limited therapeutic options for clinical treatment. Understanding the clinical characteristics, antimicrobial resistance, biofilm assay, and the virulence genes of these isolated strains is of great significance. Methods:The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen isolated NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae. The clinical information of the patients was collected from medical records. The NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing. Sixty strains of NDM-1-negative K. pneumoniae isolated during the same period were collected as the control group for the virulence analysis. The virulence phenotype of the strains was preliminarily evaluated by the string test and crystal violet semiquantitative biofilm formation experiment. PCR combined with gene sequencing was used to detect common high toxicity capsule genes (K1, K2, K5, K20, K54, and K57) and common virulence-related genes (entB, ybtS, ureA, ycf, WabG, FimH, uge, iutA, KfuB, aerobactin, rmpA, magA, Alls, IrnN, and VatD). Results:In the 30 nonduplicated NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates, 43.33% (13/30) of the patients had a history of a stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). All of the isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. Nine STs were identified, 77% (10/13) strains from the NICU were ST11. The NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae string tests were all negative, and 35% (21/60) NDM-1-negative K. pneumoniae were positive. The ratios of NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates biofilm formation ability according to strong, medium, and weak classification were 67%, 23%, and 10%, respectively. NDM-1-negative K. pneumoniae isolates were 60%, 25%, and 15%, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the two groups (t?=?0.61, P=0.2723). The virulence-associated genes with more than 80% of detection rates among the 30 NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates included entB (100%, 30/30), ybtS (93.33%, 28/30), ureA (90%, 27/30), ycf (83.33%, 25/30), and wabG (90%, 27/30). KfuB and iutA were detected at prevalence of 3.33% and 13.33%. vatD, allS, iroN, aerobactin, and rmpA were not detected. In the NDM-1-negative K. pneumoniae, all other 14 virulence genes except VatD were detected. After statistical analysis, FimH, WabG, ycf, iutA, kfuB, aerobactin, rmpA, and Alls virulence genes, P < 0.005, there was a statistical difference. Conclusion:NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae exhibited multidrug resistance, MLST typing is mainly ST11, there is small clonal dissemination in the NICU in the hospital, and the NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae virulence genes carrier rate is lower than the NDM-1-negative K. pneumoniae virulence genes carrier rate.
Project description:Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) is one of the most important etiological factors of urinary tract infections in renal transplant (RTx) recipients. We described the antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes and genomic features of two hypermucoviscous (HM) Kp isolates recovered from RTx recipients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). Using whole genome sequencing (WGS) data, we showed that the strains belong to the ST152 lineage with the KL149 capsular serotype, but without rmpA/magA genes, which is typical for HM+ hypervirulent Kp. These new strains carried virulence-associated genes that predispose for urinary tract infections (UTIs). Likewise, both strains carried the ecp gene encoding pilus common for extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli. Although the two ST152 isolates were closely related and differed by only nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in their chromosomes, they had different plasmid compositions and chromosomal elements, with isolate KP28872 carrying an ESBL plasmid and an integrative conjugative element. These two isolates are an example of the high plasticity of the K. pneumoniae accessory genome. The identification of patients with ABU matched with the correct epidemiological profiling of isolates could facilitate interventions to prevent or rapidly treat K. pneumoniae infections.
Project description:Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are a historically important source of zoonotic viruses and are a gold-standard model for research on many human pathogens. However, with the exception of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (family Retroviridae), the blood-borne viruses harbored by these animals in the wild remain incompletely characterized. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of two novel simian pegiviruses (family Flaviviridae) and two novel simian arteriviruses (family Arteriviridae) in wild African green monkeys from Zambia (malbroucks [Chlorocebus cynosuros]) and South Africa (vervet monkeys [Chlorocebus pygerythrus]). We examine several aspects of infection, including viral load, genetic diversity, evolution, and geographic distribution, as well as host factors such as age, sex, and plasma cytokines. In combination with previous efforts to characterize blood-borne RNA viruses in wild primates across sub-Saharan Africa, these discoveries demonstrate that in addition to SIV, simian pegiviruses and simian arteriviruses are widespread and prevalent among many African cercopithecoid (i.e., Old World) monkeys.Primates are an important source of viruses that infect humans and serve as an important laboratory model of human virus infection. Here, we discover two new viruses in African green monkeys from Zambia and South Africa. In combination with previous virus discovery efforts, this finding suggests that these virus types are widespread among African monkeys. Our analysis suggests that one of these virus types, the simian arteriviruses, may have the potential to jump between different primate species and cause disease. In contrast, the other virus type, the pegiviruses, are thought to reduce the disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans. However, we did not observe a similar protective effect in SIV-infected African monkeys coinfected with pegiviruses, possibly because SIV causes little to no disease in these hosts.
Project description:The four serotypes of mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4) that circulate in humans each emerged from an enzootic, sylvatic cycle in non-human primates. Herein, we present the first study of sylvatic DENV infection dynamics in a primate. Three African green monkeys were inoculated with 10(5) plaque-forming units (pfu) DENV-2 strain PM33974 from the sylvatic cycle, and one African green monkey was inoculated with 10(5) pfu DENV-2 strain New Guinea C from the human cycle. All four monkeys seroconverted (more than fourfold rise in 80% plaque reduction neutralization titer [PRNT80]) against the strain of DENV with which they were inoculated; only one (33%) of three monkeys infected with sylvatic DENV showed a neutralizing antibody response against human-endemic DENV. Virus was detected in two of three monkeys inoculated with sylvatic DENV at low titer (? 1.3 log10pfu/mL) and brief duration (? 2 days). Clinical signs included rash and elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels.
Project description:Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia biofilm traits and distribution characteristics have not been clarified. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of K. pneumoniae bacteremia biofilm formation (BF) and to explore the virulence factors associated with K. pneumoniae BF. A total of 250 K. pneumoniae bacteremia isolates were collected from patients in Shenzhen and Shanghai, China. Virulence genes in their genomes were detected by PCR. The isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and clonal complex (CC) classification based on housekeeping genes. Biofilms were detected by crystal violet staining. Greater BF was observed in isolates from young adults (<40 years old) than in those from seniors (?65 years old; P = 0.002). MLST yielded 65 different sequence types (STs), with the most represented STs being ST11, ST23, and ST65, and the main CCs were CC23 and CC65; CC23 isolates exhibited greater BF than CC65 or ST11 isolates (both P < 0.001). BF was more pronounced among magA(K1), aero+, rmpA+, rmpA2+, allS+, wcaG+, and iutA+ isolates than in isolates that were negative for these virulence factors. Multivariate regression analysis revealed only wcaG as an independent risk factor for BF (odds ratio 11.426, P < 0.001), and BF was decreased when wcaG was silenced by antisense RNA. In conclusion, BF in K. pneumoniae bacteremia isolates was found to be associated with CC23 classification and the presence of the wcaG virulence factor gene.