The aldo-keto reductase Akr1b7 gene is a common transcriptional target of xenobiotic receptors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor.
ABSTRACT: Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) family 1, member 7 (AKR1B7), a member of the AKR superfamily, has been suggested to play an important role in the detoxification of lipid peroxidation by-products. The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are xenosensors postulated to alleviate xeno- and endobiotic chemical insults. In this study, we show that the mouse Akr1b7 is a shared transcriptional target of PXR and CAR in the liver and intestine. Treatment of wild-type mice with the PXR agonist pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) activated Akr1b7 gene expression, whereas the effect was abrogated in PXR(-/-) mice. Similarly, the activation of Akr1b7 gene expression by the CAR agonist 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichlorpyridyloxyl)]-benzene, seen in wild-type mice, was abolished in CAR(-/-) mice. The promoter of Akr1b7 gene was activated by PXR and CAR, and this activation was achieved through the binding of PXR-retinoid X receptor (RXR) or CAR-RXR heterodimers to direct repeat-4 type nuclear receptor-binding sites found in the Akr1b7 gene promoter. At the functional level, treatment with PCN in wild-type mice, but not PXR(-/-) mice, led to a decreased intestinal accumulation of malondialdehyde, a biomarker of lipid peroxidation. The regulation of Akr1b7 by PXR was independent of the liver X receptor (LXR), another nuclear receptor known to regulate this AKR isoform. Because a major function of Akr1b7 is to detoxify lipid peroxidation, the PXR-, CAR-, and LXR-controlled regulatory network of Akr1b7 may have contributed to alleviate toxicity associated with lipid peroxidation.
Project description:Aldo-keto reductases (Akrs) are a conserved group of NADPH-dependent oxido-reductase enzymes. This study provides a comprehensive examination of the tissue distribution of the 16 substrate-metabolizing Akrs in mice, their expression during development, and whether they are altered by chemicals that activate distinct transcriptional factor pathways. Akr1c6, 1c14, 1c20, and 1c22 are primarily present in liver; Akr1a4, 1c18, 1c21, and 7a5 in kidney; Akr1d1 in liver and kidney; Akr1b7 in small intestine; Akr1b3 and Akr1e1 in brain; Akr1b8 in testes; Akr1c14 in ovaries; and Akrs1c12, 1c13, and 1c19 are expressed in numerous tissues. Liver expression of Akr1d1 and Akr1c is lowest during prenatal and postnatal development. However, by 20 days of age, liver Akr1d1 increases 120-fold, and Akr1c mRNAs increase as much as 5-fold (Akr1c19) to 1000-fold (Akr1c6). Treatment of mice with chemical activators of transcription factors constitutive androgen receptor (CAR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and the nuclear factor-erythroid-2 (Nrf2) transcription factor alters liver mRNAs of Akrs. Specifically, CAR activation by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) increases mRNAs of Akr1b7, Akr1c6, Akr1c19, and Akr1d1, whereas PXR activation by 5-pregnenolone-16?-carbonitrile (PCN) increases the mRNA of Akr1b7 and suppresses mRNAs of Akr1c13 and Akr1c20. The Nrf2 activator 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) induces mRNAs of Akr1c6 and Akr1c19. Moreover, Nrf2-null and Nrf2 overexpressing mice demonstrate that this induction is Nrf2-dependent.
Project description:Safety concerns have emerged regarding the potential long-lasting effects due to developmental exposure to xenobiotics. The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are critical xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptors that are highly expressed in liver. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that neonatal exposure to PXR- or CAR-activators not only acutely but also persistently regulates the expression of drug-processing genes (DPGs). A single dose of the PXR-ligand PCN (75?mg/kg), CAR-ligand TCPOBOP (3?mg/kg), or vehicle (corn oil) was administered intraperitoneally to 3-day-old neonatal wild-type mice. Livers were collected 24?h post-dose or from adult mice at 60 days of age, and global gene expression of these mice was determined using Affymetrix Mouse Transcriptome Assay 1.0. In neonatal liver, PCN up-regulated 464 and down-regulated 449 genes, whereas TCPOBOP up-regulated 308 and down-regulated 112 genes. In adult liver, there were 15 persistently up-regulated and 22 persistently down-regulated genes following neonatal exposure to PCN, as well as 130 persistently up-regulated and 18 persistently down-regulated genes following neonatal exposure to TCPOBOP. Neonatal exposure to both PCN and TCPOBOP persistently down-regulated multiple Cyp4a members, which are prototypical-target genes of the lipid-sensor PPAR?, and this correlated with decreased PPAR?-binding to the Cyp4a gene loci. RT-qPCR, western blotting, and enzyme activity assays in livers of wild-type, PXR-null, and CAR-null mice confirmed that the persistent down-regulation of Cyp4a was PXR and CAR dependent. In conclusion, neonatal exposure to PXR- and CAR-activators both acutely and persistently regulates critical genes involved in xenobiotic and lipid metabolism in liver.
Project description:The nuclear receptor PXR (Pregnane X rreceptor) mediates the effects of pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) on gene transcription. The relative role of PXR and also CAR to the induction response by PCN was studied on cDNA arrays containing 320 (Steroltalk V2) genes (genes involved in cyrcadian rhythm, drug metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, sterol synthesis/transport, heme synthesis). Samples from livers of wild type and CAR-/-, PXR-/- or CAR/PXR-/- knockout mice were tested after treatment with PCN for gene expression within the European Framework V program âSteroltalkâ (www.steroltalk.net). Results from these experiments show the complex role of PXR receptor in the expression of genes involved in cyrcadian rhythm, drug metabolism and cholesterol biosynthesis. Animals were injected i.p. 40mg/kg PCN or vehicle (5% DMSO in corn oil). After 12h they were sacrificed and total RNA was isolated from the livers. Pools of untreated samples were mixed in each genetic variant group (wild type and CAR-/-, PXR-/- or CAR/PXR-/-) with the PCN treated ones and hybridized to Steroltalk V2 arrays.
Project description:Xenobiotic-responsive nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) play pivotal roles in the metabolic functions of the liver such as xenobiotics detoxification and energy metabolism. While CAR or PPAR? activation induces hepatocyte proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis in rodent models, it remains unclear whether PXR activation also shows such effects. In the present study, we have investigated the role of PXR in the xenobiotic-induced hepatocyte proliferation with or without CAR activation by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) and phenobarbital, or PPAR? activation by Wy-14643 in mice. Treatment with TCPOBOP or phenobarbital increased the percentage of Ki-67-positive nuclei as well as mRNA levels of cell proliferation-related genes in livers as expected. On the other hand, treatment with the PXR activator pregnenolone 16?-carbonitrile (PCN) alone showed no such effects. Surprisingly, PCN co-treatment significantly augmented the hepatocyte proliferation induced by CAR activation with TCPOBOP or phenobarbital in wild-type mice but not in PXR-deficient mice. Intriguingly, PXR activation also augmented the hepatocyte proliferation induced by Wy-14643 treatment. Moreover, PCN treatment increased the RNA content of hepatocytes, suggesting the induction of G0/G1 transition, and reduced mRNA levels of Cdkn1b and Rbl2, encoding suppressors of cell cycle initiation. Our present findings indicate that xenobiotic-induced hepatocyte proliferation mediated by CAR or PPAR? is enhanced by PXR co-activation despite that PXR activation alone does not cause the cell proliferation in mouse livers. Thus PXR may play a novel and unique role in the hepatocyte/liver hyperplasia upon exposure to xenobiotics.
Project description:The nuclear receptor PXR (Pregnane X rreceptor) mediates the effects of pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) on gene transcription. The relative role of PXR and also CAR to the induction response by PCN was studied on cDNA arrays containing 320 (Steroltalk V2) genes (genes involved in cyrcadian rhythm, drug metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, sterol synthesis/transport, heme synthesis). Samples from livers of wild type and CAR-/-, PXR-/- or CAR/PXR-/- knockout mice were tested after treatment with PCN for gene expression within the European Framework V program “Steroltalk” (www.steroltalk.net). Results from these experiments show the complex role of PXR receptor in the expression of genes involved in cyrcadian rhythm, drug metabolism and cholesterol biosynthesis. Animals were injected i.p. 40mg/kg PCN or vehicle (5% DMSO in corn oil). After 12h they were sacrificed and total RNA was isolated from the livers. Pools of untreated samples were mixed in each genetic variant group (wild type and CAR-/-, PXR-/- or CAR/PXR-/-) with the PCN treated ones and hybridized to Steroltalk V2 arrays.
Project description:Aldo-keto reductase 1B7 (AKR1B7) is proposed to play a role in detoxification of by-products of lipid peroxidation. In this article, we show that activation of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) induces AKR1B7 expression in the liver and intestine, and reduces the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), the end product of lipid peroxidation, in the intestine but not in the liver. To determine whether AKR1B7 regulates MDA levels in vivo, we overexpressed AKR1B7 in the liver. Overexpression of AKR1B7 in the liver had no effect on hepatic or plasma MDA levels. Interestingly, hepatic expression of AKR1B7 significantly lowered plasma glucose levels in both wild-type and diabetic db/db mice, which was associated with reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis. Hepatic expression of AKR1B7 also significantly lowered hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels in db/db mice. These data reveal a novel function for AKR1B7 in lipid and glucose metabolism and suggest that AKR1B7 may not play a role in detoxification of lipid peroxides in the liver. AKR1B7 may be a therapeutic target for treatment of fatty liver disease associated with diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Altered expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) by environmental chemicals modulates the expression of xenobiotic biotransformation-related genes and may serve as therapeutic targets and novel biomarkers of exposure. The pregnane X receptor (PXR/NR1I2) is a critical xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of many drug-processing genes, and it has similar target-gene profiles and DNA-binding motifs with another xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor, namely, constitutive andronstrane receptor (CAR/Nr1i3). To test our hypothesis that lncRNAs are regulated by PXR in concert with protein-coding genes (PCGs) and to compare the PXR-targeted lncRNAs with CAR-targeted lncRNAs, RNA-Seq was performed from livers of adult male C57BL/6 mice treated with corn oil, the PXR agonist PCN, or the CAR agonist 1, 4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP). Among 125,680 known lncRNAs, 3843 were expressed in liver, and 193 were differentially regulated by PXR (among which 40% were also regulated by CAR). Most PXR- or CAR-regulated lncRNAs were mapped to the introns and 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of PCGs, as well as intergenic regions. Combining the RNA-Seq data with a published PXR chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing; cytochrome P450 (P450; ChIP-Seq) data set, we identified 774 expressed lncRNAs with direct PXR-DNA binding sites, and 26.8% of differentially expressed lncRNAs had changes in PXR-DNA binding after PCN exposure. De novo motif analysis identified colocalization of PXR with liver receptor homolog (LRH-1), which regulates bile acid synthesis after PCN exposure. There was limited overlap of PXR binding with an epigenetic mark for transcriptional activation (histone-H3K4-di-methylation, H3K4me2) but no overlap with epigenetic marks for transcriptional silencing [H3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3) and DNA methylation]. Among differentially expressed lncRNAs, 264 were in proximity of PCGs, and the lncRNA-PCG pairs displayed a high coregulatory pattern by PXR and CAR activation. This study was among the first to demonstrate that lncRNAs are regulated by PXR and CAR activation and that they may be important regulators of PCGs involved in xenobiotic metabolism.
Project description:The gut microbiome regulates important host metabolic pathways including xenobiotic metabolism and intermediary metabolism, such as the conversion of primary bile acids (BAs) into secondary BAs. The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are well-known regulators for xenobiotic biotransformation in liver. However, little is known regarding the potential effects of PXR and CAR on the composition and function of the gut microbiome. To test our hypothesis that activation of PXR and CAR regulates gut microbiota and secondary BA synthesis, 9-week-old male conventional and germ-free mice were orally gavaged with corn oil, PXR agonist PCN (75 mg/kg), or CAR agonist TCPOBOP (3 mg/kg) once daily for 4 days. PCN and TCPOBOP decreased two taxa in the Bifidobacterium genus, which corresponded with decreased gene abundance of the BA-deconjugating enzyme bile salt hydrolase. In liver and small intestinal content of germ-free mice, there was a TCPOBOP-mediated increase in total, primary, and conjugated BAs corresponding with increased Cyp7a1 mRNA. Bifidobacterium, Dorea, Peptociccaceae, Anaeroplasma, and Ruminococcus positively correlated with T-UDCA in LIC, but negatively correlated with T-CDCA in serum. In conclusion, PXR and CAR activation downregulates BA-metabolizing bacteria in the intestine and modulates BA homeostasis in a gut microbiota-dependent manner.
Project description:The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are well-known xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptors with overlapping functions. However, there lacks a quantitative characterization to distinguish between the PXR and CAR target genes and signaling pathways in the liver. The present study performed a transcriptomic comparison of the PXR- and CAR-targets using RNA-Seq in livers of adult wild-type mice that were treated with the prototypical PXR ligand PCN (200mg/kg, i.p. once daily for 4days in corn oil) or the prototypical CAR ligand TCPOBOP (3mg/kg, i.p., once daily for 4days in corn oil). At the given doses, TCPOBOP differentially regulated many more genes (2125) than PCN (212), and 147 of the same genes were differentially regulated by both chemicals. As expected, the top pathways differentially regulated by both PCN and TCPOBOP were involved in xenobiotic metabolism, and they also up-regulated genes involved in retinoid metabolism, but down-regulated genes involved in inflammation and iron homeostasis. Regarding unique pathways, PXR activation appeared to overlap with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, whereas CAR activation appeared to overlap with the farnesoid X receptor signaling, acute-phase response, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The mRNAs of differentially regulated drug-processing genes (DPGs) partitioned into three patterns, namely TCPOBOP-induced, PCN-induced, as well as TCPOBOP-suppressed gene clusters. The cumulative mRNAs of the differentially regulated DPGs, phase-I and -II enzymes, as well as efflux transporters were all up-regulated by both PCN and TCPOBOPOP, whereas the cumulative mRNAs of the uptake transporters were down-regulated only by TCPOBOP. The absolute mRNA abundance in control and receptor-activated conditions was examined in each DPG category to predict the contribution of specific DPG genes in the PXR/CAR-mediated pharmacokinetic responses. The preferable differential regulation by TCPOBOP in the entire hepatic transcriptome correlated with a marked change in the expression of many DNA and histone epigenetic modifiers. In conclusion, the present study has revealed known and novel, as well as common and unique targets of PXR and CAR in mouse liver following pharmacological activation using their prototypical ligands. Results from this study will further support the role of these receptors in regulating the homeostasis of xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism in the liver, and aid in distinguishing between PXR and CAR signaling at various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie.
Project description:We have studied the molecular mechanism by which the nuclear xenobiotic receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) regulate transcription of the vitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) gene. In the absence of vitamin D(3), PXR activates the CYP24A1 gene by directly binding to and transactivating vitamin D-response elements (VDREs) within its promoter. Vitamin D(3) activates the CYP24A1 promoter by dissociating the corepressor silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) from the vitamin D receptor (VDR) on those VDREs. PXR strongly represses vitamin D(3) activation of the CYP24A1 gene, in which PXR indirectly binds to and prevents vitamin D(3)-dependent dissociation of SMRT from the CYP24A1 promoter. The degree of the PXR-mediated locking of SMRT depends on the relative concentration of vitamin D(3) to the human PXR activator rifampicin; SMRT increased its dissociation as this ratio increased. CAR is also found to prevent dissociation of SMRT from the CYP24A1 promoter. Thus, our present study defines the novel molecular mechanism by which PXR and CAR mediate drug interactions with vitamin D(3) to regulate the CYP24A1 gene. Pxr(+/+) and Pxr(-/-) mice were continuously treated with mouse PXR activator PCN to evaluate the hypothesis that induction of the Cyp24a1 gene is responsible for the loss of bone mineral density often observed in patients treated continuously with PXR-activating drugs. PCN-dependent loss of mineral density is observed in the metaphyseal bones of only the Pxr(+/+) mice. This loss, however, does not correlate with the expression levels of the Cyp24a1 gene in these mice.