Identification of Comamonas species using 16S rRNA gene sequence.
ABSTRACT: A bacterial strain Bz02 was isolated from a water sample collected from river Gomti at the Indian city of Lucknow. We characterized the strain using 16S rRNA sequence. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain formed a monophyletic clade with members of the genus Comamonas. The closest phylogenetic relative was Comamonas testosteroni with 95% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. It is proposed that the identified strain Bz02 be assigned as the type strain of a species of the genus Comamonas (Comamonas sp Bz02) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence search in Ribosomal Database Project, small subunit rRNA and large subunit rRNA databases together with the phylogenetic tree analysis. The sequence is deposted in GenBank with the accession number FJ211417.
Project description:Purpose: find testosterone/17 beta-estradiol degrading genes in strain Comamonas testosteroni JLU460ET Overall design: Strain Comamonas testosteroni JLU460ET was incabated with testosterone or 17 beta-estradiol. Samples were collected at different incubation time points for RNA sequencing.
Project description:A Gram-negative bacterial strain, Comamonas aquatica CJG, absorbs low-density lipoprotein but not high-density lipoprotein in serum. Here, we report its draft genomic sequence of 3,764,434 bp, containing total 3,425 genes, 27% of which encode proteins for metabolism and energy conversion, and it is 30% identical to the genome of Comamonas testosteroni.
Project description:Comamonas species are rarely associated with human infections. Recent reports found that Comamonas kerstersii was associated with severe diseases such as abdominal infection and bacteremia. However, C. kerstersii maybe be confused with Comamonas testosteroni using the automatic bacterial identification systems currently available.A 31-year-old man who had onset of left upper abdominal pain developed clinical manifestations of right lower abdominal pain and classic migration of pain at the temperature of 39°C. The positive strain of aerobic and anaerobic bottles of blood cultures was identified.The patient was diagnosed as acute peritonitis and perforated appendix with abdominal abscess.The bacterium was identified by routine methods, MALDI-TOF-MS and PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA. The patient was treated with exploratory laparotomy, appendectomy, tube drainage, and prescribing antibiotic treatment.The patients were discharged with complete recovery. The organisms were confirmed as C. kerstersii by MALDI-TOF-MS and a combination of the other results.Our findings suggest that C. kerstersii infection occurs most often in association with perforated appendix and bacteremia. We presume that C. kerstersii is an opportunistic pathogen or commensal with the digestive tract and appendix bacteria.
Project description:Numerous studies have reported the masculinization of freshwater wildlife exposed to androgens in polluted rivers. Microbial degradation is a crucial mechanism for eliminating steroid hormones from contaminated ecosystems. The aerobic degradation of testosterone was observed in various bacterial isolates. However, the ecophysiological relevance of androgen-degrading microorganisms in the environment is unclear. Here, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms and corresponding microorganisms of androgen degradation in aerobic sewage. Sewage samples collected from the Dihua Sewage Treatment Plant (Taipei, Taiwan) were aerobically incubated with testosterone (1?mM). Androgen metabolite analysis revealed that bacteria adopt the 9, 10-seco pathway to degrade testosterone. A metagenomic analysis indicated the apparent enrichment of Comamonas spp. (mainly C. testosteroni) and Pseudomonas spp. in sewage incubated with testosterone. We used the degenerate primers derived from the meta-cleavage dioxygenase gene (tesB) of various proteobacteria to track this essential catabolic gene in the sewage. The amplified sequences showed the highest similarity (87-96%) to tesB of C. testosteroni. Using quantitative PCR, we detected a remarkable increase of the 16S rRNA and catabolic genes of C. testosteroni in the testosterone-treated sewage. Together, our data suggest that C. testosteroni, the model microorganism for aerobic testosterone degradation, plays a role in androgen biodegradation in aerobic sewage.
Project description:Members of the gram-negative, strictly aerobic genus Comamonas occur in various environments. Here we report the complete genome of Comamonas testosteroni strain CNB-2. Strain CNB-2 has a circular chromosome that is 5,373,643 bp long and has a G+C content of 61.4%. A total of 4,803 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified; 3,514 of these ORFs are functionally assigned to energy production, cell growth, signal transduction, or transportation, while 866 ORFs encode hypothetical proteins and 423 ORFs encode purely hypothetical proteins. The CNB-2 genome has many genes for transportation (22%) and signal transduction (6%), which allows the cells to respond and adapt to changing environments. Strain CNB-2 does not assimilate carbohydrates due to the lack of genes encoding proteins involved in glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways, and it contains many genes encoding proteins involved in degradation of aromatic compounds. We identified 66 Tct and nine TRAP-T systems and a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, which may allow CNB-2 to take up and metabolize a range of carboxylic acids. This nutritional bias for carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds enables strain CNB-2 to occupy unique niches in environments. Four different sets of terminal oxidases for the respiratory system were identified, and they putatively functioned at different oxygen concentrations. This study conclusively revealed at the genomic level that the genetic versatility of C. testosteroni is vital for competition with other bacteria in its special niches.
Project description:Comamonas testosteroni TA441 has a complete phenol degradation gene cluster but does not degrade phenol because the cluster is tightly repressed. However, mutant strains that can degrade phenol arise by spontaneous mutations of a repressor gene during incubation with phenol. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain TA441.
Project description:A strain identified as Comamonas testosteroni I2 was isolated from activated sludge and found to be able to mineralize 3-chloroaniline (3-CA). During the mineralization, a yellow intermediate accumulated temporarily, due to the distal meta-cleavage of chlorocatechol. This strain was tested for its ability to clean wastewater containing 3-CA upon inoculation into activated sludge. To monitor its survival, the strain was chromosomally marked with the gfp gene and designated I2gfp. After inoculation into a lab-scale semicontinuous activated-sludge (SCAS) system, the inoculated strain maintained itself in the sludge for at least 45 days and was present in the sludge flocs. After an initial adaptation period of 6 days, complete degradation of 3-CA was obtained during 2 weeks, while no degradation at all occurred in the noninoculated control reactor. Upon further operation of the SCAS system, only 50% 3-CA removal was observed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes revealed a dynamic change in the microbial community structure of the activated sludge. The DGGE patterns of the noninoculated and the inoculated reactors evolved after 7 days to different clusters, which suggests an effect of strain inoculation on the microbial community structure. The results indicate that bioaugmentation, even with a strain originating from that ecosystem and able to effectively grow on a selective substrate, is not permanent and will probably require regular resupplementation.
Project description:The potential for microbially mediated redox cycling of iron (Fe) in a circumneutral-pH groundwater seep in north central Alabama was studied. Incubation of freshly collected seep material under anoxic conditions with acetate-lactate or H(2) as an electron donor revealed the potential for rapid Fe(III) oxide reduction (ca. 700 to 2,000 micromol liter(-1) day(-1)). Fe(III) reduction at lower but significant rates took place in unamended controls (ca. 300 micromol liter(-1) day(-1)). Culture-based enumerations (most probable numbers [MPNs]) revealed significant numbers (10(2) to 10(6) cells ml(-1)) of organic carbon- and H(2)-oxidizing dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms. Three isolates with the ability to reduce Fe(III) oxides by dissimilatory or fermentative metabolism were obtained (Geobacter sp. strain IST-3, Shewanella sp. strain IST-21, and Bacillus sp. strain IST-38). MPN analysis also revealed the presence of microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms (10(3) to 10(5) cells ml(-1)). A 16S rRNA gene library from the iron seep was dominated by representatives of the Betaproteobacteria including Gallionella, Leptothrix, and Comamonas species. Aerobic Fe(II)-oxidizing Comamonas sp. strain IST-3 was isolated. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this organism is 100% similar to the type strain of the betaproteobacterium Comamonas testosteroni (M11224). Testing of the type strain showed no Fe(II) oxidation. Collectively our results suggest that active microbial Fe redox cycling occurred within this habitat and support previous conceptual models for how microbial Fe oxidation and reduction can be coupled in surface and subsurface sedimentary environments.
Project description:Comamonas testosteroni TK102 (NBRC 109938; JCM 19603) can utilize biphenyl as a sole carbon source and degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The complete nucleotide sequence of the TK102 genome was determined. TK102 possesses several integrative and conjugative element-like regions, and one of them carries biphenyl-degradative genes.
Project description:Comamonas testosteroni T-2 degrades p-toluenesulfonate (TSA) via p-sulfobenzoate (PSB) and protocatechuate and degrades toluenecarboxylate via terephthalate (TER) and protocatechuate. The appropriate genes are expressed in at least five regulatory units, some of which are also found in C. testosteroni PSB-4 (F. Junker, R. Kiewitz, and A. M. Cook, J. Bacteriol. 179:919-927, 1997). C. testosteroni T-2 was found to contain two plasmids, pTSA (85 kbp) and pT2T (50 kbp); a TSA- mutant (strain TER-1) contained only plasmid pT2T. C. testosteroni PSB-4, which does not degrade TSA, contained one plasmid, pPSB (85 kbp). The type strain contained no plasmids. Conjugation experiments showed that plasmid pTSA (possibly in conjunction with pT2T) was conjugative, and the single copy of the TSA operon (tsaMBCD) with its putative regulator gene (tsaR) in strain T-2 was found on plasmid pTSA, which also carried the PSB genes (psbAC) and presumably transport for both substrates. Plasmid pTSA was assigned to the IncP1 beta group and was found to carry two copies of insertion element IS1071. Plasmid pPSB (of strain PSB-4), which could be maintained in strains with plasmid pTSA or pT2T, was also conjugative and was found to carry the PSB genes as well as to contain two copies of IS1071. In attempted conjugations with the type strain, no plasmid was recovered, but the PSB+ transconjugant carried two copies of IS1071 in the chromosome. We presume the PSB genes to be located in a composite transposon. The genes encoding the putative TER operon and degradation of protocatechuate, with the meta cleavage pathway, were attributed a chromosomal location in strains T-2 and PSB-4.