A recent adaptive transposable element insertion near highly conserved developmental loci in Drosophila melanogaster.
ABSTRACT: A recent genomewide screen identified 13 transposable elements that are likely to have been adaptive during or after the spread of Drosophila melanogaster out of Africa. One of these insertions, Bari-Juvenile hormone epoxy hydrolase (Bari-Jheh), was associated with the selective sweep of its flanking neutral variation and with reduction of expression of one of its neighboring genes: Jheh3. Here, we provide further evidence that Bari-Jheh insertion is adaptive. We delimit the extent of the selective sweep and show that Bari-Jheh is the only mutation linked to the sweep. Bari-Jheh also lowers the expression of its other flanking gene, Jheh2. Subtle consequences of Bari-Jheh insertion on life-history traits are consistent with the effects of reduced expression of the Jheh genes. Finally, we analyze molecular evolution of Jheh genes in both the long- and the short-term and conclude that Bari-Jheh appears to be a very rare adaptive event in the history of these genes. We discuss the implications of these findings for the detection and understanding of adaptation.
Project description:Although adaptive mutations are often considered to be dominant, it has been recently shown that a substantial proportion of adaptive mutations should display heterozygote advantage. In this work, we take advantage of a recently characterized transposable element insertion mediating oxidative stress response in Drosophila melanogaster to test the dominance effect of an adaptive mutation. The comparison of the survival curves of heterozygous and the two corresponding homozygous flies indicated that the dominance effect of Bari-Jheh depends on the genetic background. Both in homozygous and in heterozygous flies, Bari-Jheh was associated with upregulation of Jheh1 (Juvenile Hormone Epoxyde Hydrolase 1) and/or Jheh2 genes. Our results add to the limited number of studies in which the dominance effect of adaptive mutations has been empirically estimated and highlights the complexity of their inheritance.
Project description:Transposable elements are emerging as an important source of cis-acting regulatory sequences and epigenetic marks that could influence gene expression. However, few studies have dissected the role of specific transposable element insertions on epigenetic gene regulation. Bari-Jheh is a natural transposon that mediates resistance to oxidative stress by adding cis-regulatory sequences that affect expression of nearby genes. In this work, we integrated publicly available ChIP-seq and piRNA data with chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments to get a more comprehensive picture of Bari-Jheh molecular effects. We showed that Bari-Jheh was enriched for H3K9me3 in nonstress conditions, and for H3K9me3, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in oxidative stress conditions, which is consistent with expression changes in adjacent genes. We further showed that under oxidative stress conditions, H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 spread to the promoter region of Jheh1 gene. Finally, another insertion of the Bari1 family was associated with increased H3K27me3 in oxidative stress conditions suggesting that Bari1 histone marks are copy-specific. We concluded that besides adding cis-regulatory sequences, Bari-Jheh influences gene expression by affecting the local chromatin state.
Project description:Patterns of nucleotide polymorphism within populations of Drosophila melanogaster suggest that insecticides have been the selective agents driving the strongest recent bouts of positive selection. However, there is a need to explicitly link selective sweeps to the particular insecticide phenotypes that could plausibly account for the drastic selective responses that are observed in these non-target insects. Here, we screen the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel with two common insecticides; malathion (an organophosphate) and permethrin (a pyrethroid). Genome-wide association studies map survival on malathion to two of the largest sweeps in the D. melanogaster genome; Ace and Cyp6g1 Malathion survivorship also correlates with lines which have high levels of Cyp12d1, Jheh1 and Jheh2 transcript abundance. Permethrin phenotypes map to the largest cluster of P450 genes in the Drosophila genome, however in contrast to a selective sweep driven by insecticide use, the derived allele seems to be associated with susceptibility. These results underscore previous findings that highlight the importance of structural variation to insecticide phenotypes: Cyp6g1 exhibits copy number variation and transposable element insertions, Cyp12d1 is tandemly duplicated, the Jheh loci are associated with a Bari1 transposable element insertion, and a Cyp6a17 deletion is associated with susceptibility.
Project description:The emergence of artesunate-mefloquine (AS+MQ)-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the Thailand-Cambodia region is a major concern for malaria control. Studies indicate that copy number increase and key alleles in the pfmdr1 gene are associated with AS+MQ resistance. In the present study, we investigated evidence for a selective sweep around pfmdr1 because of the spread of adaptive mutation and/or multiple copies of this gene in the P. falciparum population in Cambodia.We characterized 13 microsatellite loci flanking (+/-99 kb) pfmdr1 in 93 single-clone P. falciparum infections, of which 31 had multiple copies and 62 had a single copy of the pfmdr1 gene.Genetic analysis revealed no difference in the mean (+/- standard deviation) expected heterozygosity (H(e)) at loci around single (0.75+/-0.03) and multiple (0.76+/-0.04) copies of pfmdr1. Evidence of genetic hitchhiking with the selective sweep of certain haplotypes was seen around mutant (184F) pfmdr1 allele, irrespective of the copy number. There was an overall reduction of 28% in mean H(e) (+/-SD) around mutant allele (0.56+/-0.05), compared with wild-type allele (0.84+/-0.02). Significant linkage disequilibrium was also observed between the loci flanking mutant pfmdr1 allele.The 184F mutant allele is under selection, whereas amplification of pfmdr1 gene in this population occurs on multiple genetic backgrounds.
Project description:Identifying genomic locations that have experienced selective sweeps is an important first step toward understanding the molecular basis of adaptive evolution. Using statistical methods that account for the confounding effects of population demography, recombination rate variation, and single-nucleotide polymorphism ascertainment, while also providing fine-scale estimates of the position of the selected site, we analyzed a genomic dataset of 1.2 million human single-nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in African-American, European-American, and Chinese samples. We identify 101 regions of the human genome with very strong evidence (p < 10(-5)) of a recent selective sweep and where our estimate of the position of the selective sweep falls within 100 kb of a known gene. Within these regions, genes of biological interest include genes in pigmentation pathways, components of the dystrophin protein complex, clusters of olfactory receptors, genes involved in nervous system development and function, immune system genes, and heat shock genes. We also observe consistent evidence of selective sweeps in centromeric regions. In general, we find that recent adaptation is strikingly pervasive in the human genome, with as much as 10% of the genome affected by linkage to a selective sweep.
Project description:A major challenge of modern Biology is elucidating the functional consequences of natural mutations. Although we have a good understanding of the effects of laboratory-induced mutations on the molecular- and organismal-level phenotypes, the study of natural mutations has lagged behind. In this work, we explore the phenotypic space and the evolutionary history of a previously identified adaptive transposable element insertion. We first combined several tests that capture different signatures of selection to show that there is evidence of positive selection in the regions flanking FBti0019386 insertion. We then explored several phenotypes related to known phenotypic effects of nearby genes, and having plausible connections to fitness variation in nature. We found that flies with FBti0019386 insertion had a shorter developmental time and were more sensitive to stress, which are likely to be the adaptive effect and the cost of selection of this mutation, respectively. Interestingly, these phenotypic effects are not consistent with a role of FBti0019386 in temperate adaptation as has been previously suggested. Indeed, a global analysis of the population frequency of FBti0019386 showed that climatic variables explain well the FBti0019386 frequency patterns only in Australia. Finally, although FBti0019386 insertion could be inducing the formation of heterochromatin by recruiting HP1a (Heterochromatin Protein 1a) protein, the insertion is associated with upregulation of sra in adult females. Overall, our integrative approach allowed us to shed light on the evolutionary history, the relevant fitness effects, and the likely molecular mechanisms of an adaptive mutation and highlights the complexity of natural genetic variants.
Project description:There is a growing interest in investigating the relationship between genes with signatures of natural selection and genes identified in QTL mapping studies using combined population and quantitative genetics approaches. We dissected an X-linked interval of 6.2 Mb, which contains two QTL underlying variation in chill coma recovery time (CCRT) in Drosophila melanogaster from temperate (European) and tropical (African) regions. This resulted in two relatively small regions of 131 kb and 124 kb. The latter one co-localizes with a very strong selective sweep in the European population. We examined the genes within and near the sweep region individually using gene expression analysis and P-element insertion lines. Of the genes overlapping with the sweep, none appears to be related to CCRT. However, we have identified a new candidate gene of CCRT, brinker, which is located just outside the sweep region and is inducible by cold stress. We discuss these results in light of recent population genetics theories on quantitative traits.
Project description:Characterizing the nature of the adaptive process at the genetic level is a central goal for population genetics. In particular, we know little about the sources of adaptive substitution or about the number of adaptive variants currently segregating in nature. Historically, population geneticists have focused attention on the hard-sweep model of adaptation in which a de novo beneficial mutation arises and rapidly fixes in a population. Recently more attention has been given to soft-sweep models, in which alleles that were previously neutral, or nearly so, drift until such a time as the environment shifts and their selection coefficient changes to become beneficial. It remains an active and difficult problem, however, to tease apart the telltale signatures of hard vs. soft sweeps in genomic polymorphism data. Through extensive simulations of hard- and soft-sweep models, here we show that indeed the two might not be separable through the use of simple summary statistics. In particular, it seems that recombination in regions linked to, but distant from, sites of hard sweeps can create patterns of polymorphism that closely mirror what is expected to be found near soft sweeps. We find that a very similar situation arises when using haplotype-based statistics that are aimed at detecting partial or ongoing selective sweeps, such that it is difficult to distinguish the shoulder of a hard sweep from the center of a partial sweep. While knowing the location of the selected site mitigates this problem slightly, we show that stochasticity in signatures of natural selection will frequently cause the signal to reach its zenith far from this site and that this effect is more severe for soft sweeps; thus inferences of the target as well as the mode of positive selection may be inaccurate. In addition, both the time since a sweep ends and biologically realistic levels of allelic gene conversion lead to errors in the classification and identification of selective sweeps. This general problem of "soft shoulders" underscores the difficulty in differentiating soft and partial sweeps from hard-sweep scenarios in molecular population genomics data. The soft-shoulder effect also implies that the more common hard sweeps have been in recent evolutionary history, the more prevalent spurious signatures of soft or partial sweeps may appear in some genome-wide scans.
Project description:Multiple kelch13 alleles conferring artemisinin resistance (ART-R) are currently spreading through Southeast Asian malaria parasite populations, providing a unique opportunity to observe an ongoing soft selective sweep, investigate why resistance alleles have evolved multiple times and determine fundamental population genetic parameters for Plasmodium We sequenced kelch13 (n?=?1,876), genotyped 75 flanking SNPs, and measured clearance rate (n?=?3,552) in parasite infections from Western Thailand (2001-2014). We describe 32 independent coding mutations including common mutations outside the kelch13 propeller associated with significant reductions in clearance rate. Mutations were first observed in 2003 and rose to 90% by 2014, consistent with a selection coefficient of ?0.079. ART-R allele diversity rose until 2012 and then dropped as one allele (C580Y) spread to high frequency. The frequency with which adaptive alleles arise is determined by the rate of mutation and the population size. Two factors drive this soft sweep: (1) multiple kelch13 amino-acid mutations confer resistance providing a large mutational target-we estimate the target is 87-163?bp. (2) The population mutation parameter (??=?2Ne?) can be estimated from the frequency distribution of ART-R alleles and is ?5.69, suggesting that short term effective population size is 88 thousand to 1.2 million. This is 52-705 times greater than Ne estimated from fluctuation in allele frequencies, suggesting that we have previously underestimated the capacity for adaptive evolution in Plasmodium Our central conclusions are that retrospective studies may underestimate the complexity of selective events and the Ne relevant for adaptation for malaria is considerably higher than previously estimated.
Project description:Positive natural selection can lead to a decrease in genomic diversity at the selected site and at linked sites, producing a characteristic signature of elevated expected haplotype homozygosity. These selective sweeps can be hard or soft. In the case of a hard selective sweep, a single adaptive haplotype rises to high population frequency, whereas multiple adaptive haplotypes sweep through the population simultaneously in a soft sweep, producing distinct patterns of genetic variation in the vicinity of the selected site. Measures of expected haplotype homozygosity have previously been used to detect sweeps in multiple study systems. However, these methods are formulated for phased haplotype data, typically unavailable for nonmodel organisms, and some may have reduced power to detect soft sweeps due to their increased genetic diversity relative to hard sweeps. To address these limitations, we applied the H12 and H2/H1 statistics proposed in 2015 by Garud et al., which have power to detect both hard and soft sweeps, to unphased multilocus genotypes, denoting them as G12 and G2/G1. G12 (and the more direct expected homozygosity analog to H12, denoted G123) has comparable power to H12 for detecting both hard and soft sweeps. G2/G1 can be used to classify hard and soft sweeps analogously to H2/H1, conditional on a genomic region having high G12 or G123 values. The reason for this power is that, under random mating, the most frequent haplotypes will yield the most frequent multilocus genotypes. Simulations based on parameters compatible with our recent understanding of human demographic history suggest that expected homozygosity methods are best suited for detecting recent sweeps, and increase in power under recent population expansions. Finally, we find candidates for selective sweeps within the 1000 Genomes CEU, YRI, GIH, and CHB populations, which corroborate and complement existing studies.