A preliminary study of anticholinergic burden and relationship to a quality of life indicator, engagement in activities, in nursing home residents with dementia.
ABSTRACT: (1) To describe the anticholinergic burden experienced by nursing home residents with dementia using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) Scale; and (2) to determine the association of anticholinergic burden and engagement in activity.Cross-sectional, using baseline data from an ongoing clinical trial.Nine nursing homes in Pennsylvania.Eighty-seven nursing home residents with dementiaThe ACB Scale was used to classify the severity of each resident's prescribed drugs' anticholinergic activity on cognition. Engagement in activity was measured by direct observation using a standard instrument.Across 775 observations, subjects were active approximately 54% of the time, doing nothing 24% of the time, and asleep over 21% of the time. Seventy-one (81.6%) subjects were prescribed at least one drug with anticholinergic properties and 32 (36.7%) were prescribed at least one drug with severe anticholinergic properties. On average, subjects had a total ACB score of 2.55 (+/- 1.9). Mental status (MMSE) and dependency (PGDRS) were associated with engagement, but use of anticholinergic drugs was not.Nursing home residents are prescribed many drugs with anticholinergic properties. The ACB Scale has utility as a tool to alert practitioners to high anticholinergic burden, who can then use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications. Further study using larger samples of persons with dementia in earlier stages of the disease, and use of intense measurement designs are needed to more clearly determine the association of ACB with quality of life indicators.
Project description:Prescribing of medications with anticholinergic properties in older nursing home residents is relatively common, despite an association with an increased risk for falls, delirium, and other outcomes. Few studies have investigated what factors influence different levels of prescribing of these agents.The primary objective was to identify factors associated with low- and high-level anticholinergic burden in nursing home residents. A secondary objective was to examine in detail the contribution of different medications to low versus high burden to aid in determining which drugs to target in interventions.This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of a national sample of 2009-2010 Medicare Part A and B claims, Part D prescription drug events, and Minimum Data Set (MDS) v2.0 assessments. The cohort included 4730 Medicare beneficiaries aged ? 65 years with continuous Medicare Parts A, B, and D enrollment, admitted for non-skilled stays of ? 14 days between 1 January 2010 and 30 September 2010. Anticholinergic burden was defined using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) scale. Medication scores were summed at the patient level and categorized as high (score ? 3), low (score 1-2), or none. Baseline predisposing factors (age, sex, race/ethnicity), enabling factors (prior year hospitalization, emergency department, primary care, specialist visits; region; Medicaid/low-income subsidy), and medical need factors (dementia severity, anti-dementia medication, Charlson co-morbidity index [CCI], select comorbidities) were evaluated for association with anticholinergic burden using multinomial logistic regression.Overall, 29.6% of subjects had a high anticholinergic burden and 35.2% had a low burden. High burden was most often (72%) due to one highly anticholinergic medication rather than a cumulative effect. In adjusted analyses, factors associated with increased risk of both low and high anticholinergic burden included comorbidity, antidementia medication, depression, hypertension, and prior year hospitalization. Older age was associated with decreased odds of high anticholinergic burden. Urinary incontinence and prior year specialist visit were associated with increased odds of high anticholinergic burden. Severe and nonsevere dementia were associated with decreased odds of low burden but increased odds of high burden.Almost two-thirds of nursing home patients have some degree of anticholinergic burden. Several medical need variables are significantly associated with increased risk for low and high anticholinergic burden. Interventions should be developed to optimize prescribing for residents at increased risk of receiving medications with anticholinergic properties. Future study is needed to evaluate the difference in the risk of adverse outcomes associated with various levels of anticholinergic burden.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To estimate the association between the duration and level of exposure to different classes of anticholinergic drugs and subsequent incident dementia. DESIGN:Case-control study. SETTING:General practices in the UK contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. PARTICIPANTS:40 770 patients aged 65-99 with a diagnosis of dementia between April 2006 and July 2015, and 283 933 controls without dementia. INTERVENTIONS:Daily defined doses of anticholinergic drugs coded using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) scale, in total and grouped by subclass, prescribed 4-20 years before a diagnosis of dementia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Odds ratios for incident dementia, adjusted for a range of demographic and health related covariates. RESULTS:14 453 (35%) cases and 86 403 (30%) controls were prescribed at least one anticholinergic drug with an ACB score of 3 (definite anticholinergic activity) during the exposure period. The adjusted odds ratio for any anticholinergic drug with an ACB score of 3 was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.14). Dementia was associated with an increasing average ACB score. When considered by drug class, gastrointestinal drugs with an ACB score of 3 were not distinctively linked to dementia. The risk of dementia increased with greater exposure for antidepressant, urological, and antiparkinson drugs with an ACB score of 3. This result was also observed for exposure 15-20 years before a diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS:A robust association between some classes of anticholinergic drugs and future dementia incidence was observed. This could be caused by a class specific effect, or by drugs being used for very early symptoms of dementia. Future research should examine anticholinergic drug classes as opposed to anticholinergic effects intrinsically or summing scales for anticholinergic exposure. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Registered to the European Union electronic Register of Post-Authorisation Studies EUPAS8705.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Although antimuscarinics form the first-line therapy in overactive bladder (OAB), little is known regarding antimuscarinic discontinuation among OAB patients in nursing homes. This study examined treatment patterns and predictors of antimuscarinic discontinuation among long-term nursing home (LTNH) residents with OAB. METHODS:The study cohort included LTNH residents (defined as residents staying???101 consecutive days) from the Minimum Data Set linked 2013-2015 Medicare claims data. Patients with OAB were defined by OAB-related claims and medication codes. Treatment patterns and discontinuation (medication gap???30 days) were characterized by examining OAB-specific antimuscarinics prescribed during LTNH stays. The Andersen Behavioral Model was used to identify predisposing, enabling and need factors that predict discontinuation. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to assess the unadjusted and adjusted times to discontinuation, respectively, among different antimuscarinics. RESULTS:The mean age of the study cohort (n?=?11,012) was 81.6 years (±?8.5), 74.6% were female, and 89.8% were non-Hispanic White. The mean duration of nursing home stay was 530.1 (±?268.4) days. The most commonly prescribed OAB-specific antimuscarinic was oxybutynin (69.8%). Overall, 66.5% of the study cohort discontinued the index antimuscarinic. Multivariable Cox PH regression analysis revealed that compared to LTNH residents who initiated treatment with oxybutynin, treatment discontinuation was lower with solifenacin or fesoterodin and discontinuation was more frequent when treatment was initiated with tolterodine, darifenacin or trospium compared with oxybutynin. In addition, several need factors (comorbidities, medication use and anticholinergic burden, etc.) were associated with antimuscarinic discontinuation. CONCLUSION:About two-thirds of LTNH residents with OAB discontinued their index antimuscarinic during their nursing home stay. There was significant variation in discontinuation based on the index antimuscarinic agent with lowest risk of discontiuation with solifenacin and fesoterodin. Concerted efforts to optimize antimuscarinic use are needed to improve the management of OAB in nursing homes.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Previous studies suggest an association between use of anticholinergic drugs in elderly patients and cognitive impairment. However, there are still limited data on the association of anticholinergic drug use and cognitive impairment as well as contribution of individual drugs to anticholinergic load using large, well-documented patient cohorts treated in geriatric units from Europe.<h4>Methods</h4>We investigated 797,440 prescriptions to 89,579 hospitalized patients treated in geriatric units within the GiB-DAT database. Data of all patients discharged between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2015 was included. The Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) scale was used to classify anticholinergic drugs as definite (score 2 or 3) and possible anticholinergics (score 1). Cognitive function was determined using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the standardized scale for dementia (4D+S).<h4>Results</h4>In two multivariable logistic regression models age, sex, number of drugs and ACB total scores were identified as variables independently associated with cognitive impairment as measured by MMSE (odds ratio per ACB unit 1.114, 95% CI 1.099-1.130) or the diagnosis dementia (odds ratio 1.159 per ACB unit, 95% CI 1.144-1.173, both p < 0.0001). High anticholinergic load was associated with patients with severe cognitive impairment (p < 0.05 for all pairwise comparisons). ACB score 3 anticholinergic drugs contributed 77.9% to the cumulative amount of ACB points in patients with an anticholinergic load of 3 and higher.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Using a cross-sectional study design, a significant positive association between anticholinergic drug load and cognitive impairment in European patients treated in specialised geriatric units was found. The most frequently used definitve anticholinergic drugs were quetiapine, amitriptyline and carbamazepine.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS:A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS:The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n?=?67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS:The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is not known whether drugs with different anticholinergic ratings contribute proportionately to overall anticholinergic score. OBJECTIVES:Our objective was to assess the risk of falls or fall-related injuries as a function of the overall anticholinergic score resulting from drugs with different anticholinergic ratings among people with impaired cognition. METHODS:This was a retrospective cohort study of adults aged ???65 years with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia and two or more additional chronic conditions (N?=?10,698) in an integrated delivery system. Electronic health record data, including pharmacy fills and diagnosis claims, were used to assess anticholinergic medication use, quantified using the anticholinergic cognitive burden (ACB) scale, falls and fall-related injuries. RESULTS:During a median follow-up of 366 days, 63% of the cohort used one or more ACB drug; 2015 (18.8%) people experienced a fall or fall-related injury. Among patients with a daily ACB score of 5, the greatest increase in risk of falls or fall-related injuries was seen when level 2 and level 3 drugs were used in combination [hazard ratio (HR) 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51-2.83]. Multiple ACB level 1 drugs taken together also increased the hazard of a fall or fall-related injury (HR 1.16; 95% CI 1.03-1.32). The risk of fall or fall-related injury as a function of exposure to ACB level 2 drugs (HR 1.56; 95% CI 1.16-2.10) was higher than that for ACB level 1 or 3 drugs. CONCLUSIONS:The same daily ACB score was associated with a different degree of risk, depending on the ACB ratings of the individual drugs comprising the score. Combinations of level 2 and level 3 drugs had the greatest risk of fall or fall-related injury relative to other individuals with the same daily ACB score. Low-potency anticholinergic drugs taken together modestly increased the hazard of a fall or fall-related injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Inappropriate medical treatment of co-morbidities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an increasing concern in geriatric medicine. The objective of this study was to compare current drug use related to co-morbidity between individuals with a recent diagnosis of AD and a cognitively healthy control group in a population based clinical trial in Northern Norway. METHODS: SETTING: Nine rural municipalities with 70,000 inhabitants in Northern Norway. PARTICIPANTS: PARTICIPANTS with and without AD recruited in general practice and by population based screening.187 participants with a recent diagnosis of AD were recruited among community dwellers. Of 791 respondents without cognitive symptoms, 500 were randomly selected and invited to further clinical and cognitive testing. The final control group consisted of 200 cognitively healthy individuals from the same municipalities. Demographic characteristics, data on medical history and current medication were included, and a physical and cognitive examination was performed. The statistical analyses were carried out by independent sample t-test, chi-square, ANCOVA and logistic regression. RESULTS: A co-morbidity score was significantly higher in AD participants compared to controls. The mean number of drugs was higher for AD participants compared to controls (5.1±3.6 and 2.9±2.4 respectively, p<0.001 age and gender adjusted), also when adjusted for co-morbidity. AD participants used significantly more anticholinergic, sedative and antidepressant drugs. For nursing home residents with AD the mean number of drugs was significantly higher compared to AD participants living at home (6.9±3.9 and 4.5±3.3, respectively, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: AD participants were treated with a significantly higher number of drugs as compared to cognitively healthy controls, even after adjustment for co-morbidity. An inappropriate use of anticholinergic and sedative drugs was identified, especially among nursing home residents with AD. The drug burden and the increased risk of adverse reactions among individuals suffering from AD need more attention from prescribing doctors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Drugs with anticholinergic properties are considered potentially inappropriate in patients with cognitive impairment because harms-including delirium, falls, and fractures-may outweigh benefits. OBJECTIVE:To highlight opportunities to improve clinical decision making and care for patients with cognitive impairment and multiple chronic conditions, we identified distinct subgroups of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia who had high cumulative anticholinergic burden and specific patterns of anticholinergic use. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a not-for-profit, integrated delivery system. Participants included community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older (n = 13,627) with MCI or dementia and at least two other chronic diseases. We calculated the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) score for each participant from pharmacy and electronic health record (EHR) data. Among individuals with a mean 12-month ACB score ? 2, we used agglomerative hierarchical clustering to identify groups or clusters of individuals with similar anticholinergic prescription patterns. RESULTS:Twenty-four percent (3257 participants) had high anticholinergic burden, defined as an ACB score ? 2. Clinically meaningful clusters based upon anchoring medications or drug classes included a cluster of cardiovascular medications (n = 1497; 46%); two clusters of antidepressant medications (n = 633; 20%); and a cluster based on use of bladder antimuscarinics (n = 431; 13%). Several clusters comprised multiple central nervous system (CNS)-active drugs. CONCLUSIONS:Cardiovascular and CNS-active medications comprise a substantial portion of anticholinergic burden in people with cognitive impairment and multiple chronic conditions. Antidepressants were highly prevalent. Clinical profiles elucidated by these clusters of anticholinergic medications can inform targeted approaches to care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Frail residents in the nursing home sector call for extra care in prescribing. The Norwegian General Practice Nursing Home (NORGEP-NH) list of 34 explicit criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in nursing homes was developed explicitly for this population. The aim of this study was to employ the NORGEP-NH Criteria to study the extent of potentially inappropriate medication use among nursing home residents and explore possible associated factors. METHODS:Cross-sectional observational pharmacoepidemiological study from residents in nursing homes in the county of Vestfold, Norway. Data collected 2009-11 included residents' demographic and clinical status and all medications, regular and on demand. RESULTS:881 patients from 30 institutions (mean 85.9 years, 68.6% female), were included. According to NORGEP-NH, 43.8% were prescribed at least one potentially inappropriate regular medication, and 9.9% regularly received three or more potentially inappropriate medications. When also including a) the NORGEP-NH Deprescribing Criteria and b) including drugs prescribed for use as needed, 92.7% of all residents received medication that needs particular surveillance according to the NORGEP-NH. 69.7% of the nursing home residents used at least one psychotropic drug regularly. Female residents received more often than males at least one potentially inappropriate regular medication (OR 1.60, p=0.007). Regarding the prescription of three or more concomitant psychotropic medications, odds ratio for females was 1.79 (p=0.03) compared to males. Residents with the best performance in activities of daily living, and residents residing in long-term wards, had higher risk of using three or more psychotropic drugs. Use of multiple psychoactive drugs increased the risk of falls in the course of an acute episode of infection or dehydration (odds ratio 1.70, p=0.009). CONCLUSIONS:Prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications in nursing homes according to the NORGEP-NH was extensive, and especially the use of multiple psychotropic drugs. The high prevalence found in this study shows that there is a need for higher awareness of medication use and side effects in the elderly population. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Retrospectively registered. Data obtained from clinical trial NCT01023763 registered with ClinicalTrials.gov 12/01/2009.
Project description:Anticholinergic cognitive burden (ACB) may be associated with detrimental effects on mobility and physical independence in older adults. We evaluated the incidence of major mobility disability (MMD), persistent major mobility disability (PMMD), and injurious falls among participants within the Lifestyle Interventions for Elders (LIFE) trial according to varied anticholinergic burden levels. Participants aged 70-89 years were randomized to a physical activity (PA) or successful aging (SA) intervention and evaluated by ACB medication use as a summed score of a previously developed ACB scale. Confounders included demographic characteristics, physical function, cognitive function, and fall history. Average participant follow-up was 2.6 years and included outcome assessment for MMD, PMMD, and injurious falls every six months. Adjusted proportional hazards models evaluated the independent effects of ACB scores as well as interaction effects with the intervention. Of the 1635 participants, 986 (60%) used ?1 anticholinergic medication. Compared to those with no burden, participants with an ACB score of 1 demonstrated increased MMD (HR = 1.42 [1.13-1.78]), PMMD (HR = 1.53 [1.12-2.09]), and injurious falls (HR = 1.60 [1.10-2.32]). Results similar in magnitude were observed for all other ACB levels versus the no burden group. Stepwise dose-response comparisons between ACB groupings did not demonstrate significant differences in outcomes. Stratification by PA or SA interventions demonstrated few differences from the combined overall trial results. Compared to those not taking anticholinergic medications, participants taking anticholinergic medications generally demonstrated increased risk of MMD, PMMD, and injurious falls. Total anticholinergic burden was not associated with a stepwise dose-response relationship in mobility disability and may lack sensitivity to capture varied responses.