Total synthesis and structure-activity investigation of the marine natural product neopeltolide.
ABSTRACT: The total synthesis and biological evaluation of neopeltolide and analogs are reported. The key bond-forming step utilizes a Lewis acid-catalyzed intramolecular macrocyclization that installs the tetrahydropyran ring and macrocycle simultaneously. Independent of each other, neither the macrolide nor the oxazole side chain substituents of neopeltolide can inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines. The biological data of the analogs indicate that alterations to either the ester side chain or the stereochemistry of the macrolide result in a loss of biological activity.
Project description:The synthesis of neopeltolide analogues that contain variations in the oxazole-containing side chain and in the macrolide core are reported along with the GI(50) values for these compounds against MCF-7, HCT-116, and p53 knockout HCT-116 cell lines. Although biological activity is sensitive to changes in the macrocycle and the side chain, several analogues displayed GI(50) values of <25 nM. Neopeltolide and several of the more potent analogues were significantly less potent against p53 knockout cells, suggesting that p53 plays an auxiliary role in the activity of these compounds.
Project description:Neopeltolide, an antiproliferative marine macrolide, is known to specifically inhibit complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC). However, details of the biological mode-of-action(s) remain largely unknown. This work demonstrates potent cytotoxic activity of synthetic neopeltolide analogue, 8,9-dehydroneopeltolide (8,9-DNP), against starved human pancreatic adenocarcinoma PANC-1 cells and human non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. 8,9-DNP induced rapid dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and depletion of intracellular ATP level in nutrient-deprived medium. Meanwhile, in spite of mTOR inhibition under starvation conditions, impairment of cytoprotective autophagy was observed as the lipidation of LC3-I to form LC3-II and the degradation of p62 were suppressed. Consequently, cells were severely deprived of energy sources and underwent necrotic cell death. The autophagic flux inhibited by 8,9-DNP could be restored by glucose, and this eventually rescued cells from necrotic death. Thus, 8,9-DNP is a potent anti-austerity agent that impairs mitochondrial ATP synthesis and cytoprotective autophagy in starved tumor cells.
Project description:Neopeltolide, a potent cytotoxin from a Carribean sponge, was synthesized through a brief sequence that highlights the use of ethers as oxocarbenium ion precursors. Other key steps include an acid-mediated etherification and sequence that features a Sonogashira reaction, an intramolecular alkyne hydrosilylation reaction, and a Tamao oxidation. The alkene that is required for the oxidative cyclization can be hydrogenated to provide access to the natural product or an epimer, or can be epoxidized or dihydroxylated to form polar analogs.
Project description:The synthesis of a 2-methyl-substituted analogue of the natural product, neopeltolide, is reported in an effort to analyze the importance of molecular conformation and ligand-target interactions in relation to biological activity. The methyl substitution was incorporated via highly diastereoselective ester enolate alkylation of a late-stage intermediate. Coupling of the oxazole sidechain provided 2-methyl-neopeltolide and synthetic neopeltolide via total synthesis. The substitution was shown to maintain the conformational preferences of its biologically active parent compound through computer modeling and NMR studies. Both compounds were shown to be potential antimalarial compounds through the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration in P. falciparum parasites.
Project description:Enigmazole A (1), a novel phosphate-containing macrolide, was isolated from a Papua New Guinea collection of the marine sponge Cinachyrella enigmatica. The structure of 1, including the absolute stereochemistry at all eight chiral centers, was determined by a combination of spectroscopic analyses and a series of microscale chemical derivatization studies. Compound 1 is comprised of an 18-membered phosphomacrolide that contains an embedded exomethylene-substituted tetrahydropyran ring and an acyclic portion that spans an embedded oxazole moiety. Two additional analogues, 15-O-methylenigmazole A and 13-hydroxy-15-O-methylenigmazole A, were also isolated and assigned. The enigmazoles are the first phosphomacrolides from a marine source and 1 exhibited significant cytotoxicity in the NCI 60-cell line antitumor screen, with a mean GI(50) of 1.7 microM.
Project description:Macrocyclic oxocarbenium ions can be formed from macrolactones that contain benzylic or allylic ether groups through oxidative carbon-hydrogen-bond activation mediated by 2,3-dichloro-4,5-dicyanoquinone (DDQ). The applicability of this efficient reaction to complex-molecule synthesis was demonstrated by its use in a brief formal synthesis of neopeltolide (see retrosynthetic scheme) to form the tetrahydropyrone ring.
Project description:Leucascandrolide A and neopeltolide are structurally homologous marine natural products that elicit potent antiproliferative profiles in mammalian cells and yeast. The scarcity of naturally available material has been a significant barrier to their biochemical and pharmacological evaluation. We developed practical synthetic access to this class of natural products that enabled the determination of their mechanism of action. We demonstrated effective cellular growth inhibition in yeast, which was substantially enhanced by substituting glucose with galactose or glycerol. These results, along with genetic analysis of determinants of drug sensitivity, suggested that leucascandrolide A and neopeltolide may inhibit mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Evaluation of the activity of the four mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes in yeast and mammalian cells revealed cytochrome bc(1) complex as the principal cellular target. This result provided the molecular basis for the potent antiproliferative activity of this class of marine macrolides, thus identifying them as new biochemical tools for investigation of eukaryotic energy metabolism.
Project description:The mandelalides comprise a family of structurally complex marine macrolides that display significant cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines. Presented here is a full account on the development of an Anion Relay Chemistry (ARC) strategy for the total synthesis of (-)-mandelalides A and L, the two most potent members of the mandelalide family. The design and implementation of a three-component type II ARC/cross-coupling protocol and a four-component type I ARC union permits rapid access respectively to the key tetrahydrofuran and tetrahydropyran structural motifs of these natural products. Other highlights of the synthesis include an osmium-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of an allylic 1,3-diol, a mild Yamaguchi esterification to unite the northern and southern hemispheres, and a late-stage Heck macrocyclization. Synthetic mandelalides A and L displayed potent cytotoxicity against human HeLa cervical cancer cells (EC50, 1.3 and 3.1 nM, respectively). This synthetic approach also provides access to several highly potent non-natural mandelalide analogs, including a biotin-tagged mandelalide probe for future biological investigation.
Project description:The convergent synthesis of a benzofuran analog of the carbacyclic ansa compound kendomycin has been achieved by assembling three major fragments by means of epoxide opening and directed ortho lithiation. The crucial tetrahydropyran ring was formed by a highly stereoselective cationic cyclization. Analysis of all synthesized tetrahydropyran-arene compounds reveals a hindered sp(2)-sp(3) rotation, which results in rotational isomers or atropisomers affecting macrocyclization reactions. The latter could only be achieved by means of Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination.
Project description:The synthesis of the potent molluscicide cyanolide A has been achieved in 10 steps without the use of protecting groups. The synthesis features a key Sakurai macrocyclization/dimerization reaction that simultaneously forms both tetrahydropyran rings and the macrocycle of the natural product.