Combined statin and niacin therapy remodels the high-density lipoprotein proteome.
ABSTRACT: Boosting low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels is a current strategy for preventing clinical events that result from cardiovascular disease. We previously showed that HDL(3) of subjects with coronary artery disease is enriched in apolipoprotein E and that the lipoprotein carries a distinct protein cargo. This observation suggests that altered protein composition might affect the antiatherogenic and antiinflammatory properties of HDL. We hypothesized that an intervention that increases HDL levels-combined statin and niacin therapy-might reverse these changes.HDL(3) isolated from 6 coronary artery disease subjects before and 1 year after combination therapy was analyzed by liquid chromatography-Fourier transform-mass spectrometry. Alterations in protein composition were detected by spectral counting and confirmed with extracted ion chromatograms. We found that combination therapy decreased the abundance of apolipoprotein E in HDL(3) while increasing the abundance of other macrophage proteins implicated in reverse cholesterol transport. Treatment-induced decreases in apolipoprotein E levels of HDL(3) were validated biochemically in a second group of 18 coronary artery disease subjects. Interestingly, the changes in HDL(3) proteome with niacin/statin treatment resulted in a protein composition that more closely resembled that of HDL(3) in healthy control subjects.Combined statin and niacin therapy partially reverses the changes in the protein composition seen in HDL(3) in coronary artery disease subjects. Our observations raise the possibility that quantifying the HDL proteome could provide insights into the therapeutic efficacy of antiatherosclerotic interventions.
Project description:We investigated relationships between statin and niacin/statin combination therapy and the concentration of high-density lipoprotein particles (HDL-P) and cholesterol efflux capacity, 2 HDL metrics that might better assess cardiovascular disease risk than HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels.In the Carotid Plaque Composition Study, 126 subjects with a history of cardiovascular disease were randomized to atorvastatin or combination therapy (atorvastatin/niacin). At baseline and after 1 year of treatment, the concentration of HDL and its 3 subclasses (small, medium, and large) were quantified by calibrated ion mobility analysis (HDL-PIMA). We also measured total cholesterol efflux from macrophages and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-specific cholesterol efflux capacity.Atorvastatin decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 39% and raised HDL-C by 11% (P=0.0001) but did not increase HDL-PIMA or macrophage cholesterol efflux. Combination therapy raised HDL-C by 39% (P<0.0001) but increased HDL-PIMA by only 14%. Triglyceride levels did not correlate with HDL-PIMA (P=0.39), in contrast to their strongly negative correlation with HDL-C (P<0.0001). Combination therapy increased macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity (16%, P<0.0001) but not ABCA1-specific efflux. ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity decreased significantly (P=0.013) in statin-treated subjects, with or without niacin therapy.Statin therapy increased HDL-C levels but failed to increase HDL-PIMA. It also reduced ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity. Adding niacin to statin therapy increased HDL-C and macrophage efflux, but had much less effect on HDL-PIMA. It also failed to improve ABCA1-specific efflux, a key cholesterol exporter in macrophages. Our observations raise the possibility that niacin might not target the relevant atheroprotective population of HDL.
Project description:The efflux capacity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with cultured macrophages associates strongly and negatively with coronary artery disease status, indicating that impaired sterol efflux capacity might be a marker-and perhaps mediator-of atherosclerotic burden. However, the mechanisms that contribute to impaired sterol efflux capacity remain poorly understood.Our aim was to determine the relationship between myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidative damage to apolipoprotein A-I, the major HDL protein, and the ability of HDL to remove cellular cholesterol by the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) pathway.We quantified both site-specific oxidation of apolipoprotein A-I and HDL's ABCA1 cholesterol efflux capacity in control subjects and subjects with stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndrome. Subjects with coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome had higher levels of chlorinated tyrosine 192 and oxidized methionine 148 compared with control subjects. In contrast, plasma levels of myeloperoxidase did not differ between the groups. HDL from the subjects with coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome was less able to accept cholesterol from cells expressing ABCA1 compared with HDL from control subjects. Levels of chlorinated tyrosine and oxidized methionine associated inversely with ABCA1 efflux capacity and positively with atherosclerotic disease status. These differences remained significant after adjusting for HDL-cholesterol levels.Our observations indicate that myeloperoxidase may contribute to the generation of dysfunctional HDL with impaired ABCA1 efflux capacity in humans with atherosclerosis. Quantification of chlorotyrosine and oxidized methionine in circulating HDL might be useful indicators of the risk of cardiovascular disease that are independent of HDL-cholesterol.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Niacin has modest but overall favorable effects on plasma lipids by increasing high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and lowering triglycerides. Clinical trials, however, evaluating niacin therapy for prevention of cardiovascular outcomes have returned mixed results. Recent evidence suggests that the HDL proteome may be a better indicator of HDL's cardioprotective function than HDL-C. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of niacin monotherapy on HDL protein composition and function. METHODS:A 20-week investigational study was performed with 11 participants receiving extended-release niacin (target dose?=?2?g/day) for 16-weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. HDL was isolated from participants at weeks: 0, 16, and 20. The HDL proteome was analyzed at each time point by mass spectrometry and relative protein quantification was performed by label-free precursor ion intensity measurement. RESULTS:In this cohort, niacin therapy had typical effects on routine clinical lipids (HDL-C?+?16%, q?<?0.01; LDL-C?-?20%, q?<?0.01; and triglyceride -?15%, q?=?0.1). HDL proteomics revealed significant effects of niacin on 5 proteins: serum amyloid A (SAA), angiotensinogen (AGT), apolipoprotein A-II (APOA2), clusterin (CLUS), and apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1). SAA was the most prominently affected protein, increasing 3-fold in response to niacin (q?=?0.008). Cholesterol efflux capacity was not significantly affected by niacin compared to baseline, however, stopping niacin resulted in a 9% increase in efflux (q?<?0.05). Niacin did not impact HDL's ability to influence endothelial function. CONCLUSION:Extended-release niacin therapy, in the absence of other lipid-modifying medications, can increase HDL-associated SAA, an acute phase protein associated with HDL dysfunction.
Project description:This study sought to examine the relationship between niacin treatment, lipoproteins, and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in this secondary analysis of the AIM-HIGH (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) trial.During a 3-year follow-up in 3,414 patients with established CV disease and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, combined niacin + low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering therapy did not reduce CV events compared with LDL-C-lowering therapy alone.Subjects taking simvastatin and/or ezetimibe were randomized to receive extended-release (ER) niacin 1,500 to 2,000 mg or minimal immediate-release niacin (? 150 mg) as placebo at bedtime. LDL-C levels in both groups were maintained from 40 to 80 mg/dl. Hazard ratios were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models for relationships between lipoproteins and the composite endpoint of CV death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, or symptom-driven revascularization.CV outcomes were not associated with ER niacin in any baseline lipoprotein tertile. In a subset of patients in both the highest triglyceride (? 198 mg/dl) and lowest HDL-C (<33 mg/dl) tertiles, ER niacin showed a trend toward benefit (hazard ratio: 0.74, p = 0.073). In-trial LDL-C levels, non-HDL-C levels, and the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio were positively associated with CV events in the control group, but these relationships were absent in the ER niacin group.Baseline lipoprotein tertiles did not predict differential benefit or harm with ER niacin added to LDL-C-lowering therapy, but a small dyslipidemic subgroup may benefit. ER niacin attenuated expected relationships of lipoprotein risk factors with CV events, raising the possibility that nonlipoprotein actions of niacin could affect risk. (Niacin Plus Statin to Prevent Vascular Events [AIM-HIGH]; NCT00120289).
Project description:Alterations in protein composition and oxidative damage of high density lipoprotein (HDL) have been proposed to impair the cardioprotective properties of HDL. We tested whether relative levels of proteins in HDL(2) could be used as biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD).Twenty control and eighteen CAD subjects matched for HDL-cholesterol, age, and sex were studied. HDL(2) isolated from plasma was digested with trypsin and analyzed by high-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and pattern recognition analysis.Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of mass spectra clearly differentiated CAD from control subjects with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC(AUC)) of 0.94. Targeted tandem mass spectrometric analysis of the model's significant features revealed that HDL(2) of CAD subjects contained oxidized methionine residues of apolipoprotein A-I and elevated levels of apolipoprotein C-III. A proteomic signature composed of MALDI-MS signals from apoA-I, apoC-III, Lp(a) and apoC-I accurately classified CAD and control subjects (ROC(AUC)=0.82).HDL(2) of CAD subjects carries a distinct protein cargo and that protein oxidation helps generate dysfunctional HDL. Moreover, models based on selected identified peptides in MALDI-TOF mass spectra of the HDL may have diagnostic potential.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The combination of niacin and statin has proven value in hyperlipidemia management and heart disease prevention. However, the efficacy of the non-prescription time-release niacin, Slo-Niacin®, is little studied alone and not at all with atorvastatin. We gave Slo-Niacin® and atorvastatin, singly and together to determine efficacy on the combined abnormalities of triglyceride, LDL and HDL. METHODS: 42 men and women with LDL-C>130mg/dL HDL-C <45 (men or 55mg/dL (women) were randomized to 3 months of atorvastatin 10 mg/day or incremental doses of Slo-Niacin® to 1500 mg/day. The alternate drug was added in the next 3-month segment. Lipid profiles and transaminases were measured monthly and other measures at baseline and the end of each treatment sequence. RESULTS: Mean entry lipids (mg/dL) were: TG 187, LDL-C 171, and HDL-C 39. Mean BMI was 32.6 Kg/m(2). Monotherapy with Slo-Niacin® decreased median triglyceride 15%, mean LDL-C 12% and non-HDL-C 15% and increased HDL-C 8%. Atorvastatin decreased median triglyceride 26%, and mean LDL-C 36%, non-HDL-C 36% and increased HDL-C 6%. Combined therapy decreased median triglyceride 33% and mean LDL-C and non-HDL-C each 43%. HDL-C increased 10% (all p<0.001). Median remnant-like lipoprotein-C decreased 55%, mean apo-B 40%, median hsCRP 23% (all p<0.05), TNFa 12% and no change in IL-6. Mean LDL buoyancy increased 15%, apo-A-I 5% and median HDL(2)-C 20% (all p<0.05). ALT declined with Slo-Niacin® treatment alone compared to atorvastatin and also decreased when Slo-Niacin® was added to atorvastatin. Six subjects dropped out, 3 for niacin related symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Slo-Niacin® 1.5g/day with atorvastatin 10 mg/day improved lipoprotein lipids, apoproteins and inflammation markers without hepatotoxicity. Slo-Niacin® deserves further study as a cost-effective treatment of hyperlipidemia.
Project description:Niacin has multiple lipoprotein effects that may provide cardiovascular benefit when added to statin monotherapy.In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial (n = 75) of magnetic resonance imaging of carotid atherosclerosis, we performed a secondary comparison of combination niacin-statin (simvastatin 20 mg/Niacin-ER 2G [S20/N]) to monotherapy with moderate (20 mg [S20]) and high-dose (80 mg [S80]) simvastatin on lipids, apolipoproteins (apo), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle subclasses, and inflammatory markers.At baseline, average age was 71, 72% were male, 62.5% used statins, and average LDL-cholesterol was 111 mg/dL. At 12 months, S20/N, compared to S80, significantly reduced apoB (-36.6% vs -11.9%; P = .05) and lipoprotein(a) (-18% vs +3.5%; P = .001) and had at least an equivalent effect on LDL-cholesterol (-39.3% vs -24.3%; P = .24). The combination reduced the proportion of subjects with atherogenic LDL pattern-B (50% to 11.5%) compared to S80 (56% to 56%) (P = .01). Despite increases in plasma free fatty acids (+62.4%; F = 5.65, P = .005 vs S20 and S80), plasma triglycerides (-29.4%; F = 6.88, P = .002 vs S20 and S80), and very-low-density lipoprotein (-44.2%; F = 7.94, P < .001 vs S20 and S80), levels were reduced by S20/N. S20/N increased HDL-cholesterol levels (+18.1%) as compared to S20 (0%) and S80 (+5.9%) (P < .001 vs both statin arms), largely due to an increase in HDL particle size (+4.6%; P = .01 vs both statin arms).We demonstrate that full-dose niacin/moderate-dose simvastatin combination has sustained benefits on atherogenic apoB lipoproteins, at least comparable to high-dose simvastatin, while also raising HDL-cholesterol. Results of large clinical trials will inform whether niacin-statin combinations reduce cardiovascular disease events.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease optimally treated on a statin but with residual atherogenic dyslipidemia (low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] and high triglycerides) will benefit from addition of niacin with fewer CV events compared with placebo. Statin monotherapy trials have found 25%-35% CV risk reduction relative to placebo, leaving significant residual risk. Patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia have substantially increased CV risk.<h4>Methods</h4>Participants were men and women with established CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Lipid entry criteria varied by gender and statin dose at screening. All participants received simvastatin (or simvastatin plus ezetimibe) at a dose sufficient to maintain low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) 40-80 mg/dL (1.03-2.07 mmol/L). Participants were randomized to extended-release niacin or matching placebo. The primary end point was time to occurrence of the first of the following: coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome, or symptom-driven coronary or cerebral revascularization. This event-driven trial will have 85% power to show a 25% reduction in primary event frequency after 850 patients have experienced a primary outcome event.<h4>Results</h4>AIM-HIGH completed enrollment in April 2010. Follow-up is expected to continue through 2012.<h4>Summary</h4>AIM-HIGH was designed to determine whether treating residual dyslipidemia with niacin further reduces cardiovascular events in patients with CV disease on a statin at target levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genetic studies have shown lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) to be an important causal risk factor for coronary disease. Apolipoprotein(a) isoform size is the chief determinant of Lp(a) levels, but its impact on the benefits of therapies that lower Lp(a) remains unclear. METHODS:HPS2-THRIVE (Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events) is a randomized trial of niacin-laropiprant versus placebo on a background of simvastatin therapy. Plasma Lp(a) levels at baseline and 1 year post-randomization were measured in 3978 participants from the United Kingdom and China. Apolipoprotein(a) isoform size, estimated by the number of kringle IV domains, was measured by agarose gel electrophoresis and the predominantly expressed isoform identified. RESULTS:Allocation to niacin-laropiprant reduced mean Lp(a) by 12 (SE, 1) nmol/L overall and 34 (6) nmol/L in the top quintile by baseline Lp(a) level (Lp[a] ?128 nmol/L). The mean proportional reduction in Lp(a) with niacin-laropiprant was 31% but varied strongly with predominant apolipoprotein(a) isoform size (PTrend=4×10-29) and was only 18% in the quintile with the highest baseline Lp(a) level and low isoform size. Estimates from genetic studies suggest that these Lp(a) reductions during the short term of the trial might yield proportional reductions in coronary risk of ?2% overall and 6% in the top quintile by Lp(a) levels. CONCLUSIONS:Proportional reductions in Lp(a) were dependent on apolipoprotein(a) isoform size. Taking this into account, the likely benefits of niacin-laropiprant on coronary risk through Lp(a) lowering are small. Novel therapies that reduce high Lp(a) levels by at least 80 nmol/L (?40%) may be needed to produce worthwhile benefits in people at the highest risk because of Lp(a). CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00461630.
Project description:Subnormal plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) constitute a major cardiovascular risk factor; raising low HDL-C levels may therefore reduce the residual cardiovascular risk that frequently presents in dyslipidaemic subjects despite statin therapy. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), a key modulator not only of the intravascular metabolism of HDL and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I but also of triglyceride (TG)-rich particles and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), mediates the transfer of cholesteryl esters from HDL to pro-atherogenic apoB-lipoproteins, with heterotransfer of TG mainly from very low-density lipoprotein to HDL. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity is elevated in the dyslipidaemias of metabolic disease involving insulin resistance and moderate to marked hypertriglyceridaemia, and is intimately associated with premature atherosclerosis and high cardiovascular risk. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition therefore presents a preferential target for elevation of HDL-C and reduction in atherosclerosis. This review appraises recent evidence for a central role of CETP in the action of current lipid-modulating agents with HDL-raising potential, i.e. statins, fibrates, and niacin, and compares their mechanisms of action with those of pharmacological agents under development which directly inhibit CETP. New CETP inhibitors, such as dalcetrapib and anacetrapib, are targeted to normalize HDL/apoA-I levels and anti-atherogenic activities of HDL particles. Further studies of these CETP inhibitors, in particular in long-term, large-scale outcome trials, will provide essential information on their safety and efficacy in reducing residual cardiovascular risk.