H-Y incompatibility predicts short-term outcomes for kidney transplant recipients.
ABSTRACT: A recent report suggested that female recipients of male deceased-donor kidneys are at increased risk for graft failure because of H-Y antigen mismatch. In an attempt to confirm and extend these results, we studied all adult recipients of deceased-donor kidney transplants from 1990 through 2004 in the US Renal Data System. Compared with all other gender combinations, female recipients of male donor kidneys had a 12% increased risk for graft failure at 1 yr (hazard ratio 1.12; 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.19) but no excess risk at 10 yr (hazard ratio 1.03; 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.07). We observed a similar pattern of short- and long-term risk for both death-censored graft failure and mortality. The main results were consistent across several prespecified patient subgroups and were robust to sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, compared with other recipient-donor gender combinations, female recipients of male donor kidney transplants in the United States have an increased short-term risk but not long-term risk for adverse outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Recent evidence suggests that HLA epitope-mismatching at HLA-DQ loci is associated with the development of anti-DQ donor-specific antibodies and adverse graft outcomes. However, the clinical significance of broad antigen HLA-DQ mismatching for graft outcomes is not well examined. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:Using the United Network Organ Sharing/the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (UNOS/OPTN) data, patients with primary kidney transplants performed between 2005 and 2014 were included. Patients were classified as having either zero HLA-DQ mismatches, or one or two HLA-DQ mismatches. Primary outcomes were death-censored graft survival and incidence of acute rejection. RESULTS:A total of 93,782 patients were included. Of these, 22,730 (24%) and 71,052 (76%) received zero and one or two HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys, respectively. After adjusting for variables including HLA-ABDR, HLA-DQ mismatching was associated with a higher risk of graft loss in living kidney donor recipients with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.18 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.07 to 1.30; P<0.01), but not in deceased kidney donor recipients (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.12; P=0.18) (P value for interaction <0.01). When taking cold ischemic time into account, HLA-DQ mismatching was associated with a higher risk of graft loss in deceased kidney donor recipients with cold ischemic time ≤17 hours (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.27; P=0.002), but not in deceased kidney donor recipients with cold ischemic time >17 hours (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.06; P=0.49) (P value for interaction <0.01). Recipients with one or two HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys had a higher incidence of acute rejection at 1 year, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.13 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.23; P<0.01) in deceased donor and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.27; P=0.02) in living donor kidney transplant recipients. Specific donor-DQ mismatches seemed to be associated with the risk of acute rejection and graft failure, whereas others did not. CONCLUSIONS:HLA-DQ mismatching is associated with lower graft survival independent of HLA-ABDR in living donor kidney transplants and deceased donor kidney transplants with cold ischemia time ≤17 hours, and a higher 1-year risk of acute rejection in living and deceased donor kidney transplants.
Project description:Importance:The shortage of deceased donor kidneys for transplants is an ongoing concern. Prior studies support transplanting kidneys from deceased donors with acute kidney injury (AKI), but those investigations have been subject to selection bias and small sample sizes. Current allocation practices of AKI kidneys in the United States are not well characterized. Objectives:To evaluate the association of deceased donor AKI with recipient graft survival and to characterize recovery and discard practices for AKI kidneys by organ procurement organizations. Design, Setting, and Participants:Registry-based, propensity score-matched cohort study from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2013, in the United States. The dates of analysis were March 1 to November 1, 2019. From 2010 to 2013, a total of 6832 deceased donors with AKI and 15?310 deceased donors without AKI had at least 1 kidney transplanted. This study used a 1:1, propensity score-matched analysis to match deceased donors with AKI to deceased donors without AKI and investigated outcomes in their corresponding kidney recipients. Exposure:Deceased donor AKI, defined as at least 50% or 0.3-mg/dL increase in terminal serum creatinine level from admission. Main Outcomes and Measures:Recipients were assessed for the time to death-censored graft failure and the following secondary outcomes: delayed graft function, primary nonfunction, and the time to all-cause graft failure. Results:Ninety-eight percent (6722 of 6832) of deceased donors with AKI were matched to deceased donors without AKI. The mean (SD) age of the 13?444 deceased donors was 40.4 (14.4) years, and 63% (8529 of 13?444) were male. A total of 25?323 recipients were analyzed (15?485 [61%] were male), and their mean (SD) age was 52.0 (14.7) years. Recipients were followed up for a median of 5 (interquartile range, 4-6) years. Deceased donor AKI status had no association with death-censored graft failure (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.95-1.08) or all-cause graft failure (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.93-1.02). The results were consistent after examining by AKI stage and adjusting for recipient and transplant characteristics. More recipients of AKI kidneys developed delayed graft function (29% vs 22%, P?<?.001). Few recipients (120 of 25?323 [0.5%]) developed primary nonfunction regardless of deceased donor AKI status. Recovery and transplantation of AKI kidneys varied by organ procurement organization; most (39 of 58) had high recovery and high discard of AKI kidneys. Conclusions and Relevance:Deceased donor AKI kidneys transplanted in the study period had recipient graft survival comparable to that of non-AKI kidneys. This study's findings suggest that the transplant community should evaluate whether currently discarded AKI kidneys from donors without substantial comorbidities can be used more effectively.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>Outcomes for transplants from living unrelated donors are of particular interest in kidney paired donation (KPD) programs where exchanges can be arranged between incompatible donor-recipient pairs or chains created from nondirected/altruistic donors.<h4>Design, setting, participants, & measurements</h4>Using Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data, we analyzed 232,705 recipients of kidney-alone transplants from 1998 to 2012. Graft failure rates were estimated using Cox models for recipients of kidney transplants from living unrelated, living related, and deceased donors. Models were adjusted for year of transplant and donor and recipient characteristics, with particular attention to mismatches in age, sex, human leukocyte antigens (HLA), body size, and weight.<h4>Results</h4>The dependence of graft failure on increasing donor age was less pronounced for living-donor than for deceased-donor transplants. Male donor-to-male recipient transplants had lower graft failure, particularly better than female to male (5%-13% lower risk). HLA mismatch was important in all donor types. Obesity of both the recipient (8%-18% higher risk) and donor (5%-11% higher risk) was associated with higher graft loss, as were donor-recipient weight ratios of <75%, compared with transplants where both parties were of similar weight (9%-12% higher risk). These models are used to create a calculator of estimated graft survival for living donors.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This calculator provides useful information to donors, candidates, and physicians of estimated outcomes and potentially in allowing candidates to choose among several living donors. It may also help inform candidates with compatible donors on the advisability of joining a KPD program.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Kidney transplants from donors after circulatory death (DCD) make up an increasing proportion of all deceased donor kidney transplants in the United States (US). However, DCD grafts are considered to be of lower quality than kidneys from donors after brain death (DBD). It is unclear whether graft survival is different for these two types of donor kidneys. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of US deceased donor kidney recipients using data from the United Network of Organ Sharing from 12/4/2014 to 6/30/2018. We employed a Cox proportional hazard model with mixed effects to compare all-cause graft loss and death-censored graft loss for DCD versus DBD deceased donor kidney transplant recipients. We used transplant center as the random effects term to account for cluster-specific random effects. In the multivariable analysis, we adjusted for recipient characteristics, donor factors, and transplant logistics. RESULTS:Our cohort included 27,494 DBD and 7,770 DCD graft recipients transplanted from 2014 to 2018 who were followed over a median of 1.92 years (IQR 1.08-2.83). For DCD compared with DBD recipients, we did not find a significant difference in all-cause graft loss (hazard ratio [HR] 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-1.05 in univariable and HR 1.03 [95% CI 0.95-1.13] in multivariable analysis) or for death-censored graft loss (HR 0.97 (95% CI 0.91-1.06) in univariable and 1.05 (95% CI 0.99-1.11) in multivariable analysis). CONCLUSIONS:For a contemporary cohort of deceased donor kidney transplant recipients, we did not find a difference in the likelihood of graft loss for DCD compared with DBD grafts. These findings signal a need for additional investigation into whether DCD status independently contributes to other important outcomes for current kidney transplant recipients and indices of graft quality.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate evidence of practice changes affecting kidney transplant program volumes, and donor, recipient and candidate selection in the era surrounding the introduction of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) conditions of participation (CoPs) for organ transplant programs.<h4>Data</h4>Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients; CMS ESRD and Medicare claims databases.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective analysis of national registry data.<h4>Methods</h4>A Cox proportional hazards model of 1-year graft survival was used to derive risks associated with deceased-donor kidney transplants performed from 2001 to 2010.<h4>Findings</h4>Among programs with ongoing noncompliance with the CoPs, kidney transplant volumes declined by 38 percent (n = 766) from 2006 to 2011, including a 55 percent drop in expanded criteria donor transplants. Volume increased by 6 percent (n = 638) among programs remaining in compliance. Aggregate risk of 1-year graft failure increased over time due to increasing recipient age and obesity, and longer ESRD duration.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although trends in aggregate risk of 1-year kidney graft loss do not indicate that the introduction of the CoPs has systematically reduced opportunities for marginal candidates or that there has been a systematic shift away from utilization of higher risk deceased donor kidneys, total volume and expanded criteria donor utilization decreased overall among programs with ongoing noncompliance.
Project description:The new deceased donor kidney allocation algorithm uses a Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) based on donor characteristics to predict graft survival and divides kidneys into 4 quality groups (ie, KDPI-A, -B, -C, and -D). Pediatric kidneys constitute 10% to 12% of deceased donor kidneys. We hypothesized that KDPI would not accurately predict pediatric donor graft survival and superior predictive models could be created.Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data for years 2000 to 2010 for transplants from child (<10 years) and adolescent (10-17 years inclusive) donors into first-time adult recipients were analyzed with graft failure as the principle outcome. Two novel indices, Child Donor Index (CDI) and Adolescent Donor Index (ADI), were developed using stepwise variable deletion to identify significant model covariates in a Cox Regression. Pediatric donor kidneys were then classified into the 4 quality groups based on both KDPI and CDI/ADI scores. The performance of the KDPI, CDI, and ADI models were compared with respect to the 4 quality groups defined by the new allocation system.The KDPI did not effectively discriminate between quality groups (P > 0.05 for all but 1 comparison) in Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. The CDI and ADI included novel variables (eg, body mass index percentiles) and successfully discriminated between quality groups (P < 0.05 by log rank test). The Net Reclassification Index showed improvement when switching from KDPI to CDI and ADI, with values of 0.09 (P < 0.001) and 0.073 (P < 0.001), respectively.The KDPI does not accurately predict pediatric kidney graft survival. Alternative indices can improve allocation efficiency.
Project description:Background: This study aimed to assess the association between the percentage of glomerulosclerosis (GS) in procurement allograft biopsies from high-risk deceased donor and graft outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. Methods: The UNOS database was used to identify deceased-donor kidneys with a kidney donor profile index (KDPI) score > 85% from 2005 to 2014. Deceased donor kidneys were categorized based on the percentage of GS: 0-10%, 11-20%, >20% and no biopsy performed. The outcome included death-censored graft survival, patient survival, rate of delayed graft function, and 1-year acute rejection. Results: Of 22,006 kidneys, 91.2% were biopsied showing 0-10% GS (58.0%), 11-20% GS (13.5%), >20% GS (19.7%); 8.8% were not biopsied. The rate of kidney discard was 48.5%; 33.6% in 0-10% GS, 68.9% in 11-20% GS, and 77.4% in >20% GS. 49.8% of kidneys were discarded in those that were not biopsied. Death-censored graft survival at 5 years was 75.8% for 0-10% GS, 70.9% for >10% GS, and 74.8% for the no biopsy group. Among kidneys with >10% GS, there was no significant difference in death-censored graft survival between 11-20% GS and >20% GS. Recipients with >10% GS had an increased risk of graft failure (HR = 1.27, p < 0.001), compared with 0-10% GS. There was no significant difference in patient survival, acute rejection at 1-year, and delayed graft function between 0% and 10% GS and >10% GS. Conclusion: In >85% KDPI kidneys, our study suggested that discard rates increased with higher percentages of GS, and GS >10% is an independent prognostic factor for graft failure. Due to organ shortage, future studies are needed to identify strategies to use these marginal kidneys safely and improve outcomes.
Project description:The presence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) is associated with increased risk of graft failure after kidney transplant. We hypothesized that DSAs against HLA class I, class II, or both classes indicate a different risk for graft loss between deceased and living donor transplant. In this study, we investigated the impact of pretransplant DSAs, by using single antigen bead assays, on long-term graft survival in 3237 deceased and 1487 living donor kidney transplants with a negative complement-dependent crossmatch. In living donor transplants, we found a limited effect on graft survival of DSAs against class I or II antigens after transplant. Class I and II DSAs combined resulted in decreased 10-year graft survival (84% to 75%). In contrast, after deceased donor transplant, patients with class I or class II DSAs had a 10-year graft survival of 59% and 60%, respectively, both significantly lower than the survival for patients without DSAs (76%). The combination of class I and II DSAs resulted in a 10-year survival of 54% in deceased donor transplants. In conclusion, class I and II DSAs are a clear risk factor for graft loss in deceased donor transplants, while in living donor transplants, class I and II DSAs seem to be associated with an increased risk for graft failure, but this could not be assessed due to their low prevalence.
Project description:Infants have the highest wait-list mortality of all liver transplantation candidates. Deceased-donor split-liver transplantation, a technique that provides both an adult and pediatric graft, might be the best way to decrease this disproportionate mortality. Yet concern for an increased risk to adult split recipients has discouraged its widespread adoption. We aimed to determine the current risk of graft failure in adult recipients after split-liver transplantation.United Network for Organ Sharing data from 62,190 first-time adult recipients of deceased-donor liver transplants (1995-2010) were analyzed (889 split grafts). Bivariate risk factors (p < 0.2) were included in Cox proportional hazards models of the effect of transplant type on graft failure.Split-liver recipients had an overall hazard ratio of graft failure of 1.26 (p < 0.001) compared with whole-liver recipients. The split-liver hazard ratio was 1.45 (p < 0.001) in the pre-Model for End-Stage Liver Disease era (1995-2002) and 1.10 (p = 0.28) in the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease era (2002-2010). Interaction analyses suggested an increased risk of split-graft failure in status 1 recipients and those given an exception for hepatocellular carcinoma. Excluding higher-risk recipients, split and whole grafts had similar outcomes (hazard ratio = 0.94; p = 0.59).The risk of graft failure is now similar between split and whole-liver recipients in the vast majority of cases, which demonstrates that the expansion of split-liver allocation might be possible without increasing the overall risk of long-term graft failure in adult recipients. Additional prospective analysis should examine if selection bias might account for the possible increase in risk for recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma or designated status 1.
Project description:Coding variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) are strongly associated with nephropathy in African Americans (AAs). The effect of transplanting kidneys from AA donors with two APOL1 nephropathy risk variants is unknown. APOL1 risk variants were genotyped in 106 AA deceased organ donors and graft survival assessed in 136 resultant kidney transplants. Cox-proportional hazard models tested for association between time to graft failure and donor APOL1 genotypes. The mean follow-up was 26.4 ± 21.8 months. Twenty-two of 136 transplanted kidneys (16%) were from donors with two APOL1 nephropathy risk variants. Twenty-five grafts failed; eight (32%) had two APOL1 risk variants. A multivariate model accounting for donor APOL1 genotype, overall African ancestry, expanded criteria donation, recipient age and gender, HLA mismatch, CIT and PRA revealed that graft survival was significantly shorter in donor kidneys with two APOL1 risk variants (hazard ratio [HR] 3.84; p = 0.008) and higher HLA mismatch (HR 1.52; p = 0.03), but not for overall African ancestry excluding APOL1. Kidneys from AA deceased donors harboring two APOL1 risk variants failed more rapidly after renal transplantation than those with zero or one risk variants. If replicated, APOL1 genotyping could improve the donor selection process and maximize long-term renal allograft survival.