Physical interaction between replication protein A (RPA) and MRN: involvement of RPA2 phosphorylation and the N-terminus of RPA1.
ABSTRACT: Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric protein consisting of RPA1, RPA2, and RPA3 subunits that binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with high affinity. The response to replication stress requires the recruitment of RPA and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex. RPA bound to ssDNA stabilizes stalled replication forks by recruiting checkpoint proteins involved in fork stabilization. MRN can bind DNA structures encountered at stalled or collapsed replication forks, such as ssDNA-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) junctions or breaks, and promote the restart of DNA replication. Here, we demonstrate that RPA2 phosphorylation regulates the assembly of DNA damage-induced RPA and MRN foci. Using purified proteins, we observe a direct interaction between RPA with both NBS1 and MRE11. By utilizing RPA bound to ssDNA, we demonstrate that substituting RPA with phosphorylated RPA or a phosphomimetic weakens the interaction with the MRN complex. Also, the N-terminus of RPA1 is a critical component of the RPA-MRN protein-protein interaction. Deletion of the N-terminal oligonucleotide-oligosaccharide binding fold (OB-fold) of RPA1 abrogates interactions of RPA with MRN and individual proteins of the MRN complex. Further identification of residues critical for MRN binding in the N-terminus of RPA1 shows that substitution of Arg31 and Arg41 with alanines disrupts the RPA-MRN interaction and alters cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Thus, the N-terminus of RPA1 and phosphorylation of RPA2 regulate RPA-MRN interactions and are important in the response to DNA damage.
Project description:The multifunctional Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) protein complex recruits ATM/Tel1 checkpoint kinase and CtIP/Ctp1 homologous recombination (HR) repair factor to double-strand breaks (DSBs). HR repair commences with the 5'-to-3' resection of DNA ends, generating 3' single-strand DNA (ssDNA) overhangs that bind Replication Protein A (RPA) complex, followed by Rad51 recombinase. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex is critical for DSB resection, although the enigmatic ssDNA endonuclease activity of Mre11 and the DNA-end processing factor Sae2 (CtIP/Ctp1 ortholog) are largely unnecessary unless the resection activities of Exo1 and Sgs1-Dna2 are also eliminated. Mre11 nuclease activity and Ctp1/CtIP are essential for DSB repair in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammals. To investigate DNA end resection in Schizo. pombe, we adapted an assay that directly measures ssDNA formation at a defined DSB. We found that Mre11 and Ctp1 are essential for the efficient initiation of resection, consistent with their equally crucial roles in DSB repair. Exo1 is largely responsible for extended resection up to 3.1 kb from a DSB, with an activity dependent on Rqh1 (Sgs1) DNA helicase having a minor role. Despite its critical function in DSB repair, Mre11 nuclease activity is not required for resection in fission yeast. However, Mre11 nuclease and Ctp1 are required to disassociate the MRN complex and the Ku70-Ku80 nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) complex from DSBs, which is required for efficient RPA localization. Eliminating Ku makes Mre11 nuclease activity dispensable for MRN disassociation and RPA localization, while improving repair of a one-ended DSB formed by replication fork collapse. From these data we propose that release of the MRN complex and Ku from DNA ends by Mre11 nuclease activity and Ctp1 is a critical step required to expose ssDNA for RPA localization and ensuing HR repair.
Project description:The Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex (MRN) plays an essential role in the S-phase checkpoint. Cells derived from patients with Nijmegen breakage syndrome and ataxia telangiectasia-like disorder undergo radioresistant DNA synthesis (RDS), failing to suppress DNA replication in response to ionizing radiation (IR). How MRN affects DNA replication to control the S-phase checkpoint, however, remains unclear. We demonstrate that MRN directly interacts with replication protein A (RPA) in unperturbed cells and that the interaction is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases. We also show that this interaction is needed for MRN to correctly localize to replication centers. Abolishing the interaction of Mre11 with RPA leads to pronounced RDS without affecting phosphorylation of Nbs1 or SMC1 following IR. Moreover, MRN is recruited to sites at or adjacent to replication origins by RPA and acts there to inhibit new origin firing upon IR. These studies suggest a direct role of MRN at origin-proximal sites to control DNA replication initiation in response to DNA damage, thereby providing an important mechanism underlying the intra-S-phase checkpoint in mammalian cells.
Project description:Replication protein A (RPA), the eukaryotic single-stranded DNA-binding complex, is essential for multiple processes in cellular DNA metabolism. The "canonical" RPA is composed of three subunits (RPA1, RPA2, and RPA3); however, there is a human homolog to the RPA2 subunit, called RPA4, that can substitute for RPA2 in complex formation. We demonstrate that the resulting "alternative" RPA (aRPA) complex has solution and DNA binding properties indistinguishable from the canonical RPA complex; however, aRPA is unable to support DNA replication and inhibits canonical RPA function. Two regions of RPA4, the putative L34 loop and the C terminus, are responsible for inhibiting SV40 DNA replication. Given that aRPA inhibits canonical RPA function in vitro and is found in nonproliferative tissues, these studies indicate that RPA4 expression may prevent cellular proliferation via replication inhibition while playing a role in maintaining the viability of quiescent cells.
Project description:To repair a DNA double-strand break by homologous recombination, 5'-terminated DNA strands must first be resected to reveal 3'-overhangs. This process is initiated by a short-range resection catalyzed by MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) stimulated by CtIP, which is followed by a long-range step involving EXO1 or DNA2 nuclease. DNA2 is a bifunctional enzyme that contains both single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-specific nuclease and motor activities. Upon DNA unwinding by Bloom (BLM) or Werner (WRN) helicase, RPA directs the DNA2 nuclease to degrade the 5'-strand. RPA bound to ssDNA also represents a barrier, explaining the need for the motor activity of DNA2 to displace RPA prior to resection. Using ensemble and single-molecule biochemistry, we show that CtIP also dramatically stimulates the adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis-driven motor activity of DNA2 involved in the long-range resection step. This activation in turn strongly promotes the degradation of RPA-coated ssDNA by DNA2. Accordingly, the stimulatory effect of CtIP is only observed with wild-type DNA2, but not the helicase-deficient variant. Similarly to the function of CtIP to promote MRN, also the DNA2 stimulatory effect is facilitated by CtIP phosphorylation. The domain of CtIP required to promote DNA2 is located in the central region lacking in lower eukaryotes and is fully separable from domains involved in the stimulation of MRN. These results establish how CtIP couples both MRE11-dependent short-range and DNA2-dependent long-range resection and define the involvement of the motor activity of DNA2 in this process. Our data might help explain the less severe resection defects of MRE11 nuclease-deficient cells compared to those lacking CtIP.
Project description:Meiotic recombination permits exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes. The replication protein A (RPA) complex, the predominant ssDNA-binding complex, is required for nearly all aspects of DNA metabolism, but its role in mammalian meiotic recombination remains unknown due to the embryonic lethality of RPA mutant mice. RPA is a heterotrimer of RPA1, RPA2, and RPA3. We find that loss of RPA1, the largest subunit, leads to disappearance of RPA2 and RPA3, resulting in the absence of the RPA complex. Using an inducible germline-specific inactivation strategy, we find that loss of RPA completely abrogates loading of RAD51/DMC1 recombinases to programmed meiotic DNA double strand breaks, thus blocking strand invasion required for chromosome pairing and synapsis. Surprisingly, loading of MEIOB, SPATA22, and ATR to DNA double strand breaks is RPA-independent and does not promote RAD51/DMC1 recruitment in the absence of RPA. Finally, inactivation of RPA reduces crossover formation. Our results demonstrate that RPA plays two distinct roles in meiotic recombination: an essential role in recombinase recruitment at early stages and an important role in promoting crossover formation at later stages.
Project description:Genomic instability in disease and its fidelity in health depend on the DNA damage response (DDR), regulated in part from the complex of meiotic recombination 11 homolog 1 (MRE11), ATP-binding cassette-ATPase (RAD50), and phosphopeptide-binding Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein 1 (NBS1). The MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex forms a multifunctional DDR machine. Within its network assemblies, MRN is the core conductor for the initial and sustained responses to DNA double-strand breaks, stalled replication forks, dysfunctional telomeres, and viral DNA infection. MRN can interfere with cancer therapy and is an attractive target for precision medicine. Its conformations change the paradigm whereby kinases initiate damage sensing. Delineated results reveal kinase activation, posttranslational targeting, functional scaffolding, conformations storing binding energy and enabling access, interactions with hub proteins such as replication protein A (RPA), and distinct networks at DNA breaks and forks. MRN biochemistry provides prototypic insights into how it initiates, implements, and regulates multifunctional responses to genomic stress.
Project description:DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is essential for maintaining our genomes. Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) and Ku70-Ku80 (Ku) direct distinct DSB repair pathways, but the interplay between these complexes at a DSB remains unclear. Here, we use high-throughput single-molecule microscopy to show that MRN searches for free DNA ends by one-dimensional facilitated diffusion, even on nucleosome-coated DNA. Rad50 binds homoduplex DNA and promotes facilitated diffusion, whereas Mre11 is required for DNA end recognition and nuclease activities. MRN gains access to occluded DNA ends by removing Ku or other DNA adducts via an Mre11-dependent nucleolytic reaction. Next, MRN loads exonuclease 1 (Exo1) onto the free DNA ends to initiate DNA resection. In the presence of replication protein A (RPA), MRN acts as a processivity factor for Exo1, retaining the exonuclease on DNA for long-range resection. Our results provide a mechanism for how MRN promotes homologous recombination on nucleosome-coated DNA.
Project description:hSSB1 is a newly discovered single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein that is essential for efficient DNA double-strand break signalling through ATM. However, the mechanism by which hSSB1 functions to allow efficient signalling is unknown. Here, we show that hSSB1 is recruited rapidly to sites of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) in all interphase cells (G1, S and G2) independently of, CtIP, MDC1 and the MRN complex (Rad50, Mre11, NBS1). However expansion of hSSB1 from the DSB site requires the function of MRN. Strikingly, silencing of hSSB1 prevents foci formation as well as recruitment of MRN to sites of DSBs and leads to a subsequent defect in resection of DSBs as evident by defective RPA and ssDNA generation. Our data suggests that hSSB1 functions upstream of MRN to promote its recruitment at DSBs and is required for efficient resection of DSBs. These findings, together with previous work establish essential roles of hSSB1 in controlling ATM activation and activity, and subsequent DSB resection and homologous recombination (HR).
Project description:The interaction of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex is critical for the response of cells to DNA double-strand breaks; however, little is known of the role of these proteins in response to DNA replication stress. Here, we report a mutant allele of MRE11 found in a colon cancer cell line that sensitizes cells to agents causing replication fork stress. The mutant Mre11 weakly interacts with Rad50 relative to wild type and shows little affinity for Nbs1. The mutant protein lacks 3'-5' exonuclease activity as a result of loss of part of the conserved nuclease domain; however, it retains binding affinity for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA with a 3' single-strand overhang, and fork-like structures containing ssDNA regions. In cells, the mutant protein shows a time- and dose-dependent accumulation in chromatin after thymidine treatment that corresponds with increased recruitment and hyperphosphorylation of replication protein A. ATM autophosphorylation, Mre11 foci, and thymidine-induced homologous recombination are suppressed in cells expressing the mutant allele. Together, our results suggest that the mutant Mre11 suppresses the cellular response to replication stress by binding to ssDNA regions at disrupted forks and impeding replication restart in a dominant negative manner.
Project description:Replication Protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding complex required for DNA replication and repair, homologous recombination, DNA damage checkpoint signaling, and telomere maintenance. Whilst the larger RPA subunits, Rpa1 and Rpa2, have essential interactions with ssDNA, the molecular functions of the smallest subunit Rpa3 are unknown. Here, we investigate the Rpa3 ortholog Ssb3 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and find that it is dispensable for cell viability, checkpoint signaling, RPA foci formation, and meiosis. However, increased spontaneous Rad11Rpa1 and Rad22Rad52 nuclear foci in ssb3? cells indicate genome maintenance defects. Moreover, Ssb3 is required for resistance to genotoxins that disrupt DNA replication. Genetic interaction studies indicate that Ssb3 has a close functional relationship with the Mms1-Mms22 protein complex, which is required for survival after DNA damage in S-phase, and with the mitotic functions of Mus81-Eme1 Holliday junction resolvase that is required for recovery from replication fork collapse. From these studies we propose that Ssb3 plays a critical role in mediating RPA functions that are required for repair or tolerance of DNA lesions in S-phase. Rpa3 orthologs in humans and other species may have a similar function.