Investigation of the substrate specificity of lacticin 481 synthetase by using nonproteinogenic amino acids.
ABSTRACT: Lantibiotics are peptide antimicrobial compounds that are characterized by the thioether-bridged amino acids lanthionine and methyllanthionine. For lacticin 481, these structures are installed in a two-step post-translational modification process by a bifunctional enzyme, lacticin 481 synthetase (LctM). LctM catalyzes the dehydration of Ser and Thr residues to generate dehydroalanine or dehydrobutyrine, respectively, and the subsequent intramolecular regio- and stereospecific Michael-type addition of cysteines onto the dehydroamino acids. In this study, semisynthetic substrates containing nonproteinogenic amino acids were prepared by expressed protein ligation and [3+2]-cycloaddition of azide and alkyne-functionalized peptides. LctM demonstrated broad substrate specificity toward substrates containing beta-amino acids, D-amino acids, and N-alkyl amino acids (peptoids) in certain regions of its peptide substrate. These findings showcase its promise for use in lantibiotic and peptide-engineering applications, whereby nonproteinogenic amino acids might impart improved stability or modulated biological activities. Furthermore, LctM permitted the incorporation of an alkyne-containing amino acid that can be utilized for the site-selective modification of mature lantibiotics and used in target identification.
Project description:Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide natural products that contain thioether cross-links formed by lanthionine and methyllanthionine residues. They exert potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. We herein report production of analogues of two lantibiotics, lacticin 481 and nisin, that contain nonproteinogenic amino acids using two different strategies involving amber stop codon suppression technology. These methods complement recent alternative approaches to incorporate nonproteinogenic amino acids into lantibiotics.
Project description:Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide antibiotics containing the characteristic thioether cross-links lanthionine and methyllanthionine. To date, no analogues of lantibiotics that contain nonproteinogenic amino acids have been reported. In this study, in vitro-reconstituted lacticin 481 synthetase was used in conjunction with synthetic peptide substrates containing nonproteinogenic amino acids to generate 11 analogues of lacticin 481. These analogues contained sarcosine and aminocyclopropanoic acid in place of Gly5, D-valine at position 6, 4-cyanoaminobutyric acid in place of Glu13, beta(3)-homoarginine at the position of Asn15, N-butylglycine and beta-Ala at Met16, naphthylalanine (Nal) at Trp19, 4-pyridynylalanine (Pal) at Phe21, and homophenylalanine (hPhe) at Phe23. Of these analogues, the Trp19Nal and Phe23hPhe mutants provided zones of inhibition larger than the parent compound in agar diffusion assays against the indicator strains Lactococcus lactis HP and Bacillus subtilis 6633. These two compounds also demonstrated improved MIC values against liquid cultures of L. lactis HP.
Project description:Lantibiotics are post-translationally modified peptide antimicrobial agents that are synthesized with an N-terminal leader sequence and a C-terminal propeptide. Their maturation involves enzymatic dehydration of Ser and Thr residues in the precursor peptide to generate unsaturated amino acids, which react intramolecularly with nearby cysteines to form cyclic thioethers termed lanthionines and methyllanthionines. The role of the leader peptide in lantibiotic biosynthesis has been subject to much speculation. In this study, mutations of conserved residues in the leader sequence of the precursor peptide for lacticin 481 (LctA) did not inhibit dehydration and cyclization by lacticin 481 synthetase (LctM) showing that not one specific residue is essential for these transformations. These amino acids may therefore be conserved in the leader sequence of class II lantibiotics to direct other biosynthetic events, such as proteolysis of the leader peptide or transport of the active compound outside the cell. However, introduction of Pro residues into the leader peptide strongly affected the efficiency of dehydration, consistent with recognition of the secondary structure of the leader peptide by the synthetase. Furthermore, the presence of a hydrophobic residue at the position of Leu-7 appears important for enzymatic processing. Based on the data in this work and previous studies, a model for the interaction of LctM with LctA is proposed. The current study also showcases the ability to prepare other lantibiotics in the class II lacticin 481 family, including nukacin ISK-1, mutacin II, and ruminococcin A using the lacticin 481 synthetase. Surprisingly, a conserved Glu located in a ring that appears conserved in many class II lantibiotics, including those not belonging to the lacticin 481 subgroup, is not essential for antimicrobial activity of lacticin 481.
Project description:Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide antibiotics. The modifications involve dehydration of Ser and Thr residues to generate dehydroalanines and dehydrobutyrines, followed by intramolecular attack of cysteines onto the newly formed dehydro amino acids to produce cyclic thioethers. LctM performs both processes during the biosynthesis of lacticin 481. Mutation of the zinc ligands Cys781 and Cys836 to alanine did not affect the dehydration activity of LctM. However, these mutations compromised cyclization activity when investigated with full length or truncated peptide substrates. Mutation of His725, another residue that is fully conserved in lantibiotic cyclases, to Asn resulted in a protein that still catalyzed dehydration of the substrate peptide and also retained cyclization activity, but at a decreased level compared to that of the wild type enzyme. Collectively, these results show that the C-terminal domain of LctM is responsible for cyclization, that the zinc ligands are critical for cyclization, and that dehydration takes place independently from the cyclization activity. Furthermore, these mutant proteins are excellent dehydratases and provide useful tools to investigate the dehydration activity as well as generate dehydrated peptides for study of the cyclization reaction by wild type LctM.
Project description:Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide natural products that contain the thioether structures lanthionine and methyllanthionine and exert potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. At present, detailed modes-of-action are only known for a small subset of family members. Lacticin 481, a tricyclic lantibiotic, contains a lipid II binding motif present in related compounds such as mersacidin and nukacin ISK-1. Here, we show that lacticin 481 inhibits PBP1b-catalyzed peptidoglycan formation. Furthermore, we show that changes in potency of analogues of lacticin 481 containing non-proteinogenic amino acids correlate positively with the potency of inhibition of the transglycosylase activity of PBP1b. Thus, lipid II is the likely target of lacticin 481, and use of non-proteinogenic amino acids resulted in stronger inhibition of the target. Additionally, we demonstrate that lacticin 481 does not form pores in the membranes of susceptible bacteria, a common mode-of-action of other lantibiotics.
Project description:Class AII and AIII lantibiotics and mersacidin are antibacterial peptides containing unusual residues obtained by posttranslational modifications of prepeptides, presumably catalyzed by LanM. LctM, the LanM for lacticin 481, is essential for the production of this class AII lantibiotic. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we showed direct contact between the prelacticin 481 and LctM, supporting the proposed LctM function. Sixteen domains are conserved between the 10 known LanM proteins, whereas three additional domains were found only in class AII LanM proteins and in MrsM, the LanM for mersacidin. All the truncated LctM proteins that we tested presented impaired LctA-binding activity.
Project description:Methods that introduce posttranslational modifications in a general, mild, and non-sequence-specific manner using biologically produced peptides have great utility for investigation of the functions of these modifications. In this study, the substrate promiscuity of a lantibiotic synthetase was exploited for the preparation of phosphopeptides, glycopeptides, and peptides containing analogs of methylated or acetylated lysine residues. Peptides attached to the C-terminus of the leader peptide of the lacticin 481 precursor peptide were phosphorylated on serine residues in a wide variety of sequence contexts by the R399M and T405A mutants of lacticin 481 synthetase (LctM). Serine residues located as many as 30 amino acids C-terminal to the leader peptide were phosphorylated. Wild-type LctM was shown to dehydrate these peptides to generate dehydroalanine-containing products that can be conveniently modified with external nucleophiles including thiosaccharides, 2-(dimethylamino)ethanethiol, and N-acetyl cysteamine, resulting in mimics of O-linked glycopeptides and acetylated and methylated lysines.
Project description:Lantibiotics are a family of antibacterial peptide natural products characterized by the post-translational installation of the thioether-containing amino acids lanthionine and methyllanthionine. Until recently, only a single naturally occurring stereochemical configuration for each of these cross-links was known. The discovery of lantibiotics with alternative lanthionine and methyllanthionine stereochemistry has prompted an investigation of its importance to biological activity. Here, solid-supported chemical synthesis enabled the total synthesis of the lantibiotic lacticin 481 and analogues containing cross-links with non-native stereochemical configurations. Biological evaluation revealed that these alterations abolished the antibacterial activity in all of the analogues, revealing the critical importance of the enzymatically installed stereochemistry for the biological activity of lacticin 481.
Project description:Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides are a rapidly expanding class of natural products. They are typically biosynthesized by modification of a C-terminal segment of the precursor peptide (the core peptide). The precursor peptide also contains an N-terminal leader peptide that is required to guide the biosynthetic enzymes. For bioengineering purposes, the leader peptide is beneficial because it allows promiscuous activity of the biosynthetic enzymes with respect to modification of the core peptide sequence. However, the leader peptide also presents drawbacks as it needs to be present on the core peptide and then removed in a later step. We show that fusing the leader peptide for the lantibiotic lacticin 481 to its biosynthetic enzyme LctM allows the protein to act on core peptides without a leader peptide. We illustrate the use of this methodology for preparation of improved lacticin 481 analogues containing non-proteinogenic amino acids.
Project description:The mechanisms by which lanthipeptide synthetases control the order in which they catalyze multiple chemical processes are poorly understood. The lacticin 481 synthetase (LctM) cleaves eight chemical bonds and forms six new chemical bonds in a controlled and ordered process. Two general mechanisms have been suggested for the temporal and spatial control of these transformations. In the spatial positioning model, leader peptide binding promotes certain reactions by establishing the spatial orientation of the substrate peptide relative to the synthetase active sites. In the intermediate structure model, the LctM-catalyzed dehydration and cyclization reactions that occur in two distinct active sites orchestrate the overall process by imparting a specific structure into the maturing peptide that facilitates the ensuing reaction. Using isotopically labeled LctA analogues with engineered lacticin 481 biosynthetic machinery and mass spectrometry analysis, we show here that the LctA leader peptide plays critical roles in establishing the modification order and enhancing the catalytic efficiency and fidelity of the synthetase. The data are most consistent with a mechanistic model for LctM where both spatial positioning and intermediate structure contribute to efficient biosynthesis.