Role of the type III secretion system in a hypervirulent lineage of Bordetella bronchiseptica.
ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that closely related bacteria can cause different levels of disease, the genetic changes that cause some isolates to be more pathogenic than others are generally not well understood. We use a combination of approaches to determine which factors contribute to the increased virulence of a Bordetella bronchiseptica lineage. A strain isolated from a host with B. bronchiseptica-induced disease, strain 1289, was 60-fold more virulent in mice than one isolated from an asymptomatically infected host, strain RB50. Transcriptome analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that the type III secretion system (TTSS) genes were more highly expressed by strain 1289 than strain RB50. Compared to strain RB50, strain 1289 exhibited greater TTSS-mediated cytotoxicity of a mammalian cell line. Additionally, we show that the increase in virulence of strain 1289 compared to that of RB50 was partially attributable to the TTSS. Using multilocus sequence typing, we identified another strain from the same lineage as strain 1289. Similar to strain 1289, we implicate the TTSS in the increased virulence of this strain. Together, our data suggest that the TTSS is involved in the increased virulence of a B. bronchiseptica lineage which appears to be disproportionately associated with disease. These data are consistent with the view that B. bronchiseptica lineages can have different levels of virulence, which may contribute to this species' ability to cause different severities of respiratory disease.
Project description:Host immunity is a major driving force of antigenic diversity, resulting in pathogens that can evade immunity induced by closely related strains. Here we show that two Bordetella bronchiseptica strains, RB50 and 1289, express two antigenically distinct O-antigen serotypes (O1 and O2, respectively). When 18 additional B. bronchiseptica strains were serotyped, all were found to express either the O1 or O2 serotype. Comparative genomic hybridization and PCR screening showed that the expression of either the O1 or O2 serotype correlated with the strain containing either the classical or alternative O-antigen locus, respectively. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of 49 B. bronchiseptica strains was used to build a phylogenetic tree, which revealed that the two O-antigen loci did not associate with a particular lineage, evidence that these loci are horizontally transferred between B. bronchiseptica strains. From experiments using mice vaccinated with purified lipopolysaccharide from strain RB50 (O1), 1289 (O2), or RB50Deltawbm (O antigen deficient), our data indicate that these O antigens do not confer cross-protection in vivo. The lack of cross-immunity between O-antigen serotypes appears to contribute to inefficient antibody-mediated clearance between strains. Together, these data are consistent with the idea that the O-antigen loci of B. bronchiseptica are horizontally transferred between strains and encode antigenically distinct serotypes, resulting in inefficient cross-immunity.
Project description:Bordetella bronchiseptica is a gram-negative respiratory pathogen that infects a wide range of hosts and causes a diverse spectrum of disease. This diversity is likely affected by multiple factors, such as host immune status, polymicrobial infection, and strain diversity. In a murine model of infection, we found that the virulence of B. bronchiseptica strains, as measured by the mean lethal dose, varied widely. Strain 253 was less virulent than the typically studied strain, RB50. Transcriptome analysis showed that cyaA, the gene encoding adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA), was the most downregulated transcript identified in strain 253 compared to that in strain RB50. Comparative genomic hybridization and genome sequencing of strain 253 revealed that the cya locus, which encodes, activates, and secretes CyaA, was replaced by an operon (ptp) predicted to encode peptide transport proteins. Other B. bronchiseptica strains from the same phylogenetic lineage as that of strain 253 also lacked the cya locus, contained the ptp genes, and were less virulent than strain RB50. Although the loss of CyaA would be expected to be counterselected since it is conserved among the classical bordetellae and believed to be important to their success, our data indicate that the loss of this toxin and the gain of the ptp genes occurred in an ancestral strain that then expanded into a lineage. This suggests that there may be ecological niches in which CyaA is not critical for the success of B. bronchiseptica.
Project description:B. bronchiseptica strains RB50 and 1289 were grown in SS broth, subcultured at a starting OD600 of 0.02 into 50mL of SS broth, grown at 37C for 24 hours while shaking and harvested in log phase (OD600 1.0). Total RNA was extracted with Trizol (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA), treated with RNase-free DNase I (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and purified using RNeasy columns (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) according to the manufacturers instructions. RNA was isolated from two independent biological replicates of strains RB50 and 1289. A 2-color hybridization format was used and dye-swap experiments were performed. For each reaction, 5ug of cDNA was fluorescently labeled. The two differentially labeled reactions to be compared were combined and hybridized to a B. bronchiseptica strain RB50 specific long-oligonucleotide microarray.
Project description:Bordetella bronchiseptica is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects and causes disease in a wide variety of animals. B. bronchiseptica also infects humans, thereby demonstrating zoonotic transmission. An extensive characterization of human B. bronchiseptica isolates is needed to better understand the distinct genetic and phenotypic traits associated with these zoonotic transmission events. Using whole-genome transcriptome and CGH analysis, we report that a B. bronchiseptica cystic fibrosis isolate, T44625, contains a distinct genomic content of virulence-associated genes and differentially expresses these genes compared to the sequenced model laboratory strain RB50, a rabbit isolate. The differential gene expression pattern correlated with unique phenotypes exhibited by T44625, which included lower motility, increased aggregation, hyperbiofilm formation, and an increased in vitro capacity to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells. Using a mouse intranasal infection model, we found that although defective in establishing high bacterial burdens early during the infection process, T44625 persisted efficiently in the mouse nose. By documenting the unique genomic and phenotypic attributes of T44625, this report provides a blueprint for understanding the successful zoonotic potential of B. bronchiseptica and other zoonotic bacteria.
Project description:Growth phase-dependent gene regulation has recently been demonstrated to occur in Bordetella pertussis, with many transcripts, including known virulence factors, significantly decreasing during the transition from logarithmic to stationary-phase growth. Given that B. pertussis is thought to have derived from a Bordetella bronchiseptica-like ancestor, we hypothesized that growth phase-dependent gene regulation would also occur in B. bronchiseptica. Microarray analysis revealed and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed that growth phase-dependent gene regulation occurs in B. bronchiseptica, resulting in prominent temporal shifts in global gene expression. Two virulence phenotypes associated with these gene expression changes were tested. We found that growth-dependent increases in expression of some type III secretion system (TTSS) genes led to a growth phase-dependent increase in a TTSS-dependent function, cytotoxicity. Although the transcription of genes encoding adhesins previously shown to mediate adherence was decreased in late-log and stationary phases, we found that the adherence of B. bronchiseptica did not decrease in these later phases of growth. Microarray analysis revealed and qRT-PCR confirmed that growth phase-dependent gene regulation occurred in both Bvg(+) and Bvg(-) phase-locked mutants, indicating that growth phase-dependent gene regulation in B. bronchiseptica can function independently from the BvgAS regulatory system.
Project description:B. bronchiseptica strains RB50 and 1289 strains were grown in SS broth at 37°C with shaking overnight and genomic DNA was isolated from bacterial cultures using a DNA extraction kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) and digested with DpnII. For each labeling reaction, 2 ug of digested genomic DNA was randomly primed using Cy-5 and Cy-3 dye-labeled nucleotides, with BioPrime DNA labeling kits (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and the two differentially labeled reactions to be compared were combined and hybridized to a B. bronchiseptica RB50 specific long-oligonucleotide microarray.
Project description:Bordetella bronchiseptica is a pathogenic bacterium causing respiratory infections in a broad range of mammals. Recently, we determined the whole genome sequence of B. bronchiseptica S798 strain isolated from a pig infected with atrophic rhinitis and found four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at positions -129, -72, +22, and +38 in the region upstream of dnt encoding dermonecrotic toxin (DNT), when compared with a rabbit isolate, RB50. DNT is known to be involved in turbinate atrophy observed in atrophic rhinitis. Immunoblotting, quantitative real-time PCR, and ?-galactosidase reporter assay revealed that these SNPs resulted in the increased promoter activity of dnt and conferred the increased ability to produce DNT on the bacteria. Similar or identical SNPs were also found in other pig isolates kept in our laboratory, all of which produce a larger amount of DNT than RB50. Our analysis revealed that substitution of at least two of the four bases, at positions -72 and +22, influenced the promoter activity for dnt. These results imply that these SNPs are involved in the pathogenicity of bordetellae specific to pig diseases.
Project description:Bordetella bronchiseptica is a gram-negative respiratory pathogen that causes a diverse spectrum of respiratory disease in a wide-range of hosts. We sought to determine if strains of B. bronchiseptica differed in virulence using the mouse model of infection. Mean lethal doses (LD50) of different B. bronchiseptica strains varied widely in the murine model. B. bronchiseptica strain 253 had a LD50 that was 10-fold lower than the prototypical and fully sequenced B. bronchiseptica strain RB50. Using whole genomic transcriptome analysis covering 100% of B. bronchisetpctica strain RB50ÃÂs predicted open reading frames (ORFs), 253 was identified as lacking expression of adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT).
Project description:Type VI Secretion Systems (T6SSs) have been identified in numerous gram-negative pathogens, but the lack of a natural host infection model has limited analysis of T6SS contributions to infection and pathogenesis. Here, we describe disruption of a gene within locus encoding a putative T6SS in Bordetella bronchiseptica strain RB50, a respiratory pathogen that circulates in a broad range of mammals, including humans, domestic animals, and mice. The 26 gene locus encoding the B. bronchiseptica T6SS contains apparent orthologs to all known core genes and possesses thirteen novel genes. By generating an in frame deletion of clpV, which encodes a putative ATPase required for some T6SS-dependent protein secretion, we observe that ClpV contributes to in vitro macrophage cytotoxicity while inducing several eukaryotic proteins associated with apoptosis. Additionally, ClpV is required for induction of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-10 production in J774 macrophages infected with RB50. During infections in wild type mice, we determined that ClpV contributes to altered cytokine production, increased pathology, delayed lower respiratory tract clearance, and long term nasal cavity persistence. Together, these results reveal a natural host infection system in which to interrogate T6SS contributions to immunomodulation and pathogenesis.
Project description:Bordetella bronchiseptica is a gram-negative respiratory pathogen that causes a diverse spectrum of respiratory disease in a wide-range of hosts. We sought to determine if strains of B. bronchiseptica differed in virulence using the mouse model of infection. Mean lethal doses (LD50) of different B. bronchiseptica strains varied widely in the murine model. B. bronchiseptica strain 253 had a LD50 that was 10-fold lower than the prototypical and fully sequenced B. bronchiseptica strain RB50. Using whole genomic transcriptome analysis covering 100% of B. bronchisetpctica strain RB50Âs predicted open reading frames (ORFs), 253 was identified as lacking expression of adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT). Using whole genomic comparative genomic hybridization analysis and whole genome sequencing, we determined that the cya operon, which is required for ACT production, was absent from the 253 genome.