Metnase mediates chromosome decatenation in acute leukemia cells.
ABSTRACT: After DNA replication, sister chromatids must be untangled, or decatenated, before mitosis so that chromatids do not tear during anaphase. Topoisomerase IIalpha (Topo IIalpha) is the major decatenating enzyme. Topo IIalpha inhibitors prevent decatenation, causing cells to arrest during mitosis. Here we report that acute myeloid leukemia cells fail to arrest at the mitotic decatenation checkpoint, and their progression through this checkpoint is regulated by the DNA repair component Metnase (also termed SETMAR). Metnase contains a SET histone methylase and transposase nuclease domain, and is a component of the nonhomologous end-joining DNA double-strand break repair pathway. Metnase interacts with Topo IIalpha and enhances its decatenation activity. Here we show that multiple types of acute leukemia cells have an attenuated mitotic arrest when decatenation is inhibited and that in an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line this is mediated by Metnase. Of further importance, Metnase permits continued proliferation of these AML cells even in the presence of the clinical Topo IIalpha inhibitor VP-16. In vitro, purified Metnase prevents VP-16 inhibition of Topo IIalpha decatenation of tangled DNA. Thus, Metnase expression levels may predict AML resistance to Topo IIalpha inhibitors, and Metnase is a potential therapeutic target for small molecule interference.
Project description:Metnase is a human SET and transposase domain protein that methylates histone H3 and promotes DNA double-strand break repair. We now show that Metnase physically interacts and co-localizes with Topoisomerase IIalpha (Topo IIalpha), the key chromosome decatenating enzyme. Metnase promotes progression through decatenation and increases resistance to the Topo IIalpha inhibitors ICRF-193 and VP-16. Purified Metnase greatly enhanced Topo IIalpha decatenation of kinetoplast DNA to relaxed circular forms. Nuclear extracts containing Metnase decatenated kDNA more rapidly than those without Metnase, and neutralizing anti-sera against Metnase reversed that enhancement of decatenation. Metnase automethylates at K485, and the presence of a methyl donor blocked the enhancement of Topo IIalpha decatenation by Metnase, implying an internal regulatory inhibition. Thus, Metnase enhances Topo IIalpha decatenation, and this activity is repressed by automethylation. These results suggest that cancer cells could subvert Metnase to mediate clinically relevant resistance to Topo IIalpha inhibitors.
Project description:Topoisomerase II (Topo II) is required to separate intertwined sister chromatids before chromosome segregation can occur in mitosis. However, it remains to be resolved whether Topo II has any role in checkpoint control. Here we report that when phosphorylated, Ser 1524 of Topo IIalpha acts as a binding site for the BRCT domain of MDC1 (mediator of DNA damage checkpoint protein-1), thereby recruiting MDC1 to chromatin. Although Topo IIalpha-MDC1 interaction is not required for checkpoint activation induced by DNA damage, it is required for activation of the decatenation checkpoint. Mutation of Ser 1524 results in a defective decatenation checkpoint. These results reveal an important role of Topo II in checkpoint activation and in the maintenance of genomic stability.
Project description:Topoisomerase II (topo II), an essential enzyme for cell viability, is also the target for clinically important anti-neoplastic agents that stimulate topo II-mediated DNA scission. The role of alterations in topo IIalpha phosphorylation and its effect on drug-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity were investigated. Following loading of HL-60 cells with the calcium buffer 1, 2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetra(acetoxymethyl) ester (BAPTA-AM), which abrogates intracellular Ca2+ transients, a significant decrease in etoposide (VP-16)- or amsacrine (m-AMSA)-stabilized topo II-DNA cleavable complex formation and a corresponding decrease in cytotoxicity was observed. In a cell-free system, nuclear extracts from BAPTA-AM-treated cells exhibited markedly less activity when assayed for VP-16-stabilized topo II-DNA complex formation, but not decatenation of kinetoplast DNA. In contrast, the loading of HL-60 cells with N,N,N', N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), which binds heavy metals without disturbing calcium or magnesium concentrations, did not significantly affect VP-16-stimulated topo II-DNA cleavable complex formation or cytotoxicity. In HL-60 cells the accumulation of BAPTA, but not TPEN, also led to the hypophosphorylation of topo IIalpha. Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of topo IIalpha protein from HL-60 cells revealed: (a) eight major phosphorylation sites in untreated cells; (b) hypophosphorylation of two out of eight sites in BAPTA-AM-treated cells; and (c) hypophosphorylation of between two and four out of eight sites in topo II-poison-resistant HL-60 cells. The two hypophosphorylated sites present following BAPTA-AM treatment of wild-type cells were identical with the hypophosphorylated sites in the resistant cells, but were not the same as the sites that are substrates for casein kinase II [Wells, Addison, Fry, Ganapathi and Hickson (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 29746-29751]. In summary, changes in intracellular Ca2+ transients that lead to the site-specific hypophosphorylation of topo IIalpha are possibly involved in regulating the DNA damage caused by and the cytotoxic potential of topo II poisons.
Project description:To study DNA topoisomerase IIalpha (Topo-IIalpha) and -beta expression and regulation in human ovarian cancer, 15 ovarian tumour samples were investigated. To compare different levels of expression, the samples were screened for topo IIalpha and -beta mRNA with Northern blotting and a quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for Topo-IIalpha mRNA. Additionally, protein levels were determined with Western blotting and topoisomerase II activity levels with the decatenation assay. The results obtained were compared with each other and with the tumour volume index of the samples. In tumours with a tumour volume index > or = 50%, the mRNA levels (as determined by Northern blotting) and protein levels for each isozyme were in accordance. Additionally, correlations were found between Topo-IIalpha RT-PCR data and Topo-IIalpha Northern blot results, and between Topo-IIalpha RT-PCR data and Topo-IIalpha protein levels. Interestingly, Topo-IIbeta protein levels correlated better with Topo-II activity than Topo-IIalpha protein levels. In eight ovarian cystadenoma samples, no Topo-IIalpha protein could be found. In only three out of eight of these cystadenomas, Topo-IIbeta protein could be detected. These findings suggest that Topo-IIalpha and Topo-IIbeta protein levels are up-regulated in ovarian cancer and may indicate that Topo-IIbeta is an interesting target for chemotherapy in ovarian tumours.
Project description:Topoisomerase IIalpha (topoIIalpha) is an essential mammalian enzyme that topologically modifies DNA and is required for chromosome segregation during mitosis. Previous research suggests that inhibition of topoII decatenatory activity triggers a G(2) checkpoint response, which delays mitotic entry because of insufficient decatenation of daughter chromatids. Here we examine the effects of both topoIIalpha and topoIIbeta on decatenatory activity in cell extracts, DNA damage and decatenation G(2) checkpoint function, and the frequencies of p16(INK4A) allele loss and gain. In diploid human fibroblast lines, depletion of topoIIalpha by small-interfering RNA was associated with severely reduced decatenatory activity, delayed progression from G(2) into mitosis and insensitivity to G(2) arrest induced by the topoII catalytic inhibitor ICRF-193. Furthermore, interphase nuclei of topoIIalpha-depleted cells showed increased frequencies of losses and gains of the tumor suppressor genetic locus p16(INK4A). This study shows that the topoIIalpha protein is required for decatenation G(2) checkpoint function, and inactivation of decatenation and the decatenation G(2) checkpoint leads to abnormal chromosome segregation and genomic instability.
Project description:Type II? DNA topoisomerase (TopoII?) is among the most important clinical drug targets for the treatment of cancer. Recently, the DNA repair protein Metnase was shown to enhance TopoII? activity and increase resistance to TopoII? poisons. Using in vitro DNA decatenation assays we show that neoamphimedine potently inhibits TopoII?-dependent DNA decatenation in the presence of Metnase. Cell proliferation assays demonstrate that neoamphimedine can inhibit Metnase-enhanced cell growth with an IC(50) of 0.5 ?M. Additionally, we find that the apparent K(m) of TopoII? for ATP increases linearly with higher concentrations of neoamphimedine, indicating ATP-competitive inhibition, which is substantiated by molecular modeling. These findings support the continued development of neoamphimedine as an anticancer agent, particularly in solid tumors that over-express Metnase.
Project description:The chromosomal condensin complex gives metaphase chromosomes structural stability. In addition, condensin is required for sister chromatid resolution during their segregation in anaphase. How condensin promotes chromosome resolution is poorly understood. Chromosome segregation during anaphase also fails after inactivation of topoisomerase II (topo II), the enzyme that removes catenation between sister chromatids left behind after completion of DNA replication. This has led to the proposal that condensin promotes DNA decatenation, but direct evidence for this is missing and alternative roles for condensin in chromosome resolution have been suggested. Using the budding yeast rDNA as a model, we now show that anaphase bridges in a condensin mutant are resolved by ectopic expression of a foreign (Chlorella virus) but not endogenous topo II. This suggests that catenation prevents sister rDNA segregation, and that yeast topo II is ineffective in decatenating the locus without condensin. Condensin and topo II colocalize along both rDNA and euchromatin, consistent with coordination of their activities. We investigate the physiological consequences of condensin-dependent rDNA decatenation and find that late decatenation determines the late segregation timing of this locus during anaphase. Regulation of decatenation therefore provides a means to finetune segregation timing of chromosomes in mitosis. Keywords: ChIP-chip, Cell Cycle Overall design: Comparison of the chromosomal association pattern of the condensin subunit Brn1 with that of topo II along budding yeast chromosomes. As control, the binding pattern of the cohesin subunit Scc1 is also included. (Figure 2 in the corresponding manuscript depicts the Brn1 association pattern as obtained from averaging two independent biological ChIP experiments C15_IP_2200_NOC and C16_IP_2200.)
Project description:Truncating mutations in the tumor suppressor gene APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) are thought to initiate the majority of colorectal cancers. The 15- and 20-amino acid repeat regions of APC bind beta-catenin and have been widely studied for their role in the negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling. However, functions of APC in other important cellular processes, such as cell cycle control or aneuploidy, are only beginning to be studied. Our previous investigation implicated the 15-amino acid repeat region of APC (M2-APC) in the regulation of the G2/M cell cycle transition through interaction with topoisomerase IIalpha (topo IIalpha).We now demonstrate that the 20-amino acid repeat region of APC (M3-APC) also interacts with topo IIalpha in colonic epithelial cells. Expression of M3-APC in cells with full-length endogenous APC causes cell accumulation in G2. However, cells with a mutated topo IIalpha isoform and lacking topo IIbeta did not arrest, suggesting that the cellular consequence of M2- or M3-APC expression depends on functional topoisomerase II. Both purified recombinant M2- and M3-APC significantly enhanced the activity of topo IIalpha. Of note, although M3-APC can bind beta-catenin, the G2 arrest did not correlate with beta-catenin expression or activity, similar to what was seen with M2-APC. More importantly, expression of either M2- or M3-APC also led to increased aneuploidy in cells with full-length endogenous APC but not in cells with truncated endogenous APC that includes the M2-APC region.Together, our data establish that the 20-amino acid repeat region of APC interacts with topo IIalpha to enhance its activity in vitro, and leads to G2 cell cycle accumulation and aneuploidy when expressed in cells containing full-length APC. These findings provide an additional explanation for the aneuploidy associated with many colon cancers that possess truncated APC.
Project description:The condensin complex is a key determinant of mitotic chromosome architecture. In addition, condensin promotes resolution of sister chromatids during anaphase, a function that is conserved from prokaryotes to human. Anaphase bridges observed in cells lacking condensin are reminiscent of chromosome segregation failure after inactivation of topoisomerase II (topo II), the enzyme that removes catenanes persisting between sister chromatids following DNA replication. Circumstantial evidence has linked condensin to sister chromatid decatenation but, because of the difficulty of observing chromosome catenation, this link has remained indirect. Alternative models for how condensin facilitates chromosome resolution have been put forward. Here, we follow the catenation status of circular minichromosomes of three sizes during the Saccharomyeces cerevisiae cell cycle. Catenanes are produced during DNA replication and are for the most part swiftly resolved during and following S-phase, aided by sister chromatid separation. Complete resolution, however, requires the condensin complex, a dependency that becomes more pronounced with increasing chromosome size. Our results provide evidence that condensin prevents deleterious anaphase bridges during chromosome segregation by promoting sister chromatid decatenation.
Project description:The capacity of Topoisomerase II (Topo II) to remove DNA catenations that arise after replication is essential to ensure faithful chromosome segregation. Topo II activity is monitored during G2 by a specific checkpoint pathway that delays entry into mitosis until the chromosomes are properly decatenated. Recently, we demonstrated that the mitotic defects that are characteristic of cells depleted of MCPH1 function, a protein mutated in primary microcephaly, are not a consequence of a weakened G2 decatenation checkpoint response. However, the mitotic defects could be accounted for by a minor defect in the activity of Topo II during G2/M. To test this hypothesis, we have tracked at live single cell resolution the dynamics of mitosis in MCPH1 depleted HeLa cells upon catalytic inhibition of Topo II. Our analyses demonstrate that neither chromosome alignment nor segregation are more susceptible to minor perturbation in decatenation in MCPH1 deficient cells, as compared with control cells. Interestingly, MCPH1 depleted cells were more prone to mitotic cell death when decatenation was perturbed. Furthermore, when the G2 arrest that was induced by catalytic inhibition of Topo II was abrogated by Chk1 inhibition, the incidence of mitotic cell death was also increased. Taken together, our data suggest that the MCPH1 lack of function increases mitotic cell hypersensitivity to the catalytic inhibition of Topo II.